[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decomposition of biomass for biogas production can be practiced under wet and dry fermentation conditions. In contrast to the dry fermentation technology, wet fermentation is characterized by a high liquid content and a relatively low total solid content. In this study, the composition and functional potential of a biogas-producing microbial community in an agricultural biogas reactor operating under wet fermentation conditions was analyzed by a metagenomic approach applying 454-pyrosequencing. The obtained metagenomic dataset and corresponding 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences were compared to the previously sequenced comparable metagenome from a dry fermentation process, meeting explicitly identical boundary conditions regarding sample and community DNA preparation, sequencing technology, processing of sequence reads and data analyses by bioinformatics tools.
High-throughput metagenome sequencing of community DNA from the wet fermentation process applying the pyrosequencing approach resulted in 1,532,780 reads, with an average read length of 397 bp, accounting for approximately 594 million bases of sequence information in total. Taxonomic comparison of the communities from wet and dry fermentation revealed similar microbial profiles with Bacteria being the predominant superkingdom, while the superkingdom Archaea was less abundant. In both biogas plants, the bacterial phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes and Proteobacteria were identified with descending frequencies. Within the archaeal superkingdom, the phylum Euryarchaeota was most abundant with the dominant class Methanomicrobia. Functional profiles of the communities revealed that environmental gene tags representing methanogenesis enzymes were present in both biogas plants in comparable frequencies. 16S rRNA gene amplicon high-throughput sequencing disclosed differences in the sub-communities comprising methanogenic Archaea between both processes. Fragment recruitments of metagenomic reads to the reference genome of the archaeon Methanoculleus bourgensis MS2(T) revealed that dominant methanogens within the dry fermentation process were highly related to the reference.
Although process parameters, substrates and technology differ between the wet and dry biogas fermentations analyzed in this study, community profiles are very similar at least at higher taxonomic ranks, illustrating that core community taxa perform key functions in biomass decomposition and methane synthesis. Regarding methanogenesis, Archaea highly related to the type strain M. bourgensis MS2(T) dominate the dry fermentation process, suggesting the adaptation of members belonging to this species to specific fermentation process parameters.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Biotechnology for Biofuels
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteorhodopsins (PR) are light-driven proton pumps widely distributed in bacterioplankton. Although they have been thoroughly studied for more than a decade, it is still unclear how the proton motive force (pmf) generated by PR is used in most organisms. Notably, very few PR-containing bacteria show growth enhancement in the light. It has been suggested that the presence of specific functions within a genome may define the different PR-driven light responses. Thus, comparing closely related organisms that respond differently to light is an ideal setup to identify the mechanisms involved in PR light-enhanced growth. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes of three PR-harboring Flavobacteria strains of the genus Dokdonia: Dokdonia donghaensis DSW-1(T), Dokdonia MED134 and Dokdonia PRO95, grown in identical seawater medium in light and darkness. Although only DSW-1(T) and MED134 showed light-enhanced growth, all strains expressed their PR genes at least 10 times more in the light compared with dark. According to their genomes, DSW-1(T) and MED134 are vitamin-B1 auxotrophs, and their vitamin-B1 TonB-dependent transporters (TBDT), accounted for 10-18% of all pmf-dependent transcripts. In contrast, the expression of vitamin-B1 TBDT was 10 times lower in the prototroph PRO95, whereas its vitamin-B1 synthesis genes were among the highest expressed. Our data suggest that light-enhanced growth in DSW-1(T) and MED134 derives from the use of PR-generated pmf to power the uptake of vitamin-B1, essential for central carbon metabolism, including the TCA cycle. Other pmf-generating mechanisms available in darkness are probably insufficient to power transport of enough vitamin-B1 to support maximum growth of these organisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete genome sequence of the type strain Corynebacterium testudinoris DSM 44614 from the mouth of a tortoise comprises 2,721,226 bp with a mean G+C content of 63.14%. The automatic annotation
of the genome sequence revealed 4 rRNA operons, 51 tRNA genes, 7 other RNA genes, and 2,561 protein-coding regions.
Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Genome Announcements
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete genome sequence of the type strain Corynebacterium uterequi DSM 45634 from an equine urogenital tract specimen comprises 2,419,437 bp and 2,163 protein-coding genes. Candidate virulence
factors are homologs of DIP0733, DIP1281, and DIP1621 from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and of sialidase precursors from Trueperella pyogenes and Chlamydia trachomatis.
Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Genome Announcements
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 is a fast-growing rhizobial strain infecting a broad range of legumes including both American and Asiatic soybeans. In this work we present the sequencing and annotation of the HH103 genome (7.25 Mb), consisting of one chromosome and six plasmids and representing the structurally most complex sinorhizobial genome sequenced so far. Comparative genomic analyses of S. fredii HH103 with strains USDA257 and NGR234 showed that the core genome of these three strains contains 4212 genes (61.7% of the HH103 genes). Synteny plot analysis revealed that the much larger chromosome of USDA257 (6.48 Mb) is co-linear to the HH103 (4.3 Mb) and NGR324 chromosomes (3.9 Mb). An additional region of the USDA257 chromosome of about 2 Mb displays similarity to plasmid pSfHH103e. Remarkable differences exist between HH103 and NGR234 concerning nod genes, flavonoid effect on surface polysaccharide production, and quorum-sensing systems. Furthermore a number of protein secretion systems have been found. Two genes coding for putative type III-secreted effectors not previously described in S. fredii, nopI and gunA, have been located on the HH103 genome. These differences could be important to understand the different symbiotic behaviour of S. fredii strains HH103, USDA257, and NGR234 with soybean.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subseafloor sediment samples derived from a sediment core of 60 m length were used to enrich psychrophilic aerobic bacteria on cellulose, xylan, chitin, and starch. A variety of species belonging to Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria and to Flavobacteria were isolated from sediment depths between 12 and 42 mbsf. Metagenomic DNA purified from the pooled enrichments was sequenced and analyzed for phylogenetic composition and presence of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes. More than 200 open reading frames coding for glycoside hydrolases were identified, and more than 60 of them relevant for enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose. Four genes encoding β-glucosidases with less than 52 % identities to characterized enzymes were chosen for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. In addition one endomannanase, two endoxylanases, and three β-xylosidases were produced recombinantly. All genes could be actively expressed. Functional analysis revealed discrepancies and additional variability for the recombinant enzymes as compared to the sequence-based predictions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete chromosomal sequence of the type strain Corynebacterium atypicum DSM 44849 comprises 2,311,380 bp. A functional annotation revealed the presence of genes involved in the synthesis and export
of mycolic acids and in trehalose corynomycolate biosynthesis, supporting the view that the cell envelope of C. atypicum contains mycolic acids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterium Clostridium thermocellum BC1, a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium of the family Clostridiaceae, was isolated from a compost treatment site in Germany. It is able to grow efficiently on cellulose and cellodextrins. The draft genome sequence of C. thermocellum BC1 has been established and provides the genetic basis for application of this microorganism in thermophilic degradation of cellulosic biomass.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium urealyticum is a common skin colonizer with potent urease activity. It is clinically recognized as an opportunistic pathogen causing
urinary tract infections. The annotated genome sequence of strain DSM 7111, isolated from the urine of a young boy with an
ectopic kidney, provides new insights into the pathomechanisms of this bacterium.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Genome Announcements
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In recent years biogas plants in Germany have been supposed to be involved in amplification and dissemination of pathogenic bacteria causing severe infections in humans and animals. In particular, biogas plants are discussed to contribute to the spreading of Escherichia coli infections in humans or chronic botulism in cattle caused by Clostridium botulinum. Metagenome datasets of microbial communities from an agricultural biogas plant as well as from anaerobic lab-scale digesters operating at different temperatures and conditions were analyzed for the presence of putative pathogenic bacteria and virulence determinants by various bioinformatic approaches.
