S Janisch

Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany

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Publications (10)14.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Altering incubation temperature during embryogenesis has an impact on chicken embryo growth, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not understood; the present study was performed to address these changes. Broiler eggs were incubated at low (36.8°C), control (37.8°C), and high (38.8°C) temperatures between Embryonic Day (ED) 7 and 10 or ED 10 and 13, which represent critical periods of embryonic myogenesis. The embryos were then dissected immediately after treatment on ED 10 or 13 to assess body, liver, and heart weights as well as to analyze breast and leg muscle fibers for their mitochondrial respiratory activity (MRA). Breast muscle samples were additionally used to evaluate the activity of enzymes involved in energy metabolism and cell-cycle progression. ED-10 embryos incubated at 38.8°C showed elevated weights (body, liver, and heart), MRA, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase compared to the ED-10 embryos incubated at 36.8°C. Similarly, the ED-13 embryos incubated at 38.8°C showed elevated body weight, MRA, and activities of glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, and cytochrome oxidase compared to their 36.8°C counterparts. Embryos incubated at the normal temperature (37.8°C), however, showed variable differences from those incubated at 38.8°C versus 36.8°C. Cell-cycle enzyme activities were not impacted by the different temperature treatments. Thus an increase or decrease in the incubation temperature during embryonic broiler myogenesis results in altered embryo activity, muscle energy metabolism, and activity-dependent muscle growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Molecular Reproduction and Development
  • S Janisch · A R Sharifi · M Wicke · C Krischek
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    ABSTRACT: Eggs of broilers were initially incubated at 37.8°C, then at 38.8°C (group H) and 36.8°C (group L) between embryonic days 7 to 10 (time A) and days 10 to 13 (time B) and further incubated at 37.8°C until hatching. The chicks were fattened until day 35 and then slaughtered. The effect of treatment, time, and sex and their interactions on carcass and meat quality traits were determined. No significant impact of the “treatment time” was analysed, but “treatment” and “sex” and their interactions influenced (P < 0.05) the different parameters. After hatching, group L broilers were heavier (P < 0.05), followed by slower growth compared to group H chicken. At slaughter day, body, carcass, and leg weights of group H broiler were higher (P < 0.05) and yield results lower (P < 0.05) compared to group L animals. pH, drip loss, shear force, and lightness values of group H broiler breast muscles were higher (P < 0.05) and grill loss and redness values lower (P < 0.05) compared to group L Musculus pectoralis superficialis (MPS). Body, carcass, MPS, and leg weights, leg yields and grill loss and lightness values of the male broiler were higher (P < 0.05) and drip loss results lower (P < 0.05) than the female birds. Male group H broiler showed lower (P < 0.05) carcass and MPS yields compared to the control and group L males, whereas females group H birds had higher (P < 0.05) carcass and MPS weights and lower leg yields (P < 0.05) than the female group L animals. The study shows that an increasing incubation temperature during early embryogenesis positively influences the growth and carcass traits of the broilers, accompanied with a partly negative impact on meat quality (drip loss, shear force, lightness). The growth effects were sex-dependent, as significant weight differences could be only found in female broilers. The results indicate that incubation temperature alteration influences molecular mechanisms in the muscle and other tissues with an impact on growth after hatch.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Poultry Science
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    J Popp · C Krischek · S Janisch · M Wicke · G Klein
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.
    Preview · Article · May 2013 · Poultry Science
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    S Janisch · M Wicke · C Krischek
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    ABSTRACT: Meat quality and (anti)oxidative metabolism of m. pectoralis superficialis (MPS), m. gastrocnemius (MG) and m. iliotibilialis lateralis (MIL) from turkey toms were analysed. After slaughter, pH of MPS and MG decreased and electrical conductivity of the MPS increased. The MG had generally higher pH values. The meat lightness (L) and redness (a) increased in MG and MPS after slaughter. The MPS always had higher L and lower a values. Mitochondrial respiratory activities (MRA) were higher in the MIL than the MPS. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase, analysed in the MPS, increased and the glutathione reductase activity decreased after slaughter. Meat samples with lower pH24 h p.m. had higher drip loss and L values. The MRA were tendentially lower and the SOD activities higher in these samples. These results indicate a relation between the meat quality, the antioxidative metabolism and mitochondrial respiration.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · animal
  • S Janisch · C Krischek · M Wicke

