[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a complex disease with various causes, such as estrogen loss, genetics, and aging. Here we show that a dominant-negative form of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) protein, ALDH2*2, which is produced by a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs671), promotes osteoporosis due to impaired osteoblastogenesis. Aldh2 plays a role in alcohol-detoxification by acetaldehyde-detoxification; however, transgenic mice expressing Aldh2*2 (Aldh2*2 Tg) exhibited severe osteoporosis with increased levels of blood acetaldehyde without alcohol consumption, indicating that Aldh2 regulates physiological bone homeostasis. Wild-type osteoblast differentiation was severely inhibited by exogenous acetaldehyde, and osteoblastic markers such as osteocalcin, runx2, and osterix expression, or phosphorylation of Smad1,5,8 induced by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was strongly altered by acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde treatment also inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in osteoblasts. The Aldh2*2 transgene or acetaldehyde treatment induced accumulation of the lipid-oxidant 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a transcription factor that promotes adipogenesis and inhibits osteoblastogenesis. Antioxidant treatment inhibited acetaldehyde-induced proliferation-loss, apoptosis, and PPARγ expression and restored osteoblastogenesis inhibited by acetaldehyde. Treatment with a PPARγ inhibitor also restored acetaldehyde-mediated osteoblastogenesis inhibition. These results provide new insight into regulation of osteoporosis in a subset of individuals with ALDH2*2 and in alcoholic patients and suggest a novel strategy to promote bone formation in such osteopenic diseases.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage lineage cells such as osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) form multinuclear cells by cell-cell fusion
of mononuclear cells. Recently, we reported that two seven-transmembrane molecules, osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein
(OC-STAMP) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), were essential for osteoclast and FBGC cell-cell
fusion in vivo and in vitro. However, signaling required to regulate FBGC fusion remained largely unknown. Here, we show that signal transducer and activator
of transcription 1 (STAT1) deficiency in macrophages enhanced cell-cell fusion and elevated DC-STAMP expression in FBGCs. By contrast, lack of STAT6 increased STAT1 activation, significantly inhibiting cell-cell fusion and
decreasing OC-STAMP and DC-STAMP expression in IL-4-induced FBGCs. Furthermore, either STAT1 loss or co-expression of OC-STAMP/DC-STAMP was sufficient to
induce cell-cell fusion of FBGCs without IL-4. We conclude that the STAT6-STAT1 axis regulates OC-STAMP and DC-STAMP expression and governs fusogenic mechanisms in FBGCs.
Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone resorption, which is regulated by osteoclasts, is excessively activated in bone destructive diseases such as osteoporosis. Thus, controlling osteoclasts would be an effective strategy to prevent pathological bone loss. Although several transcription factors that regulate osteoclast differentiation and function could serve as molecular targets to inhibit osteoclast formation, those factors have not yet been characterized using a loss of function approach in adults. Here we report such a study showing that inactivation of B-lymphocyte induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) in adult mice increases bone mass by suppressing osteoclast formation. Using an ex vivo assay, we show that osteoclast differentiation is significantly inhibited by Blimp1 inactivation at an early stage of osteoclastogenesis. Conditional inactivation of Blimp1 inhibited osteoclast formation and increased bone mass in both male and female adult mice. Bone resorption parameters were significantly reduced by Blimp1 inactivation in vivo. Blimp1 reportedly regulates immune cell differentiation and function, but we detected no immune cell failure following Blimp1 inactivation. These data suggest that Blimp1 is a potential target to promote increased bone mass and prevent osteoclastogenesis.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell–cell fusion is a dynamic phenomenon promoting cytoskeletal reorganization and phenotypic changes. To characterize factors essential for fusion of macrophage lineage cells, we identified the multitransmembrane protein, osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP), and analyzed its function. OC-STAMP–deficient mice exhibited a complete lack of cell–cell fusion of osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells (FBGCs), both of which are macrophage-lineage multinuclear cells, although expression of dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), which is also essential for osteoclast/FBGC fusion, was normal. Crossing OC-STAMP–overexpressing transgenic mice with OC-STAMP–deficient mice restored inhibited osteoclast and FBGC cell–cell fusion seen in OC-STAMP–deficient mice. Thus, fusogenic mechanisms in macrophage-lineage cells are regulated via OC-STAMP and DC-STAMP.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone defects caused by traumatic bone loss or tumor dissection are now treated with auto- or allo-bone graft, and also occasionally by artificial bone transplantation, particularly in the case of large bone defects. However, artificial bones often exhibit poor affinity to host bones followed by bony union failure. Thus therapies combining artificial bones with growth factors have been sought. Here we report that platelet derived growth factor bb (PDGFBB) promotes a significant increase in migration of PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα)-positive mesenchymal stem cells/pre-osteoblastic cells into artificial bone in vivo. Growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) reportedly inhibit osteoblast differentiation; however, PDGFBB did not exhibit such inhibitory effects and in fact stimulated osteoblast differentiation in vitro, suggesting that combining artificial bones with PDGFBB treatment could promote host cell migration into artificial bones without inhibiting osteoblastogenesis.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a specific bone marrow (BM) niche in cavities formed by osteoclasts. Osteoclast-deficient mice are osteopetrotic and exhibit closed BM cavities. Osteoclast activity is inversely correlated with hematopoietic activity; however, how osteoclasts and the BM cavity potentially regulate hematopoiesis is not well understood. To investigate this question, we evaluated hematopoietic activity in three osteopetrotic mouse models: op/op, c-Fos-deficient, and RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand)-deficient mice. We show that, although osteoclasts and, by consequence, BM cavities are absent in these animals, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor injection was comparable or even higher in all three lines compared with wild-type mice. In contrast, osteoprotegerin-deficient mice, which have increased numbers of osteoclasts, showed reduced HSPC mobilization. BM-deficient patients and mice reportedly maintain hematopoiesis in extramedullary spaces, such as spleen; however, splenectomized op/op mice did not show reduced HSPC mobilization. Interestingly, we detected an HSC population in osteopetrotic bone of op/op mice, and pharmacological ablation of osteoclasts in wild-type mice did not inhibit, and even increased, HSPC mobilization. These results suggest that osteoclasts are dispensable for HSC mobilization and may function as negative regulators in the hematopoietic system.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controlling osteoclastogenesis is critical to maintain physiological bone homeostasis and prevent skeletal disorders. Although signaling activating nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), a transcription factor essential for osteoclastogenesis, has been intensively investigated, factors antagonistic to NFATc1 in osteoclasts have not been characterized. Here, we describe a novel pathway that maintains bone homeostasis via two transcriptional repressors, B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) and B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp1). We show that Bcl6 directly targets 'osteoclastic' molecules such as NFATc1, cathepsin K, and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), all of which are targets of NFATc1. Bcl6-overexpression inhibited osteoclastogenesis in vitro, whereas Bcl6-deficient mice showed accelerated osteoclast differentiation and severe osteoporosis. We report that Bcl6 is a direct target of Blimp1 and that mice lacking Blimp1 in osteoclasts exhibit osteopetrosis caused by impaired osteoclastogenesis resulting from Bcl6 up-regulation. Indeed, mice doubly mutant in Blimp1 and Bcl6 in osteoclasts exhibited decreased bone mass with increased osteoclastogenesis relative to osteoclast-specific Blimp1-deficient mice. These results reveal a Blimp1-Bcl6-osteoclastic molecule axis, which critically regulates bone homeostasis by controlling osteoclastogenesis and may provide a molecular basis for novel therapeutic strategies.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that plays a critical role in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes. Here, we describe that multinuclear osteoclast formation was significantly inhibited in cells derived from MCP-1-deficient mice. MCP-1 has been implicated in the regulation of osteoclast cell-cell fusion; however defects of multinuclear osteoclast formation in the cells from mice deficient in DC-STAMP, a seven transmembrane receptor essential for osteoclast cell-cell fusion, was not rescued by recombinant MCP-1. The lack of MCP-1 in osteoclasts resulted in a down-regulation of DC-STAMP, NFATc1, and cathepsin K, all of which were highly expressed in normal osteoclasts, suggesting that osteoclast differentiation was inhibited in MCP-1-deficient cells. MCP-1 alone did not induce osteoclastogenesis, however, the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in MCP-1-deficient cells was restored by addition of recombinant MCP-1, indicating that osteoclastogenesis was regulated in an autocrine/paracrine manner by MCP-1 under the stimulation of RANKL in osteoclasts.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications