- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Nordic walking is a form of physical activity recommended for people of all ages and it is used in disease prevention and health promotion. The study was aimed to determine if and in what ways a six-week Nordic walking training program in late autumn may affect the 25(OH)D concentration in postmenopausal overweight women. Methods: Two series of measurements were carried out in a group of 17 women aged 57 ± 4.20 years with low physical activity. The first series encompassed a 6-week Nordic walking training program at the intensity of 60-70% VO2max. Before and after the training programme body composition was determined with a densitometer, and biochemical parameters were measured in blood samples drawn at rest. After a year a second series of measurements at rest was carried out to determine whether changes in the vitamin D (25(OH)D) blood level were season-induced or modified by physical activity. Results: The Nordic walking training programme contributed to a significant reduction of body mass, percentage fat volume and BMI in the examined women. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in the examined women significantly decreased after 6 weeks of training. No similar vitamin D level changes were observed in the 2nd measurement series. Conclusion: A six-week Nordic walking training programme in late autumn contributed to the lowering of 25(OH)D blood concentration in women after 55 years of age. The decreased 25(OH)D concentration may have been a result of reduced dermal biosynthesis of vitamin D or due to vitamin D contribution to muscle metabolism. This is an indication that vitamin D3 supplementation should be recommended in periods of intense physical activity during months with little insolation, especially to overweight postmenopausal women.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kasprzak, Zbigniew, Ewa Śliwicka, Karol Hennig, Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Anna Huta-Osiecka, and Alicja Nowak. Vitamin D, iron metabolism, and diet in alpinists during a 2-week high-altitude climb. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2015.-A defensive mechanism against hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude is erythropoesis. Some authors point to the contribution of vitamin D to the regulation of this process. The aim of the present study was to assess the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) level and its associations with iron metabolic and inflammatory indices in participants of a 2-week mountaineering expedition. The study sample included 9 alpinists practicing recreational mountain climbing. Every 2 or 3 days they set up a different base between 3200 and 3616 m with the intention of climbing 4000 m peaks in the Mont Blanc massif. Before their departure for the mountains and 2 days after returning to the sea level anthropometric parameters, hematological parameters, serum levels of 25(OH)D and iron metabolic indices were measured in all the participants. The composition of the participants' diet was also evaluated. The comparative analysis showed a significant decrease in body mass, BMI values, total iron, and 25(OH)D concentrations (p<0.05). Also significant increases in unsaturated iron-binding capacity, hematocrit, and C-reactive protein concentrations (p<0.05) were found. It can be concluded that the 2-week climbing expedition contributed to the reduction of 25(OH)D levels and these changes were associated with modulation of immune processes. Moreover, the climbers' diet requires some serious modifications.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) juice on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hepcidin, and selected markers of iron metabolism in rowers subjected to exhaustive exercise. Methods This double-blind study included 19 members of the Polish Rowing Team. The subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 10), receiving 150 mL of chokeberry juice for 8 weeks, or to the placebo group (n = 9). The participants performed a 2000-m test on a rowing ergometer at the beginning and at the end of the preparatory camp. Blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein prior to each exercise test, one minute after completing the test, and after a 24-hour recovery period. The levels of hepcidin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), ferritin, iron, uric acid, and myoglobin were determined, as well as the total iron-binding capacity, unbound iron-binding capacity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results Post-exercise, there was a significant increase in IL-6 and a significant decrease in the TAC in both groups, prior to and after supplementation with chokeberry juice. At the end of the experiment, the supplemented athletes showed significantly lower post-exercise levels of TNF-alpha and significantly higher TACs and iron levels than the controls. Conclusion Supplementation with chokeberry juice results in an increase in the antioxidant activity of plasma and contributes significantly to reducing the TNF-alpha level.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess bone mass and bone metabolic indices in master athletes who regularly perform rowing exercises. The study was performed in 29 men: 14 master rowers and 15 non-athletic, body mass index-matched controls. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were performed for the total body, regional areas (arms, total forearms, trunk, thoracic spine, pelvis, and legs), lumbar spine (L1-L4), left hip (total hip and femoral neck), and forearm (33 % radius of the dominant and nondominant forearm). Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide, visfatin, resistin, insulin, and glucose were determined. Comparative analyses showed significantly lower levels of body fat and higher lean body mass values in the rowers compared to the control group. The rowers also had significantly higher values of total and regional (left arm, trunk, thoracic spine, pelvis, and leg) BMD, as well as higher BMD values for the lumbar spine and the left hip. There were significant differences between the groups with respect to insulin, glucose, and the index of homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance. In conclusion, the systematic training of master rowers has beneficial effects on total and regional BMD and may be recommended for preventing osteoporosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recreational physical exercise in the water is predominantly based on aerobic metabolism. Since it involves both carbohydrate and lipid sources of energy, aqua aerobics has a beneficial effect on metabolism of these substrates. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a 3 month aqua aerobics training program on the metabolic profile of women with abdominal obesity. The study sample comprised 32 women aged 41–72 years. Somatic characteristics and variables characterizing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were measured before the commencement and after the completion of the training program. During the 2nd measurement all mean anthropometric variables were found to be significantly lower (p≤0.01). In the blood lipid profile, the concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HOMAIR were significantly lower (p<0.01). Furthermore, the levels of fasting triglycerides, glucose and insulin were reduced significantly (p≤0.05) after the training program. The aqua aerobics program contributed to positive changes in lipid metabolism, anthropometric variables, as well as the fasting insulin, glucose levels and insulin resistance index in women with abdominal obesity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This investigation examined the effect of supplementation with Biostimine, extract from aloe arborescens Mill. leaves, on the levels of pro-oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium markers and anti- and proinflammatory cytokines in rowers subjected to exhaustive exercise. This double-blind study included 18 members of the Polish Rowing Team. Subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 9), which received one ampoule of Biostimine once daily for 4 weeks, or to the placebo group (n = 9). Subjects performed a 2,000-meter-maximum test on a rowing ergometer at the beginning and end of the preparatory camp. Blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein before each exercise test, 1 min after completing the test and after a 24-hr recovery period. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity as well as the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were assessed in erythrocytes. In addition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and creatine kinase activity were measured in plasma samples, and cytokine (IL-6, IL-10) concentrations were determined in the serum. Before and after Biostimine supplementation, exercise significantly increased the values of SOD, IL-6, IL-10, and TBARS in both groups. However, postexercise and recovery levels of TBARS were significantly lower in athletes receiving Biostimine than in controls. After supplementation, TAC was the only variable with the level being significantly higher in the supplemented group than in the placebo group. Consequently, we can conclude that Biostimine supplementation reduces the postexercise level of TBARS by increasing the antioxidant activity of plasma but has no effect on inflammatory markers.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term cardiac rehabilitation (CR), including dietary counseling, had an impact on changing eating habits in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS), treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: The controlled, prospective, nonrandomized study was performed on 44 patients, early following ACS/PCI, who underwent 2- to 3-week inpatient CR with dietary counseling and compared to 18 patients who did not participate in CR. An analysis of the daily diet composition was performed at baseline, at 3 months post-ACS, and at 1 year post-ACS. Results: In the CR group, comparing baseline with 3 months post-ACS, daily calorie intake was significantly reduced from a mean ± SD of 2260 ± 525 kcal to 2037 ± 514 kcal (P < .05), and daily cholesterol intake from 509 ± 237 to 394 ± 199 mg (P < .05). The daily energy intake of saturated fatty acids was also significantly reduced from 13.6% at baseline to 12.2 ± 4.5% at 3 months and further reduced at 1 year post-ACS to 10.2 ± 4.3% (P < .05). Although both groups exhibited increased body mass index, the increase was significantly greater in the nonrehabilitation group than in the CR group at 1 year post-ACS (2.61 ± 2.23 vs 0.86 ± 1.67 kg/m, respectively, P < .001). Conclusions: The analysis suggests that a short-term CR program following ACS, which includes educational meetings on dietary prevention of atherosclerosis, may result in some favorable and lasting modifications of eating habits of post-ACS patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract There are no studies available that portray insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in ageing sprint-trained athletes. We compared male young and master sprint-trained athletes to endurance-trained and untrained individuals. We hypothesised that ageing sprint-trained athletes would preserve insulin sensitivity and β-cell function at a level similar to that of endurance-trained peers and better than in untrained individuals. We showed the associations between age and parameters derived from the updated Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2 model) in 52 sprint-trained track and field athletes (aged 20-90 years), 85 endurance runners (20-80 years) and 55 untrained individuals (20-70 years). Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were not associated with age in sprint-trained athletes. These variables remained relatively stable across a wide range of age and comparable to those observed in endurance-trained athletes. In contrast, the untrained group showed considerable age-related increase in fasting insulin and β-cell activity and a strong decrease in insulin sensitivity compared to both athletic groups. HOMA2 parameters were significantly related to maximal oxygen in the combined group of participants. In summary, chronic training based on a "sprint model" of physical activity, that contains mixed exercise, seems to be effective in maintaining normal insulin sensitivity with ageing.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sports training on the physiological response to supra-maximal exercise during consecutive phases of the annual training cycle. The study was carried out in volleyball players at the onset of each training phase. VO(2) max was determined by an indirect method using the Astand-Rhyming nomogram and biochemical analyses were performed before and after the Wingate test. Concentrations of lactate in capillary blood were measured and levels of glucose, insulin, visfatin, resistin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of serum and the total antioxidative status of plasma were determined using venous blood. Most significant differences with respect to physiological and biochemical variables centered around the pre-competitive phase when compared to other phases of the annual training cycle. Blood visfatin concentration in highly trained volleyball players is reduced by supra-maximal exercise, whereas levels of resistin remain relatively constant at rest. With the exception of the competitive phase, values of the insulin resistance index fit within the reference range. Levels of lipid peroxidation products were inversely correlated with the insulin resistance index and resistin concentrations. The physical training during the annual cycle does not affect resistin levels, but influences insulin, glucose and visfatin concentrations, along with markers of pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance in beach volleyball players.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone mineral density (BMD) were studied in relation to body mass and several inflammatory markers, in postmenopausal patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifty-nine postmenopausal women with active RA (lean, overweight, obese) were studied. The femoral BMD and serum levels of BTMs: osteocalcin (OC) and collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide fragments (CTX), and osteopontin (OPN), resistin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in these patients were measured. It has been noticed that obese women had significantly higher total femoral BMD and total T-score compared to the lean subjects (p ≤ 0.01). The significant associations of BMD measures and CTX levels with body mass parameters (p ≤ 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) were found. Values of neck BMD adjusted for BMI were inversely associated with concentrations of TNF-α (p < 0.05). Osteocalcin levels inversely correlated with resistin (p ≤ 0.01) and CTX levels positively correlated with OPN (p ≤ 0.01). There were found no associations between BTMs and BMD with other inflammatory indices. Inverse correlations between OPN levels and body mass (p < 0.05), waist circumference (p < 0.05), and duration of postmenopausal period (p ≤ 0.01) were observed. Findings of the present study suggest that body mass and inflammatory markers, most of all OPN, resistin and TNF-α, play an important role in bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with active RA.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. There is an increasing interest in the role of adipocytokines in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Aim. The aim of the study was to compare visfatin levels, a novel adipokine, in patients with heart failure (HF) due to the left ventricular systolic dysfunction with those in age- and body mass index (BMI) - matched healthy controls in relation to the parameters of glucose metabolism and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels. Material/Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 28 males with systolic HF referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing, divided into two subgroups based on their NYHA class (HF patients NYHA(I+II), n=17, and HF patients NYHA(III+IV,) n=11), and 23 controls. The following indices were measured in a serum samples: visfatin, hsCRP, glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, and the insulin resistance index HOMA(IR) (homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance) was calculated. Results. Concentrations of visfatin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) in the HF subjects were significantly lower (p≤0.01) than in controls. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences between three groups (controls and both subgroups of heart failure patients) in mean levels of visfatin, hsCRP, glucose, HOMA(IR) and HDL-cholesterol. Conclusion. Serum visfatin concentrations in patients with systolic HF, particularly with more advanced NYHA classes, are significantly lower in comparison to healthy controls and are independent of age or anthropometric and metabolic parameters.