    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Poultry Science
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    S Janisch · C Krischek · M Wicke
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    ABSTRACT: Broilers from the lines Ross 308, Ross 708, and Cobb 700 were slaughtered at 28 and 41 d of age at a commercial abattoir. After slaughter, the carcass, breast, and leg weights as well as the breast and leg yields were determined. Further investigations analyzed the color [lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*)], pH at 24 h postmortem, electrical conductivity (EC), drip loss, grill loss, and shear force values as well as the muscle fiber cross-sectional areas of the breast muscles. The 41-d-old broilers had higher carcass, breast, and leg weights than the 28-d-old birds. The breast yield values were higher and the leg yields were lower in the 41-d-old broilers. The fiber cross-sectional area values were also higher in the older birds. Within the younger birds the slaughter characteristics were approximately comparable among the lines. The EC, L*, grill loss, and shear force values increased but the drip loss and a* values decreased with the age of the broiler. The genetic lines differed within the 28-d-old broilers with regard to EC, grill loss, and shear force values and within the 41-d-old broilers with regard to the EC, L*, grill loss, and shear force values. The pH correlated negatively with the EC, L*, b*, drip loss, and shear force values. During storage, L* and b* values of the breast muscles increased and a* values decreased in all genetic lines, whereas the L* values were generally higher in the older broilers and the a* and b* results were generally higher in the breast muscles of the younger broilers. In conclusion, the carcass and meat quality characteristics of broilers changed with age with positive (carcass and breast muscle weight, drip loss) but also negative (L*, a*, grill loss) effects. The effect of the genetic line was rather low. Despite the age-related changes of meat quality parameter, the pH values remained unchanged, indicating muscle structural influences on the muscle-to-meat-transition with increasing age of the broiler.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Poultry Science
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    ABSTRACT: The correct labelling of nutrient values of poultry breast meat on self service packages is important to reduce problems with the responsible authorities and consumers. As meat nutrient contents are influenced by several endogenous factors, in the present investigation fat, protein, ash and dry mass contents of breast meat collected from broiler and turkeys were investigated. The animals differed in age, gender or genetic line and each species was reared under similar husbandry and feeding conditions. In broiler, age of the animals influenced the fat and ash content of the breast meat, whereas the genetic line had an impact on the fat and dry mass values. An impact of the gender could not be determined. In turkeys, age and gender but not genetic line influenced the fat and protein contents of the breast meat. Correlation analysis indicates an impact of the carcass and breast weights on the fat, protein and ash contents in all broiler and fat and protein content in all turkeys. The results indicate that sorting of breast meat with regard to the described factors - especially the carcass or breast weight in turkeys - is useful to reduce the variation of the nutrient values before packaging and the incorrect labelling of the packages.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Archiv für lebensmittelhygiene
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    C Werner · S Janisch · M Wicke
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    ABSTRACT: Colour is an important quality parameter of broiler meat influencing the consumer buying behaviour. The alterations of the colour after slaughter are related to the oxidative status of the tissue. This in turn is influenced by an interaction between the mitochondria and the antioxidative enzymes. In this study, breast muscles were collected from hens and cocks of a commercial line slaughtered at the ages of 28 and 41 day. Analysis of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) was performed with samples obtained 20 min and 48 h after slaughter (post mortem, p.m.), whereas the mitochondrial respiratory activity was analysed in permeabilised breast muscle fibres collected 20 min p.m. The carcass characteristics of breast muscle and leg weight as well as breast yield were significantly higher, and the leg yields lower, in the 41-day-old broiler. The 28-day-old hens and cocks had comparable carcass characteristics (P > 0.05), whereas 41-day-old cocks had significantly higher carcass, breast and leg weight in comparison to the hens. The pH20 min p.m. and the L*48 h p.m. were significantly higher, and the a* and b* values of the 20 min and 48 h p.m. samples as well as the drip loss were significantly lower in the 41-day-old broiler. Mitochondrial respiratory rates were comparable (P > 0.05) between the 28- and 41-day-old cocks and hens. The same result could be found with regard to the activities of the SOD, GPx and GR except for lower activities of the SOD20 min p.m. and higher of the GR48 h min p.m. in the 41-day-old broiler. The concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were generally higher in the breast muscles of the 41-day-old broiler. Assorting the data according to their mean pH20 min p.m. indicates a positive influence of higher pH values (>6.34) on the mitochondrial function, whereas a low pH20 min p.m. results in tendentially and significantly higher activities of the antioxidative enzymes and drip loss values. These results indicate a relation between the meat quality and the oxidative metabolism as well as antioxidative capacity of the meat.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2011 · animal
  • S. Janisch · M. Wicke · C. Krischek
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    ABSTRACT: Poultry meat stored in modified atmosphere packages sometimes shows a high variation of the meat colour. Since the colour of the meat varies physiologically, it is necessary to reduce colour differences in the packages. In the present study the influence of gender on the meat quality of M. pectoralis superficialis (MPS) was investigated. Therefore cockerels and hens of the genetic line Ross 308 were considered. The cockerels had significantly higher carcass, breast muscle and leg weights, whereas the breast and thigh yields were similar between the genders. The MPS of the hens had significantly higher drip loss and electrical conductivity values, and lower pH values. Looking at the brightness (L *) and redness (a *) values over 3 days after slaughter, the L * of the meat increase and a * remained nearly unchanged, but this development was independent of the gender of the broilers. The results show that sexing of broiler chicks shortly after hatch might be useful, to reduce the variation of the carcass and meat quality parameters during slaughter and dissection but especially during packaging of the meat.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011
  • C Werner · S Janisch · U Kuembet · M Wicke
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    ABSTRACT: 1. An experiment was conducted to compare different meat quality parameters, especially colour development, in the breast muscle of turkeys and broilers. 2. A total of 160 broilers (Ross 308) with a mean age of 32 d and 120 turkeys (BUT Big 6) with a mean age of 147 d were slaughtered at 4 (broilers) or three (turkeys) dates at two commercial abattoirs and the slaughter characteristics (slaughter and breast weight, breast yield) were determined. 3. The Musculus pectoralis superficialis (MPS) was collected and different meat quality parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), colour (L * a * b*), grill loss, shear force) were analysed 24 h after slaughter; the colour development during cold storage of the MPS was also analysed. 4. The turkeys had greater carcase and breast weights as well as breast yields. The pH was significantly lower and the EC as well as the grill loss significantly higher in the MPS of the turkey, whereas the shear force values were comparable. 5. Considering the colour of the breast muscle the broiler MPS had significantly higher L* and b* but lower a* values. During cold storage the L* and b* values of the MPS increase in both investigated poultry species, whereas a* increased in the turkey but decreased in the broiler birds. The L* and b* of the broiler and turkey MPS thereby increased in parallel. 6. From the results of this and previously published studies that investigated only broilers or turkeys it can be concluded that chemical (or biochemical) differences between these poultry species exist that specifically influence the muscle-to-meat transition process after slaughter.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · British Poultry Science

Publication Stats

36 Citations
14.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2015
    • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
      • • Department of Animal Sciences
      • • Division of Animal Breeding and Genetics
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2011
    • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany