[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates are the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis, and are also used in malignant bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and Paget's disease, and provide therapeutic efficacy on those diseases. However, it was reported that occurrence of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) could be related with bisphosphonate exposures, and there have been many cases regarding this issue. Therefore, a clearer definition and treatment guidelines were needed for this disease. The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) and American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) reported statements on bisphosphonate-related ONJ (BRONJ), and a revised version was recently presented. In the revised edition, the diagnosis BRONJ was changed to medication-related ONJ (MRONJ), which reflects a consideration of the fact that ONJ also occurs for denosumab, a bone resorption inhibitor of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) antibody family, and bevacizumab, an anti-angiogenesis inhibitor. In 2009, a statement on ONJ was also reported locally by a relevant organization, which has served as basis for clinical treatment in Korea. In addition to the new official stance of the AAOMS and ASBMR, with an increasing pool of ONJ clinical experience, a revised version of the 2009 local statement is needed. As such, the Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research (KSBMR) and the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (KAOMS) have collectively formed a committee for the preparation of an official statement on MRONJ, and have reviewed recent local and international data to propose guidelines customized for the local Korean situation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mid-urethral sling (MUS) surgery for the treatment of urinary incontinence has been widespread since the introduction of tension-free vaginal tape in the mid-1990s. The majority of studies with short-term follow-up <2 years found no differences in the surgical outcomes according to body mass index (BMI). However, considering the chronic influence of obesity on pelvic floor musculature, it is cautiously speculated that higher BMI could increase stress on pelvic floor and sub-urethral tape, possibly decreasing the long-term success rate in the obese population. We aimed to compare the long-term effects of BMI on the outcomes of MUS between women with retropubic and transobturator approaches.
We performed a retrospective analysis on 243 consecutive women who received MUS and were followed up for ≥36 months. The influence of BMI on the success rates was separately estimated and the factors for treatment failure were examined using logistic regression in either approach.
The mean follow-up was 58.4 months, and 30.5% were normal weight, 51.0% overweight, and 18.5% obese. Patients received either the retropubic (30.5%) or transobturator (69.5%) approach. The success rates (%) under the transobturator approach differed according to the BMI groups (94.3, 88.6, and 78.6, respectively; P = 0.037) while those under the retropubic approach were not different according to the BMI groups. However, in multivariate models, only the presence of preoperative mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) was proven to be the risk factor for treatment failure in the transobturator approach (OR 6.39, P = 0.003). The percent of subjects with MUI was higher in obese women than in non-obese women with the transobturator approach.
BMI was not independently associated with failures in either approach. Higher success rates in women with lower BMI in the transobturator approach were attributed to the lower percent of preoperative MUI in those with lower BMI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To identify post-treatment prognostic factors for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ).
Materials and Methods
We evaluated 54 MRONJ patients who visited the Department of Dentistry, Ajou University Hospital, from May 2007 to March 2014. Twenty-one patients were surgically managed with debridement or sequestrectomy and 33 patients were conservatively managed using antibiotics. Correlations of age, sex, stage, bisphosphonate duration and type, and drug holiday with the prognosis of MRONJ were investigated. Correlations were verified by logistic regression analysis and t-tests with a significance level of 0.05.
Clinical outcomes were evaluated on the basis of both clinical and radiographic findings. Twelve out of 21 surgically managed patients showed a favorable prognosis and nine patients relapsed. Thirty-one of the 33 conservatively managed patients showed no specific change in prognosis, and two patients worsened. Statistical analyses of the conservative management group did not reveal any correlation of the above factors with the prognosis of conservative management. Drug holiday was the only prognostic factor in the surgical management group (P=0.031 in logistic regression analysis, P=0.004 in t-test).
