E. B. Schwarz

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (32)83.8 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Contraception
  • Eleanor Bimla Schwarz
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding the ways in which lactation affects maternal health. The accompanying article by Palmer et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;000(00):000-000), particularly their finding that prepregnancy obesity modifies the relationship between lactation and postpartum weight gain, makes an important contribution to this field. In this commentary, I discuss these findings within the context of other recent literature which indicates that whether or not a mother breastfeeds her newborn appears to be a powerful predictor of the mother's future risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, independent of maternal weight or body mass index in later life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · American journal of epidemiology
  • Eleanor B Schwarz · Melissa Nothnagle

    No preview · Article · May 2015 · American family physician
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    Jessica Lee · Melissa Papic · Erin Baldauf · Glenn Updike · E Bimla Schwarz
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    ABSTRACT: To assess how a checklist reminding clinicians to deliver a bundled intervention affects contraceptive knowledge and use 3 months after women seek walk-in pregnancy testing. Pre-intervention, an inner-city family planning clinic provided unstructured care; during the intervention period, clinic staff used a checklist to ensure women received needed services. Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing who wished to avoid pregnancy for at least 6 months were asked to complete surveys about their contraceptive knowledge and use immediately after and 3-months after visiting the study clinic. To assess the significance of changes over time, we used logistic regression models. Between January 2011 and May 2013, over 1500 women sought pregnancy testing from the study clinic; 323 completed surveys (95 pre-intervention and 228 during the intervention period). With this checklist intervention, participants were more likely to receive emergency contraception (EC) (22% vs. 5%, aOR=4.64, 95% CI 1.77-12.17), have an intrauterine device or implant placed at the time of their clinic visit (5% vs. 0%, p=0.02), or receive a contraceptive prescription (23% vs. 10%, p<0.001). Three months after visiting the study clinic, participants from the intervention period were more knowledgeable about intrauterine and subdermal contraception and were more likely to be using intrauterine, subdermal or injectable contraception (aOR=2.18, 95% CI 1.09-4.35). Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing appear more likely to receive EC and to have switched to a more effective form of birth control in the 3 months following their visit when clinic staff used a 3-item checklist and provided scripted counseling. A checklist reminding clinic staff to assess pregnancy intentions, provide scripted counseling about both emergency and highly-effective reversible contraception, and offer same-day contraceptive initiation to women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing appears to increase use of more effective contraception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Contraception
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    E Bimla Schwarz
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past 20 years, the Women Veterans Health Care group has rolled out numerous initiatives designed to improve access and quality of care for the rapidly growing population of women veterans,1 guided by the vision that if “you served, you deserve the best care anywhere.” Since 2008, the Veterans Administration (VA) “mini-residency” program has trained over 1,850 primary care providers in women’s health care, with the goal of offering comprehensive primary care for women at all VA sites. VA rates of screening for cervical and breast cancer are now higher than those reported in most private sector settings,2 as are gender-neutral measures of quality care such as screening for colorectal cancer and management of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes.2 However, our nation’s solemn obligation “to care for [all those] who shall have borne the battle” remains a challenge and a focus of coast-to-coast attention.In this paper by Gerber et al., women veterans are found to be receiving ...
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of General Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Obese women are less likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding. We described barriers to breastfeeding and examined the association between support from a health professional and breastfeeding knowledge and practices, by prepregnancy obesity status. Methods: Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a cohort of U.S. women (N = 2,997), we performed descriptive statistics to describe barriers to breastfeeding by prepregnancy obesity status. We conducted multivariable regression to examine the association of breastfeeding support from a physician or nonphysician health professional with knowledge of the recommended duration of breastfeeding, breastfeeding initiation, and breastfeeding duration, and whether breastfeeding support had different associations with outcomes by prepregnancy obesity status. Average marginal effects were calculated from regression models to interpret results as percentage-point changes. Findings: Believing that formula was as good as breast milk was the most commonly cited reason for not initiating breastfeeding, and milk supply concerns were cited as reasons for not continuing breastfeeding. Physician breastfeeding support was associated with a 9.4 percentage-point increase (p < .05) in breastfeeding knowledge among obese women, although no increase was observed among nonobese women. Breastfeeding support from a physician or nonphysician health professional was associated with a significantly increased probability of breastfeeding initiation (8.5 and 12.5 percentage points, respectively) and breastfeeding for 6 months (12.5 and 8.4 percentage points, respectively), without differential associations by prepregnancy obesity. Conclusions: Support for exclusive breastfeeding is an important predictor of breastfeeding initiation and duration among obese and nonobese women. Health educational interventions tailored to obese women might improve their breastfeeding initiation and continuation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Women s Health Issues
  • J. Lee · M. Papic · S. Parisi · E. Baldauf · G. Updike · E. B. Schwarz

    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: Background Obese women are less likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding. We described barriers to breastfeeding and examined the association between support from a health professional and breastfeeding knowledge and practices, by prepregnancy obesity status. Methods Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a cohort of U.S. women (N = 2,997), we performed descriptive statistics to describe barriers to breastfeeding by prepregnancy obesity status. We conducted multivariable regression to examine the association of breastfeeding support from a physician or nonphysician health professional with knowledge of the recommended duration of breastfeeding, breastfeeding initiation, and breastfeeding duration, and whether breastfeeding support had different associations with outcomes by prepregnancy obesity status. Average marginal effects were calculated from regression models to interpret results as percentage-point changes. Findings Believing that formula was as good as breast milk was the most commonly cited reason for not initiating breastfeeding, and milk supply concerns were cited as reasons for not continuing breastfeeding. Physician breastfeeding support was associated with a 9.4 percentage-point increase (p < .05) in breastfeeding knowledge among obese women, although no increase was observed among nonobese women. Breastfeeding support from a physician or nonphysician health professional was associated with a significantly increased probability of breastfeeding initiation (8.5 and 12.5 percentage points, respectively) and breastfeeding for 6 months (12.5 and 8.4 percentage points, respectively), without differential associations by prepregnancy obesity. Conclusions Support for exclusive breastfeeding is an important predictor of breastfeeding initiation and duration among obese and nonobese women. Health educational interventions tailored to obese women might improve their breastfeeding initiation and continuation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 150 women annually become pregnant while taking isotretinoin despite participation in the iPLEDGE program. Noncompliance with the requirement to be abstinent or use 2 contraceptive methods may be a contributing factor. We sought to determine the degree of adherence to contraception or abstinence among women taking isotretinoin. We conducted an anonymous survey of women of childbearing potential taking isotretinoin for at least 2 months. Among 75 participants, 21 (28%) chose abstinence as their primary means of pregnancy prevention, of whom 4 (19%) were sexually active during treatment. The most commonly chosen contraceptive methods among the 39 women who were sexually active were condoms (35, 90%) and oral contraceptive pills (18, 46%). Twelve women (31%) admitted to having intercourse at least once using 1 or fewer forms of contraception; 10 failed to use condoms, and 1 reported completely unprotected intercourse. Among sexually active oral contraceptive pill users, 7 (39%) reported missing 1 or more pills in the previous month. Data were self-reported, thus participants may have inaccurately reported contraception use. Encouraging the use of highly effective, patient-independent contraception and limiting abstinence to women who have never been sexually active may further reduce the rate of isotretinoin-exposed pregnancies.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • Eleanor Bimla Schwarz
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death of women around the world. Diet, exercise, smoking cessation, and blood pressure control are all recognized as key elements of preventing cardiovascular disease. Infant feeding has received less attention, but the studies reviewed here indicate that lactation may also play an important role in determining women's future risk of heart disease. A growing body of literature indicates that mothers who prematurely discontinue lactation face increased risk of visceral adiposity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and subclinical cardiovascular disease, as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Breastfeeding is not always easy, but neither is dieting, exercise, smoking cessation, or treating hypertension. In order to effectively fight heart disease, efforts are needed to promote all aspects of a healthy lifestyle, which for women includes breastfeeding their babies.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Breastfeeding Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the adherence to hormonal contraception (pill, patch, ring, or injectable) among women veterans and examine the relationships between race/ethnicity and the months of contraceptive supply dispensed with contraceptive adherence. Study design: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) national databases to examine the adherence to hormonal contraception over 12 months among women aged 18-45 years who had hormonal contraceptive coverage during the first week of fiscal year 2008. We examined several adherence indicators including gaps between refills and months of contraceptive coverage. Descriptive statistics and multivariable models were used to examine the associations between race/ethnicity and contraceptive supply dispensed with adherence. Results: Our cohort included 6946 women: 47% were white, 6% were Hispanic, 22% were black, and 25% were other race or had missing race information. Most women (83%) received a 3 month supply of contraception at each fill. More than 64% of women had at least 1 gap in coverage of 7 days or longer. Only 22% of women received a full 12 months of contraception without any gaps (perfect adherence). Compared with whites, Hispanics were significantly more likely to experience gaps (64% vs 70%; P = .02), and Hispanics and blacks received fewer months of contraceptive coverage (9.3 vs 8.9 and 9.0, P < .001). Compared with women receiving 3 month supplies, those receiving 1 month supplies had a higher likelihood of a gap (63% vs 72%, P < .001), fewer months of coverage (9.3 vs 6.9, P < .001), and a lower likelihood of perfect adherence (22% vs 11%, P < .001). Conclusion: Adherence to hormonal contraception among women veterans is poor. Efforts to improve contraceptive adherence and lower risk of unintended pregnancy are needed; dispensing more months of supply for hormonal contraception may be a promising strategy.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · American journal of obstetrics and gynecology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Contraception
  • Elizabeth Westley · Eleanor Bimla Schwarz

    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Contraception
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Contraception
  • A. Gariepy · M. D. Creinin · E. B. Schwarz · K. J. Smith

    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Contraception

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Contraception
  • H. Xu · S. M. Parisi · E. B. Schwarz

    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Contraception
  • J. K. Lee · S. M. Parisi · E. B. Schwarz

    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Contraception
  • J. A. Russo · S. M. Parisi · M. D. Creinin · E. B. Schwarz

    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Contraception
  • E. B. Schwarz · S. Parisi · G. Fischer · S. Handler · R. Hess

    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Contraception

Publication Stats

247 Citations
83.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2015
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2008-2014
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2009
    • Magee-Womens Hospital
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States