[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies consistently find that diets rich in whole-grain (WG) cereals lead to decreased risk of disease compared with refined grain (RG)-based diets. Aside from a greater amount of fiber and micronutrients, possible mechanisms for why WGs may be beneficial for health remain speculative. In an exploratory, randomized, researcher-blinded, crossover trial, we measured metabolic profile differences between healthy participants eating a diet based on WGs compared with a diet based on RGs. Seventeen healthy adult participants (11 female, 6 male) consumed a controlled diet based on either WG-rich or RG-rich foods for 2 wk, followed by the other diet after a 5-wk washout period. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. The metabolic profiles of plasma, urine, and fecal water were measured using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (plasma only). After 1 wk of intervention, the WG diet led to decreases in urinary excretion of metabolites related to protein catabolism (urea, methylguanadine), lipid (carnitine and acylcarnitines) and gut microbial (4-hydroxyphenylacetate, trimethylacetate, dimethylacetate) metabolism in men compared with the same time point during the RG intervention. There were no differences between the interventions after 2 wk. Urinary urea, carnitine, and acylcarnitine were lower at wk 1 of the WG intervention relative to the RG intervention in all participants. Fecal water short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate were relatively greater after the WG diet compared to the RG diet. Although based on a small population and for a short time period, these observations suggest that a WG diet may affect protein metabolism.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isotope labeled tracers are commonly used to quantify the turnover rates of various metabolic intermediates and yield information regarding physiological regulation. Studies often only consider either one nutritional state (fasted or fed) and/or one question (e.g., measure of lipid or protein turnover). In this article, we consider a novel application combining the global approach of metabonomics with widespread stable isotope labeling as a way of being able to map metabolism in open mammalian systems, an approach we call "isotopomics". A total of 45 15-week-old male Zucker rats were administrated different amounts (from 0.5 to 8 mmol/kg) of sodium [1,2-(13)C(2)] acetate. Plasma samples taken at 1, 4, and 24 h were analyzed with (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to measure (13)C isotopic enrichment of 39 plasma metabolites across a wide range of compound classes (amino acids, short-chain fatty acids, lactate, glucose, and free fatty acids). Isotopic enrichment from 0.1-7.1 mole percent excess (MPE) for the highest dose could be reliably measured in 16 metabolites, and the kinetics of their (13)C isotopic enrichment are reported. Clustering metabolites based on (13)C kinetic curves enabled highlighting of time dependent patterns of (13)C distribution through the key metabolic pathways. These kinetic and quantitative data were reported into a biochemical map. This type of isotopomic approach for mapping dynamic metabolism in an open system has great potential for advancing our mechanistic knowledge of how different interventions and diseases can impact the metabolic response of animals and humans.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Analytical Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence has linked genetic predisposition and environmental exposures to the worldwide pandemic of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but underlying biochemical events remain largely undefined. Here, we studied the gradual development of colitis in Interleukin 10 deficient mice using a combination of (i) histopathological analysis of intestinal sections, (ii) metabolic profiling of blood plasma, and (iii) measurement of plasma inflammatory biomarkers. Data integration using chemometric tools, including Independent Component Analysis, provided a new strategy for measuring and mapping the metabolic effects associated with the development of intestinal inflammation at the age of 1, 8, 16, and 24 weeks. Chronic inflammation appeared at 8 weeks and onward, and was associated with altered cecum and colon morphologies and increased inflammatory cell infiltration into the mucosa and the submucosa. Blood plasma profiles provided additional evidence of loss of energy homeostasis, impaired metabolism of lipoproteins and glycosylated proteins. In particular, IL-10-/-mice were characterized by decreased levels of VLDL and increased concentrations of LDL and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are related to the etiology of IBD. Moreover, higher levels of lactate, pyruvate, citrate and lowered glucose suggested increased fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis, while higher levels of free amino acids reflected muscle atrophy, breakdown of proteins and interconversions of amino acids to produce energy. These integrated system investigations demonstrate the potential of metabonomics for investigating the mechanistic basis of IBD, and it will provide novel avenues for management of IBD.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of Proteome Research