Drug holiday is a prognostic factor in the surgical management of MRONJ. Because the drug holiday in the patients of the poor prognosis group occurred 1.5 to 4 months prior to surgical management, we recommend a drug holiday more than 4 months before surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
We investigated the etiologies of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and compared urodynamic characteristics between different diagnostic groups in young men with chronic LUTS.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed the medical records of 308 men aged 18 to 50 years who had undergone a urodynamic study for chronic LUTS (≥6 months) without symptoms suggestive of chronic prostatitis.
The men's mean age was 40.4 (±10.1) years and their mean duration of symptoms was 38.8 (±49.2) months. Urodynamic evaluation demonstrated voiding phase dysfunction in 62.1% of cases (primary bladder neck dysfunction [PBND] in 26.0%, dysfunctional voiding [DV] in 23.4%, and detrusor underactivity [DU]/acontractile detrusor [AD] in 12.7%) and a single storage phase dysfunction in 36.4% of cases (detrusor overactivity [DO] in 13.3%, small cystometric capacity in 17.9%, and reduced bladder sensation in 5.2%). Most of the demographic characteristics and clinical symptoms did not differ between these diagnostic groups. Whereas 53.9% of patients with voiding dysfunction had concomitant storage dysfunction, 69.6% of those with storage dysfunction had concomitant voiding dysfunction. Men with DV or DU/AD exhibited lower maximum cystometric capacity than did those with normal urodynamics. Low bladder compliance was most frequent among patients with PBND (10.0%, p=0.025). In storage dysfunctions, men with DO exhibited higher detrusor pressure during voiding than did those with other storage dysfunctions (p<0.01).
Because clinical symptoms are not useful for predicting the specific urodynamic etiology of LUTS in this population, urodynamic investigation can help to make an accurate diagnosis and, potentially, to guide appropriate treatment.
Preview · Article · May 2014 · Korean journal of urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic features and prognostic significance of visceral obesity in patients with localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
This study included 706 patients with localized RCC who had undergone curative surgery between January 2003 and April 2012. Visceral, subcutaneous, and total adipose tissue (VAT, SAT, and TAT) were measured based on preoperative computed tomography scans of the umbilical region. VAT% was calculated using the following formula: VAT% = [VAT/TAT] x 100. The association between clinicopathologic factors and visceral obesity was examined.
A higher VAT% at diagnosis was associated with older age at diagnosis, higher prevalence of diabetes, and higher prevalence of former or current smoking history. The distribution of histologic subtypes differed significantly between the VAT% quartiles. The proportion of high grade tumors increased as VAT% increased (odds ratio, 1.023; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.000 - 1.126; p = 0.037). A U-shaped association between VAT% quartiles and the risk of disease recurrence was observed for all patients. Disease recurrence was significantly increased in the lowest (hazard ratio, 3.198; 95% CI, 1.765 - 10.040; p = 0.036) and highest (hazard ratio, 4.760; 95% CI, 2.937 - 13.210; p = 0.010) VAT% quartiles.
