[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of an immune competent mouse model for the study of immunosuppressive mechanisms is important for improving the efficacy of brain tumor immunotherapy. In the present study we investigated regulatory T cells (Tregs), TGF-beta1 and other putative immunosuppressive cytokines using GL261 mouse glioma in C57BL mice. We explored whether tumor growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is expressed and secreted by glioma cells constitutively or in response to a T-cell mediated immunity (simulated by conditioned media from T cells (TCM) activated by anti-CD3 antibody). We also investigated TGF-beta1's role in Treg mediated immunosuppression by quantifying TGF-beta1secretion from T regulatory cells (Tregs) co-incubated with GL261 cells as compared to Tregs alone. Finally, we studied other newly identified cytokines that were secreted preferentially by glioma cells in response to CD3 activated TCM versus cytokines secreted by glioma cells in absence of T-cell activation (naïve TCM). TGF-beta1expression was studied using RT-PCR and secretion was quantified using ELISA. A 308 protein cytokine array was used to identify and quantify cytokine expression. TGF-beta1expression and secretion from glioma cells was found to be up-regulated by conditioned media from CD3-activated T cells, suggesting that this immunosuppressive cytokine is not secreted constitutively but in response to immunity. TGF-beta1 was not found to be differentially secreted by Tregs co-incubated with glioma cells as compared to Tregs alone. This data suggest that TGF-beta1immunosupppression may not be a Treg dependent mechanism in this glioma model. Finally, the cytokine array elucidated several other cytokines which were up-regulated or down-regulated by CD3-activated TCM. These results have several implications for enhancing immunotherapy treatment, including the potential benefit of TGF-beta1inhibition in conjunction with immunotherapy, as well as the illumination of several other potential cytokine targets to be explored as shown by the cytokine array.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology