[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) among K. pneumoniae is endemic in southern Europe. We retrospectively analyzed the impact of resistance on the appropriateness of empirical therapy and treatment outcomes of K. pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSIs) during a 2-year period at a 1420-bed tertiary-care teaching hospital in northern Italy. We identified 217 unique patient BSIs, including 92 (42%) KPC-positive, 49 (23%) ESBL-positive, and 1 (0.5%) metallo-beta-lactamase-positive isolates. Adequate empirical therapy was administered in 74% of infections caused by non-ESBL non-KPC strains, versus 33% of ESBL and 23% of KPC cases (p < 0.0001). To clarify the impact of resistance on BSI treatment outcomes, we compared several different models comprised of non-antibiotic treatment-related factors predictive of patients' 30-day survival status. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score determined at the time of positive blood culture was superior to other investigated models, correctly predicting survival status in 83% of the study cohort. In multivariate analysis accounting for APACHE II, receipt of inadequate empirical therapy was associated with nearly a twofold higher rate of death (adjusted hazard ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.4; p = 0.02). Multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae accounted for two-thirds of all K. pneumoniae BSIs, high rates of inappropriate empirical therapy, and twofold higher rates of patient death irrespective of underlying illness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amiodarone, which has been used since 1967 as an antiarrhythmic drug, gives rise to a variety of cardiac and extracardiac adverse side-effects. Among these, pulmonary toxicity is considered the most frequent and serious extracardiac side-effect, since it may occur in various atypical forms and often limits the drug's clinical use. We encountered a 67-year-old white male patient with suspected amiodarone pneumonitis characterized by multiple lung nodules associated with pleural and pericardial effusion and peripheral neuropathy. Because differential diagnosis with pulmonary infectious diseases may be extremely difficult, the attending physician should therefore bear in mind the possibility of amiodarone pneumonitis whenever the drug is given.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Aging clinical and experimental research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Acute infective endocarditis is a potentially life-threatening disease. Its outcome strongly depends on systemic embolization and extracardiac infections. When present, these conditions usually lead to a more aggressive therapeutic approach. However, the diagnosis of peripheral septic embolism is very challenging. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has proven to be accurate for the detection of inflammatory diseases and occult infections. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of extracardiac embolisms in the evaluation of patients with suspected valvular endocarditis (VE).
Seventy-one patients with suspected infective endocarditis, enrolled between June 2010 and December 2012, underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT with the standard procedure on a dedicated PET/CT scanner. Extracardiac findings were subsequently evaluated with other imaging procedures.
Of the 71 patients with suspicion of infective endocarditis, we found unexpected extracardiac findings in 17 patients (24%) without any clinical suspicion. Extracardiac findings were subsequently evaluated with other imaging procedures.
PET/CT detected unexpected extra sites of infection in 24% of cases, leading to changes in therapeutic management in a very relevant percentage of patients. These findings may have important therapeutic implications.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · European Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Recent studies have shown that rosuvastatin significantly decreases serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers and slows progression of carotid atherosclerosis in the general population. However, there are no data about its effect on progression of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients. Adult patients with HIV infection, on stable antiretroviral therapy, with asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia, who started a rosuvastatin treatment at 10 mg daily during the period 2007-2009 were enrolled and followed-up for 24 months. Thirty-six patients (30 males) were enrolled, with a mean age of 49 years, a mean duration of current antiretroviral therapy of 38 months, and a mean 10-year risk of myocardial infarction of 18.5%. Rosuvastatin led to a significant decrease in mean values of intima-media thickness in all extracranial carotid arteries, with the greatest magnitude observed in carotid bifurcations (a mean decrease of 18.7% in the right artery and of 21.4% in the left artery) and in internal carotid arteries (a mean decrease of 23.7% in the right artery and of 25.6% in the left artery). Moreover, there was a significant reduction in mean levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides versus respective baseline values associated with a significantly decreased mean cardiovascular risk. The treatment with rosuvastatin was well tolerated, and serious adverse events were not reported. A 24-month treatment with rosuvastatin in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with subclinical atherosclerosis and a moderate cardiovascular risk seems to promote significantly favorable changes in carotid atherosclerosis, associated with a favorable effect on serum lipid levels and a good tolerability profile.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · AIDS research and human retroviruses
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
We performed a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected antiretroviral-naïve patients starting a first antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir/emtricitabine plus efavirenz (EFV), atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r), or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r).
The incidence of renal impairment or proximal tubular dysfunction was evaluated during a 12-month follow-up. Renal impairment was diagnosed by a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula, and tubular dysfunction was diagnosed when ≥ 2 among proteinuria, glucosuria, hypouricaemia, hypophosphataemia, and hypokalaemia, were identified.
A total of 235 patients were enrolled: 82 taking EFV, 78 ATV/r, and 75 LPV/r. The mean decline in eGFR after the 12-month follow-up was significantly greater in subjects treated with ATV/r (-10.4 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) than in those receiving EFV (- 5.1; p = 0.002) or LPV/r (-4.8; p = 0.003). Similarly, a significantly higher incidence of proximal tubulopathy was observed among ATV/r-treated patients (14.1%) compared with patients receiving EFV (4.9%) or LPV/r (5.3%).