Relative visceral obesity as assessed by the VAT% was associated with clinicopathologic characteristics of localized RCC. A U-shaped association between VAT% quartiles and risk of disease recurrence was observed among patients with localized RCC.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study evaluated the prognosis of conservative and surgical treatment according to the staging of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw (BRONJ) by American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons and American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Methods: We evaluated 53 patients of BRONJ who visited Department of Dentistry, Ajou University School of Medicine from May 2007 to February 2013. Twenty eight patients in stage 2, were divided into surgical and conservative groups with cessation of bisphosphonate therapy. Fifteen patients belonged to the conservative treatment group, in which mouth rinsing and antibiotics medication were done. Thirteen patients were treated with debridement or sequestrectomy, in the surgical treatment group. Each study list was analyzed by SPSS ver. 14.0 (SPSS Inc., USA) software and the favorable rate was verified by the Fisher exact test. P-values less than 0.05% were deemed significant. Results: Clinical outcome was evaluated on the basis of both clinical and radiographic findings. Of all the 28 patients of stage 2, 15 patients underwent conservative treatment and 13 patients received surgical treatment. In the surgical group, 9 of 13 (69.2%) showed good prognosis, 4 of 13 (30.7%) showed recurrence. In the conservative group, 13 of 15 (86.6%) showed no change duting the follow-up period. Two of 15 patients even showed a bad prognosis, such as pain and pus discharge, which are criteria for stage 3. P-value was 0.067 (>0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study suggests that surgical intervention is good choice against the conservative treatment, after proper drug holidays period, while further investigation is needed for a definite solution to BRONJ.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study is to evaluate the efficacy of the autogenous tooth bone graft material, clinically and radiologically, as related to implant installation. Methods: In oral and maxillofacial surgery department of Ajou University Hospital, guided bone regeneration (GBR), implant placement combined with GBR, sinus graft, implant placement combined with sinus graft, and defect filling were performed in 46 patients, using autogenous tooth bone. Among these, 66 implants were inserted with autogenous tooth bone. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) was measured by Osstell Mentor (Integration Diagnostics, Goteborg, Sweden) on 39 implants on the operation date and 4 months later, and on 21 implants 9months on the average at the final setting of restoration. Twenty-eight implants with GBR and sinus graft (GBR group: n=14, sinus graft group: n=14) were evaluated radiologically to measure the resorption of grafted autogenous tooth bone after loading. Results: The average initial stabilization of the installed implants was 67 ISQ, and the average secondary stabilization at 4 months later was 76. The average bone loss of GBR group as measured 8.0 months after application of prosthesis loading was 0.29 mm and the average bone loss of the sinus graft group as measured 7.6 months after application of prosthesis loading was 0.66 mm, respectively. In the histological assessment, formation of the new bone and continuous trabecular bone pattern was identified around autogenous tooth bone. Conclusion: Based on these results, we concluded that autogenous tooth bone is an excellent bone graft material that can substitute the autogenous bone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have been conducted on the serial evaluation of predictors for recovery of urinary continence (RC) after radical prostatectomy (RP) among same cohort. We developed and validated nomograms to predict immediate (≤1), early (≤3), and late (≤12 months) RC from a contemporary series and compared each nomogram with regard to the significance of predictors for RC.
Among consecutive men who received robot-assisted or open retropubic RP between 2004 and 2011, 872 (74.7 %) and 296 (25.3 %) were randomly assigned to subcohorts for the development of nomograms and for the split-sample external validation. The final multivariate model was selected based on the stepwise procedure, and the regression coefficient-based nomograms were developed based on final models.
Age at surgery, membranous urethral length (MUL), and robot-assisted RP were significant for RC at 1, 3, and 12 months. Saving the neurovascular bundle (NVB) and prostate volume were significant only for RC at 12 months. Odds ratios for age and MUL were constant over time, whereas the odds ratio for robot-assisted surgery decreased over time. Each developed nomogram was reasonably well fitted to the ideal line of the calibration plot. The split-sample external validation of nomograms indicated 63, 65, 71 % accuracy for each RC time point.
We developed nomograms for RC at each time point after RP and validated adequately. Saving the NVB and prostate volume may affect only late RC after RP. In contrast, age, MUL, and robot-assisted surgery seem to be consistently associated with immediate, early, and late RC.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · World Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to elucidate the effect of autogenous tooth bone material by experimenting on minipig's maxillary sinus and performing histological and histomorphometric analyses.
Five 18-24 month-old male minipigs were selected, and right maxillary sinuses were grafted with bone graft material made of their respective autogenous teeth extracted eight weeks earlier. The left sides were grafted with synthetic hydroxyapatite as control groups. All minipigs were sacrificed at 12 weeks after bone graft, which was known to be 1 sigma (σ) period for pigs. Specimens were evaluated histologically under a light microscope after haematoxylin-eosin staining followed by semi-quantitative study via histomorphometric analysis. The ratio of new bone to total area was evaluated using digital software for calculation of area.
All specimens were available, except one on the right side (experimental group), which was missing during specimen preparation. This study demonstrated new bone at the periphery of the existing bone in both groups, showing evidence of bone remodeling, however, encroachment of new bone on the central part of the graft at the 1 σ period was observed only in the autogenous tooth bone group (experimental group). Histomorphometric analysis showed more new bone formation in the experimental group compared to the control group. Although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05), the mean percentage area for new bone for the experimental and control groups were 57.19%±11.16% and 34.07%±13.09%, respectively.
The novel bone graft material using autogenous tooth is a good alternative to autogenous bone, comparable to autogenous bone, and outperforming synthetic hydroxyapatite bone graft materials in terms of bone regeneration capacity. Augmentation with autogenous tooth bone materials will reduce donor site morbidity without hampering the safety of the autogenous bone graft.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Maxillary sinus elevation has been widely used to enable insertion of endosseous implants in severely resorbed maxilla. Maxillary sinusitis after this procedure was considered to be the major drawback, therefore, preoperative evaluation of paranasal sinus is considered to be important. In order to evaluate the condition of the sinus, we used Waters' projection. In this study, asymptomatic patients were evaluated by Waters' view, and compared to timing to assess the sinus cavity. Methods: The retrospective study was based on 14 patients who were performed sinus elevation surgery in Seoul National University Dental Hospital. These patients did not show any signs of maxillary sinusitis. These patients were taken Waters' view at preoperative, postoperative 1 day, 3 months, 6 months. In Waters' view, presence of air fluid level, radiopacity of sinus wall, or radiopacity of entire maxillary sinus were evaluated. The density, and sinus dimension changes were assessed using Adobe Photoshop CS5 (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA, USA). Results: Findings of Waters views in patients with clear maxillary sinus at preoperative time were followed by elevated sinus floor with transplanted bone, mucosal swelling, and air fluid level. At postoperative 3 months, and 6 months, the radiographic findings were similar to preoperative state. By contrast, patients with preoperative mucosal swelling, or haziness in sinus cavity showed radiopacity entire sinus in Waters' view. In cases of the patients who were treated with simultaneous treatment to mucosal swelling, good status of sinus cavity were found. Conclusion: Although Waters' projections provide the limited information, and is less sensitive method compared with computed tomography, it is simple, easy, and economical method to assess of maxillary sinus. We suggest using Waters' view as radiographic routine tool for evaluation of sinus condition, especially in the sinus elevation surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the outfracture osteotomy sinus graft technique with the evaluation of 8.5 year survival rate of the implants placed in the atrophic edentulous posterior maxillary area. Methods: One hundred and seventy-six cases of 145 patients who visited our center from August 2004 to February 2013 and were diagnosed as atrophic edentulous maxillary alveolar ridge, were selected and underwent sinus graft with outfracture osteotomy sinus graft technique. Feasibility of the outfracture osteotomy sinus graft technique was investigated with clinical and radiographic evaluation to assess the survival rate of the total dental implants in augmentation sinus surgery. Total fixture number available in follow-up period was 320, in which the lost 15 patients were excluded out of 160 patients. Results: Eight point five year cumulative survival rate was 95.6% with 14 failures of total 320 fixtures. The average follow-up period was 28 months 16 days with the minimum and maximum follow-up periods of 4 months 5 days and 94 months 10 days, respectively. Conclusion: Traditional infracture technique is a popular method for an augmentation sinus surgery. The authors modified this classical method by outfracturing and readapting the bony window after sinus graft, with excellent treatment results evidenced by high survival rate, which proves the feasibility of the newly-designed outfracture osteotomy sinus graft technique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates (BP) are widely used in medicine for inhibiting bone resorption; however bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a major side effect of BP. To date, there have been no specific reports on the incidence of BRONJ among Koreans. This study investigated the preliminary results from a nationwide survey of BRONJ in the Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) at individual training hospitals.
A total of 15 OMFS departments (10 from dental schools, 4 from medical schools, and 1 from a dental hospital) participated in a multi-centric survey. This study assessed every BRONJ case diagnosed between January 2010 and December 2010. The patient age and BP type were evaluated.
A total of 254 BRONJ cases were collected. The majority of BRONJ cases were associated with oral BP therapy, while 21.8% of the cases were associated with intravenous administration. Alendronate was the drug most frequently related to BRONJ (59.2% of cases), followed by risedronate (14.3%) and zolendronate (17.0%). The average age of BRONJ patients was 70.0±10.1 years, with a range of 38-88 years of age. With the number of BP patients in Korea reported to be around 600,000 in 2008, the estimated incidence of BRONJ is at least 0.04% or 1 per 2,300 BP patients.
The results suggest that the estimated incidence of BRONJ in Korea is higher than the incidence of other countries. Future prospective studies should be carried out to investigate the exact epidemiological characteristics of BRONJ in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the prevalence and clinical features of detrusor underactivity (DU) in elderly men and women presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
We reviewed 1,179 patients aged over 65 years who had undergone a urodynamic study for LUTS with no neurological or anatomical conditions. DU was defined as a bladder contractility index <100 and a maximal flow rate (Qmax) ≤12 ml/s combined with a detrusor pressure at Qmax ≤10 cmH(2)O for men and women, respectively.
Of the patients, 40.2% of men and 13.3% of women were classified as having DU (p<0.001). Types of clinical symptoms were not significantly different between patients with and without DU. In men, whereas the prevalence of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) was constant across the age spectrum, the prevalence of DU and detrusor overactivity (DO) increased with age, and 46.5% of men with DU also had DO or BOO. In women, the prevalence of DU also increased with age, and the trend was more remarkable in women aged over 70 years. DU was accompanied by DO or urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (USUI) in 72.6% of the women with DU. Women with DU were found to have lower cystometric capacity and exhibited a greater incidence of reduced compliance than did women without DU.
DU was a common mechanism underlying LUTS in the elderly population, especially in men. One half of the men and three quarters of the women with DU also had other pathologies such as DO, BOO, or USUI.
Preview · Article · May 2012 · Korean journal of urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) to temporomandibular disorder with clinical symptoms such as pain, joint sounds, and mouth opening limitation by analysis of the level of these molecules in the synovial fluid.
Twenty-four patients with chief complaints of pain, mouth opening limitation, and clicking sounds were selected as the experimental group and compared with 5 healthy subjects. After joint lavage with arthrocentesis, diluted synovial fluid was collected and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was done for analysis of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in 24 experimental patients and 5 healthy subjects.
The synovial levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were elevated in the experimental group compared with the healthy control group, but no significant correlation was established. The synovial levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were elevated in the acute pain group compared with the chronic pain group, but no significant correlation was established.
In our analysis of 2 proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha and IL-6, in the synovial fluid of temporomandibular disorder patients with symptoms of pain, mouth opening limitation, and clicking, both were elevated without statistical significance.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to provide feasibility of a new technique of sinus graft: outfracture osteotomy sinus graft.
The author modified the window opening method from the original trapdoor technique to an outfracturing and readaptation technique. It provides a few advantages in dental implant treatment of atrophic maxillary posterior edentulous alveolar ridges: 1) in combined cases of height and width problems; 2) in cases with anatomic problems such as sinus septum, thick lateral sinus wall, and intrabony bleedings; 3) possible use of the outfractured bony segment as a covering membrane.
The follow-up of 34 patients (40 cases; 6 bilateral cases) revealed good results without a case of graft failure and showed excellent survival and function of the dental implants.
The sinus graft technique was modified as the author outfractured and readapted the bony lateral window, with several advantages as mentioned above. This new outfracture osteotomy sinus graft technique has excellent results as an alternative to the original trapdoor technique.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maxillofacial injuries are less common in children than in adolescents and adults. This lower incidence is a result of the relatively small size of mandible, the resilient nature of the bones, and a relatively protected environment, which distinguish the treatment principles of pediatric mandibular fractures from those of the adult.