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of sport training on carbohydrate metabolic indices and adipokines concentrations in young male triathletes (n=10). Athletes performed the incremental running test in two periods of the training cycle: in the transitory and preparatory phases. In both analyzed terms, physical exercise was reflected by a significant increase in lactate (p≤0.01), insulin (p≤0.01), visfatin concentrations (p≤0.01, p<0.05, respectively) and only during transitory phase in glucose (p≤0.01) and resistin concentrations (p<0.05). Significant inter-period differences were noted in the pre-exercise insulin (p≤0.01) and also in pre- and post-exercise visfatin concentrations (p<0.05). Additionally, the differences (Δ) between post- and pre-exercise values of glucose (p<0.05) and visfatin (p≤0.01) significantly decreased in the preparatory phase comparing to the transitory phase. The inverse correlations between pre-exercise concentrations of visfatin and peak oxygen uptake (p<0.05) in the transitory phase and between post- and pre-exercise differences (Δ) of visfatin and lactate concentrations (p<0.05) in the preparatory phase were noted. During preparatory phase, pre-exercise visfatin concentrations inversely correlated with pre-exercise resistin, insulin and glucose levels (p<0.05). In conclusion, systematic training in elite triathletes modulates basal adipokine concentrations only to a small extent, however, influences on these molecules response on the acute exercise.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results of animal studies suggest that osteocalcin (OC) plays an important role in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between biochemical indices of bone turnover and carbohydrate metabolism in postmenopausal women subjected to aerobic training for 8 weeks. The study was conducted on 44 postmenopausal women: 27 of them participated in the training program, and 17 did not undertake any additional physical activity during the study period (control group). Subjects performed a cycle-ergometer physical workout at a level of 70% to 80% of ventilatory threshold intensity for 8 weeks (40-minute sessions, 3 times per week). Serum concentrations of OC, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, osteoprotegerin (OPG), insulin, and glucose were measured; and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated before and after the 8-week training program. The training program caused significant decrease in levels of OC (P < .05), HOMA-IR (P < .05), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < .05). No significant changes were observed in C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, OPG, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Pretraining OC levels inversely correlated with concentrations of OPG (P < .05), glucose (P < .05), and insulin (P < .05) and with HOMA-IR values (P < .05). Our study revealed an association between serum OC concentrations and metabolic markers in postmenopausal women. Regular physical activity was associated with decrease in central adiposity and OC levels and slight reduction of insulin resistance. However, no direct relationships between training-related changes in OC concentrations and metabolic markers were observed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of presented study was to verify the influence of aerobic physical activity program on the serum insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) concentrations in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. Somatic parameters and serum concentrations of insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were measured in 21 overweight and obese women, before and after 8-week cycloergometer physical workout and 16 age-matched, controls. Age of all studied women ranged from 54 to 78 years. The comparative analysis of biochemical indices measured before and after the training program showed that the systematic exercise cause the significant decrease in insulin (P<0.05) and IGF-1 concentrations (P<0.05). There were no differences in these parameters in controls over the studied period. The level of IGFBP-3 was not significantly changed in both investigated groups. In women participating in the training program the positive correlation (P<0.05) between changes in IGF-1 levels (Δ) and changes in insulin concentrations (Δ) within two terms of the study were found. The magnitude of changes (Δ) in insulin and IGF-1 levels over the study period correlated with their concentrations measured before the training program (P<0.01). Results of the present study indicate that regular aerobic physical activity decreases serum insulin and IGF-1 levels in postmenopausal women. The magnitude of insulin and IGF-1 concentration changes depend on their initial levels. Changes of IGF-1 levels are associated with insulin concentration modifications.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant superoxide dismutase extract (GliSODin) supplementation on the balance of oxidants and antioxidants in the serum and erythrocytes of competitive rowers. The double-blinded study included 19 members of the Polish rowing team who were participating in a preparatory camp. Subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 10), who received 2 capsules (500 mg) of GliSODin extract once daily for 6 weeks, or the placebo group (n = 9). At the beginning and end of the study, subjects performed a 2,000-m maximum-effort test on a rowing ergometer. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein before each exercise test, 1 min after completing the test, and after a 24-hr restitution period. The following redox parameters were assessed in erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and concentrations of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances. In addition, creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were measured in serum. After supplementation, SOD activity was significantly higher (p = .0037) in the supplemented group than the placebo group, and C-reactive protein was significantly (p = .00001) lower in athletes receiving GliSODin than those in the placebo group. In conclusion, supplementation with an extract rich in SOD activity promoted antioxidant status and protected against increased inflammation in the serum of professional rowers but had no effect on oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sports training on the physiological response to supra-maximal exercise during consecutive phases of the annual training cycle. The study was carried out in volleyball players