In our retrospective study, naïve patients receiving tenofovir/emtricitabine and ATV/r for 12 months showed a significantly higher decline in eGFR and a significantly higher incidence of proximal tubulopathy than those receiving tenofovir/emtricitabine plus EFV or LPV/r, even though clinically evident renal toxicity associated with tenofovir-based treatment is a very uncommon event.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An otherwise healthy young man had infectious mononucleosis detected after an atypical clinical onset, including myocarditis and pericarditis. Our patient slowly but completely recovered from his cardiac complications after the course of his primary Epstein-Barr infection, as shown by periodical electrocardiographic and ultrasonographic studies, and a simple treatment with aspirin alone. Our case report is briefly reported, and discussed with regard to the existing literature, which has recorded such complications since the mid 1940s.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins are lipid-lowering drugs that exhibit anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory properties, leading to a reduction of serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the general population.
Because very limited data are available today, our objective was to assess the lipid-lowering effects of statins and their capacity to decrease selected soluble markers of inflammation in HIV-infected patients.
Retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected adult patients with hypercholesterolemia who were receiving a stable antiretroviral regimen including a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor and who started a lipid-lowering therapy with rosuvastatin (10 mg daily), atorvastatin (10 mg daily), or pravastatin (40 mg daily) and were followed-up for at least 12 months. One hundred and fifty-one patients were enrolled in the study: 51 in the rosuvastatin group, 47 in the atorvastatin group, and 53 in the pravastatin group. The primary observation was change in plasma lipid levels and serum markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF- α]), while secondary observations include immunovirological parameters and safety profile of statins.
One year after starting the statin therapy, patients treated with rosuvastatin had significantly greater decreases in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than subjects on atorvastatin or pravastatin. All statins led to a similar, significant reduction in serum levels of hsCRP and TNF-α, without correlation between biomarkers and lipid values, and toxicity rates were similar for all 3 statins.
Our findings suggest that rosuvastatin has a significantly greater lipid-lowering effect than atorvastatin or pravastatin, but all 3 statins exert a similar effect in lowering markers of inflammation as hsCRP and TNF-α.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · HIV Clinical Trials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An observational, open-label study was performed to assess changes of lopinavir/ritonavir plasma concentrations during pregnancy.
Adult HIV-1-infected women during the third trimester of pregnancy and on stable antiretroviral treatment including zidovudine/lamivudine plus lopinavir/ritonavir tablets (400/100 mg twice daily) were asked to participate. This group was compared with a group of non-pregnant HIV-1-infected women receiving the same antiretroviral regimen. The trough plasma concentration (C(trough)) of lopinavir and ritonavir was assessed at steady-state by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry method.
A total of 41 HIV-positive female patients were enrolled in the study, with a median age of 28 y (range 20-37 y). These patients were stratified into 2 groups: 21 women in the third trimester of pregnancy (group A) and 20 non-pregnant women (group B). The geometric mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) plasma C(trough) of lopinavir was 4205 (2418-6896) ng/ml in group A and 5098 (3187-8084) ng/ml in group B. The reduction in lopinavir plasma levels observed in group A was not significant (geometric mean ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.62-1.32; p = 0.411). No correlation was found between lopinavir plasma levels and adverse events (such as diarrhoea and hyperlipidaemia) or immunological parameters of HIV disease, and no changes in plasma HIV viral load were reported.
In this study, a slight but not significant decrease in the plasma lopinavir C(trough) was found during the third trimester of pregnancy, suggesting that standard dosing of the tablet formulation is also appropriate during the later stages of pregnancy.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better evaluate the renal safety profile of tenofovir, we performed a retrospective study of HIV-infected antiretroviral-naïve patients starting a first antiretroviral therapy between July 2004 and July 2008, and followed-up for 24 months. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the MDRD formula, and tubular dysfunction was diagnosed with 2 or more of the following: proteinuria, glucosuria, hypouricemia, hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia. Overall, 324 patients were enrolled: 201 were tenofovir-exposed and were compared with 123 tenofovir-unexposed subjects. In both the unadjusted and adjusted analyses, tenofovir-exposed subjects had a significantly greater decline in GFR and a significantly higher incidence of proximal tubular dysfunction through 24 months. Reduced glomerular and tubular functions were significantly associated with older age, diabetes, hypertension and concomitant therapy with a protease inhibitor.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic complications of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients include insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and lipodystrophy syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is an aggregation of central obesity with glucose and lipid metabolism alterations that confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which reproduces the antiretroviral-associated metabolic and morphological abnormalities. In this study, we report the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hyperinsulinaemia and metabolic syndrome among 755 adult patients with HIV-1 infection referred to our outpatients unit. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome was 4.5% and 9.1%, respectively. A longer exposure to antiretroviral therapy and a diagnosis of lipodystrophy syndrome were significantly associated with both metabolic disturbances.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · International Journal of STD & AIDS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several outbreaks of measles were reported after the year 2006 in various Italian regions, including Piemonte, Lombardy, Tuscany, Veneto and Emilia Romagna. Most reported cases occurred in the Piemonte region where a major outbreak began in September 2007 among a group of unvaccinated adolescents. This report is a preliminary description of the main epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of 26 confirmed cases of measles diagnosed at the Institute of Infectious Diseases of the S. Orsola Hospital in Bologna in the northern Italian region of Emilia Romagna between December 2007 and May 2008.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive