- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TePixD is a blue-light sensor protein from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (TePixD Tll0078). Although the photochemistry has been examined, so far the photoproduct remains unknown. We have measured the diffusion coefficient (D) of TePixD in the dark by dynamic light scattering and have discovered a very peculiar diffusion property; the decamer oligomer has a larger D than that of the pentamer. Furthermore, D of the pentamer was found to be very close to that of the TePixD decamer photoreaction product. In order to investigate this reaction further, elution profiles of size-exclusion chromatography were measured under dark and illuminated conditions at low (40 μM) and high (1.1 mM) TePixD concentrations. On the basis of these results, we have concluded that the main photoreaction of the TePixD decamer is the dissociation into the pentamer. The secondary structure change associated with this reaction was found to be minor according to circular dichroism analysis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PixD (Slr1694) is a blue light receptor that contains a BLUF (blue light sensors using a flavin chromophore) domain. A protein-protein interaction between PixD and a response regulator PixE (Slr1693) is essential to achieve light signal transduction for phototaxis of the species. Although the initial photochemical reaction of PixD, the red shift of the flavin absorption spectrum, has been investigated, the subsequent reaction dynamics remain largely unresolved. Only the disassembly of the PixD(10)-PixE(5) dark complex has been characterized by static size exclusion chromatography. In this report, interprotein reaction dynamics were examined using time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy. The dissociation process was clearly observed as the light-induced diffusion coefficient change in the time domain, and the kinetics was determined. More strikingly, disassembly was found to take place only after photoactivation of two PixD subunits in the complex. This result suggests that the biological response of PixD does not follow a linear correlation with the light intensity but appears to be light-intensity-dependent.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The light-induced reaction of the BLUF (blue light photoreceptor using flavin adenine dinucleotide) photoreceptor PixD from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Slr1694) was investigated using the time-resolved transient grating method. A conformational change coupled with a volume contraction of 13 mL mol(-1) was observed with a time constant of 45 ms following photoexcitation. At a weak excitation light intensity, there were no further changes in volume and diffusion coefficient (D). The determined D-value (3.7×10(-11) m(2) s(-1)) suggests that PixD exists as a decamer in solution, and this oligomeric state was confirmed by size-exclusion chromatography and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Surprisingly, by increasing the excitation laser power, we observed a large increase in D with a time constant of 350 ms following the volume contraction reaction. The D-value of this photoproduct species (7.5×10(-11) m(2) s(-1)) is close to that of the PixD dimer. Combined with transient grating and size-exclusion chromatography measurements under light-illuminated conditions, the light-induced increase in D was attributed to a transient dissociation reaction of the PixD decamer to a dimer. For the M93A-mutated PixD, no volume or D-change was observed. Furthermore, we showed that the M93A mutant did not form the decamer but only the dimer in the dark state. These results indicate that the formation of the decamer and the conformational change around the Met residue are important factors that control the regulation of the downstream signal transduction by the PixD photoreceptor.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TePixD, a cyanobacterial sensor of blue light using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (BLUF) which exists in a decamer form, was found to exhibit photoreaction sensitive to light intensity. While the number of excited molecules increased monotonically as the laser power increased, the number of decamers exhibiting a global conformational change initially increased, and then decreased with the increase of excitation intensity. This unusual power dependence was analyzed based on a Poisson distribution equation, demonstrating that decamers containing more than one excited monomer subunit do not undergo conformational change. Our results suggest that TePixD functions not only as a photosensor, but also by sensing light intensity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To reveal macromolecular crowding effects on a chemical reaction of a BLUF (sensors of blue light using FAD) protein (PixD from a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 [TePixD, Tll0078]), the photoreaction was studied at various concentrations of the macromolecule Ficoll-70 by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy and the pulsed laser-induced transient grating (TG) method. The absorption spectrum did not change with varying concentration of Ficoll-70. The crowding did not affect the quantum yield of the spectral red shift reaction, recovery rate of the product, rate constant of the volume change reaction and the magnitude of the volume change. However, the magnitude of the TG signal representing the diffusion-sensitive conformation change significantly increased on addition of Ficoll-70. This dependence was attributed to the crowding effect on the TePixD decamer-pentamer equilibrium in the solution. This result indicates that the TePixD reaction is more efficient in cellular than in in vitro conditions.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The photochemical reaction dynamics of a BLUF (sensors of blue light using FAD) protein, PixD, from a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (TePixD, Tll0078) were studied by pulsed laser-induced transient grating method. After the formation of an intermediate species with a red-shifted absorption spectrum, two new reaction phases reflecting protein conformational changes were discovered; one reaction phase manifested itself as expansion of partial molar volume with a time constant of 40 micros, whereas the other reaction phase represented a change in the diffusion coefficient D [i.e., the diffusion-sensitive conformational change (DSCC)]. D decreased from 4.9 x 10(-11) to 4.4 x 10(-11) m2 s(-1) upon the formation of the first intermediate, and subsequently showed a more pronounced decrease to 3.2 x 10(-11) m2 s(-1) upon formation of the second intermediate. From a global analysis of signals at various grating wavenumbers, the time constant of D-change was determined to be 4 ms. Although the magnitude and rate constant of the faster volume change were independent of protein concentration, the amplitude of the signal that reflects the later DSCC significantly decreased as the protein concentration decreased. This concentration dependence suggests that two species exist in solution: a reactive species exhibiting the DSCC, and a second species that is nonreactive. The fraction of these species was found to be dependent on the concentration. The difference in reactivity was attributed to the different oligomeric states of TePixD (i.e., pentamer and decamer). The equilibrium of these states in the dark was confirmed by size-exclusion chromatography at various concentrations. These results demonstrated that only the decamer state is responsible for the conformational change. The results may suggest that the oligomeric state is functionally important in the signal transduction of this photosensory protein.