All datasets featured a low abundance of reads that were taxonomically assigned to the genus Escherichia or further selected genera comprising pathogenic species. Higher numbers of reads were taxonomically assigned to the genus Clostridium. However, only very few sequences were predicted to originate from pathogenic clostridial species. Moreover, mapping of metagenome reads to complete genome sequences of selected pathogenic bacteria revealed that not the pathogenic species itself, but only species that are more or less related to pathogenic ones are present in the fermentation samples analyzed. Likewise, known virulence determinants could hardly be detected. Only a marginal number of reads showed similarity to sequences described in the Microbial Virulence Database MvirDB such as those encoding protein toxins, virulence proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants.
Findings of this first study of metagenomic sequence reads of biogas producing microbial communities suggest that the risk of dissemination of pathogenic bacteria by application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers is low, because obtained results do not indicate the presence of putative pathogenic microorganisms in the samples analyzed.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Biotechnology for Biofuels
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogen production with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii induced by sulphur starvation is a multiphase process while the cell internal metabolism is completely remodelled. The first cellular response is characterized by induction of genes with regulatory functions, followed by a total remodelling of the metabolism to provide reduction equivalents for cellular processes. We were able to characterize all major processes that provide energy and reduction equivalents during hydrogen production. Furthermore, C. reinhardtii showed a strong transcript increase for gene models responsible for stress response and detoxification of oxygen radicals. Finally, we were able to determine potential bottlenecks and target genes for manipulation to increase hydrogen production or to prolong the hydrogen production phase. The investigation of transcriptomic changes during the time course of hydrogen production in C. reinhardtii with microarrays and RNA-seq revealed new insights into the regulation and remodelling of the cell internal metabolism. Both methods showed a good correlation. The microarray platform can be used as a reliable standard tool for routine gene expression analysis. RNA-seq additionally allowed a detailed time-dependent study of gene expression and determination of new genes involved in the hydrogen production process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission is essential to guide efficient tuberculosis control strategies. Traditional strain typing lacks sufficient discriminatory power to resolve large outbreaks. Here, we tested the potential of using next generation genome sequencing for identification of outbreak-related transmission chains.
During long-term (1997 to 2010) prospective population-based molecular epidemiological surveillance comprising a total of 2,301 patients, we identified a large outbreak caused by an Mtb strain of the Haarlem lineage. The main performance outcome measure of whole genome sequencing (WGS) analyses was the degree of correlation of the WGS analyses with contact tracing data and the spatio-temporal distribution of the outbreak cases. WGS analyses of the 86 isolates revealed 85 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), subdividing the outbreak into seven genome clusters (two to 24 isolates each), plus 36 unique SNP profiles. WGS results showed that the first outbreak isolates detected in 1997 were falsely clustered by classical genotyping. In 1998, one clone (termed "Hamburg clone") started expanding, apparently independently from differences in the social environment of early cases. Genome-based clustering patterns were in better accordance with contact tracing data and the geographical distribution of the cases than clustering patterns based on classical genotyping. A maximum of three SNPs were identified in eight confirmed human-to-human transmission chains, involving 31 patients. We estimated the Mtb genome evolutionary rate at 0.4 mutations per genome per year. This rate suggests that Mtb grows in its natural host with a doubling time of approximately 22 h (400 generations per year). Based on the genome variation discovered, emergence of the Hamburg clone was dated back to a period between 1993 and 1997, hence shortly before the discovery of the outbreak through epidemiological surveillance.
Our findings suggest that WGS is superior to conventional genotyping for Mtb pathogen tracing and investigating micro-epidemics. WGS provides a measure of Mtb genome evolution over time in its natural host context. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm41 nodulates alfalfa plants, forming indeterminate type nodules. It is characterized by a strain-specific K-antigen able
to replace exopolysaccharides in promotion of nodule invasion. We present the Rm41 genome, composed of one chromosome, the
chromid pSymB, the megaplasmid pSymA, and the nonsymbiotic plasmid pRme41a.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Genome Announcements
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wickerhamomyces ciferrii is a microorganism characterized by the production and secretion of large amounts of acetylated sphingoid bases, in particular
tetraacetyl phytosphingosine. Here, we present the 15.90-Mbp draft genome sequence of W. ciferrii NRRL Y-1031 F-60-10 generated by pyrosequencing and de novo assembly. The draft genome sequence comprising 364 contigs in 150 scaffolds was annotated and covered 6,702 protein-coding
sequences. This information will contribute to the metabolic engineering of this yeast to improve the yield and spectrum of
acetylated sphingoid bases in biotechnological production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crop production may benefit from plant growth-promoting bacteria. The knowledge on bacterial communities is indispensable in agricultural systems that intend to apply beneficial bacteria to improve plant health and production of crops such as canola. In this work, the diversity of root bacterial communities associated to two different developmental phases of canola (Brassica napus L.) plants was assessed through the application of new generation sequencing technology. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from root samples from two different growth states of canola (rosette and flowering). It could be shown how bacterial communities inside the roots changed with the growing stage of the canola plants. There were differences in the abundance of the genera, family, and even the phyla identified for each sample. While in both root samples Proteobacteria was the most common phylum, at the rosette stage, the most common bacteria belonged to the family Pseudomonadaceae and the genus Pseudomonas, and in the flowering stage, the Xanthomonadaceae family and the genus Xanthomonas dominated the community. This implies in a switch in the predominant bacteria in the different developmental stages of the plant, suggesting that the plant itself interferes with the associated microbial community.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Microbial Ecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methanoculleus bourgensis, of the order Methanomicrobiales, is a dominant methanogenic archaeon in many biogas-producing reactor systems fed with renewable primary products. It is
capable of synthesizing methane via the hydrogenotrophic pathway utilizing hydrogen and carbon dioxide or formate as the substrates.
Here we report the complete and finished genome sequence of M. bourgensis strain MS2T, isolated from a sewage sludge digester.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibrisoma limi strain BUZ 3T, a Gram-negative bacterium, was isolated from coastal mud from the North Sea (Fedderwardersiel, Germany) and characterized
using a polyphasic approach in 2011. The genome consists of a chromosome of about 7.5 Mb and three plasmids.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ribosomal 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to explore whether the genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize hybrid MON 89034 × MON 88017, expressing three insecticidal recombinant Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis, would alter the rhizosphere bacterial community. Fine roots of field cultivated Bt-maize and three conventional maize varieties were analyzed together with coarse roots of the Bt-maize. A total of 547 000 sequences were obtained. Library coverage was 100% at the phylum and 99.8% at the genus rank. Although cluster analyses based on relative abundances indicated no differences at higher taxonomic ranks, genera abundances pointed to variety specific differences. Genera-based clustering depended solely on the 49 most dominant genera while the remaining 461 rare genera followed a different selection. A total of 91 genera responded significantly to the different root environments. As a benefit of pyrosequencing, 79 responsive genera were identified that might have been overlooked with conventional cloning sequencing approaches owing to their rareness. There was no indication of bacterial alterations in the rhizosphere of the Bt-maize beyond differences found between conventional varieties. B. thuringiensis-like phylotypes were present at low abundance (0.1% of Bacteria) suggesting possible occurrence of natural Cry proteins in the rhizospheres. Although some genera indicated potential phytopathogenic bacteria in the rhizosphere, their abundances were not significantly different between conventional varieties and Bt-maize. With an unprecedented sensitivity this study indicates that the rhizosphere bacterial community of a GM maize did not respond abnormally to the presence of three insecticidal proteins in the root tissue.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 12 July 2012; doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.77.