at the onset of each training phase. VO2 max was determined by an indirect method using the Ästand-Rhyming nomogram and biochemical analyses were performed before and after the Wingate test. Concentrations of lactate in capillary blood were measured and levels of glucose, insulin, visfatin, resistin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of serum and the total antioxidative status of plasma were determined using venous blood. Most significant differences with respect to physiological and biochemical variables centered around the precompetitive phase when compared to other phases of the annual training cycle. Blood visfatin concentration in highly trained volleyball players is reduced by supra-maximal exercise, whereas levels of resistin remain relatively constant at rest. With the exception of the competitive phase, values of the insulin resistance index fit within the reference range. Levels of lipid peroxidation products were inversely correlated with the insulin resistance index and resistin concentrations. The physical training during the annual cycle does not affect resistin levels, but influences insulin, glucose and visfatin concentrations, along with markers of pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance in beach volleyball players.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The flavonoid-rich active compound in grapes is claimed to be one of the most important natural products. Hence, the objective of our research was to study parameters of the prooxidative-antioxidative balance in athletes supplied with Panace-Vid 2000® preparation consisting of black wine grape extract (Vitis vinifera). The study was carried out on 22 male rowers. The subjects from the supplemented group (n=10) were given one gelatin capsule containing Panace-Vid 2000® three times a day, for six weeks, while the control group (n=12) was given placebo. Before and after the supplementation period, the athletes performed a physical exercise test on the rowing ergometer; varying between 40 and 90% of maximal aerobic power. Each 3-min exercise session was followed by thirty seconds of rest. Blood was sampled from the rowers before the exercise test, one minute after its completion, and after a 24-h recovery period. The activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) was determined and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was measured in the hemolysate of red blood cells. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was determined in the blood plasma. The concentration of lactic acid was measured in the whole blood. An analysis of the results revealed that the supply of grape extract, in the form of Panace-Vid 2000® preparation, contributed to a significant increase in plasma antioxidative capacity and to an insignificant increase in superoxide dismutase, as well as a lower activity of glutathione peroxidase and reduced concentration of lipid peroxidation product levels.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and markers of bone turnover in male competitive masters athletes representing different training profile in the past and at present, aged 40-64 (14 endurance runners, and 12 speed-power athletes), and non-sport controls (n = 13). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of total body and regional aBMD, BMC and soft tissue composition were acquired. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured. Adjusted total and regional aBMD and BMC (covariates: body mass, body height and age) were significantly greater in all measured regions in speed-power athletes than in endurance athletes and control subjects, but adjusted aBMD and BMC values were not significantly different between endurance athletes and controls. No differences in bone formation (OC), bone resorption (CTX), and serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, TT, FT and IGF-1 were noted. This suggests that weight-bearing exercise in young age and the training continuation in later life may be an important contributor to the aBMD and BMC in the middle age and in the elderly. It seems also that training-related bone differences in men are not caused by present alterations in bone turn-over or somatotropic effects. However, conclusions must be drawn with caution due to a large variability of biochemical markers.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of supplementation with Krill oil on levels of pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance markers and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in professional rowers submitted to exhaustive exercise.This double-blind study included 17 members of the Polish National Rowing Team. Subjects were randomly assigned a supplemented group (n=9) which received two capsules (500 mg) of Krill oil daily for 6 weeks, or a placebo group (n=8). At the beginning and at the end of preparatory camp, subjects performed a 2000 m maximum effort test on a rowing ergometer. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein prior to each exercise test, 1 minute after completing the test, and after 24-hours of rest. The following redox parameters were assessed in erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration. Additionally, creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured in plasma samples, while tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) concentrations were measured in the serum.Exercise significantly increased values of SOD, TNF-α and TBARS in both groups, but recovery levels of TBARS were significantly lower in athletes receiving Krill oil compared with the control group.Based on these results we conclude that supplementation with Krill oil (1 g per day) in trained rowers diminished post exercise oxidative damage to erythrocytes during recovery, but had no effect on antioxidant enzymes, TNF-α and serum lipid profiles.
University School of Physical EducationPosen, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland