[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor-α (ER)-positive breast cancer cells undergo hormone-independent proliferation after deprivation of oestrogen, leading to endocrine therapy resistance. Up-regulation of the ER gene (ESR1) is critical for this process, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the combination of transcriptome and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that oestrogen deprivation induced a cluster of noncoding RNAs that defined a large chromatin domain containing the ESR1 locus. We termed these RNAs as Eleanors (ESR1 locus enhancing and activating noncoding RNAs). Eleanors were present in ER-positive breast cancer tissues and localized at the transcriptionally active ESR1 locus to form RNA foci. Depletion of one Eleanor, upstream (u)-Eleanor, impaired cell growth and transcription of intragenic Eleanors and ESR1 mRNA, indicating that Eleanors cis-activate the ESR1 gene. Eleanor-mediated gene activation represents a new type of locus control mechanism and plays an essential role in the adaptation of breast cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Oestrogens usually stimulate the progression of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Paradoxically, high-dose oestrogens suppress the growth of these tumours in certain circumstances.
We prospectively examined the efficacy and safety of ethinylestradiol treatment (3 mg per day oral) in postmenopausal patients with advanced or recurrent ER-positive breast cancer who had previously received endocrine therapies, especially those with resistance to aromatase inhibitors.
Eighteen patients were enrolled with the median age of 63 years and the mean observation time of 9.2 months. Three cases withdrew within 1 week due to oestrogen flare reactions with nausea, fatigue and muscle-skeletal pain. The response rate was 50% (9 out of 18), and the clinical benefit rate was 56% (10 out of 18). The stable disease (<6 months) was 17% (3 out of 18) and another 2 cases were judged as progressive disease. Time-to-treatment failure including 2 on treatment was a median of 5.6 months (range 0.1 to 14.5+). Although vaginal bleeding or endometrial thickening was observed in patients receiving long-term treatment, there were no severe adverse events, such as deep venous thrombosis or other malignancies.
Although the mechanism of this treatment has not been fully understood, our data may contribute to change the common view of late-stage endocrine therapy.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast elastography (EG), which can objectively evaluate tumor stiffness, has been useful for differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions. However, the value of EG for prediction of response to systemic therapy is poorly understood.
The baseline evaluations of EG in 55 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were reviewed. We investigated the correlation between tumor stiffness and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Tumor stiffness was evaluated by the Tsukuba elasticity scoring system.
The mean EG scores were significant lower for the clinical and pathologic complete response (pCR) groups than for the others. When we categorized patients into two groups according to tumor stiffness, 26 patients were assigned to the low EG group (soft, scores from 1 to 3) and 29 patients were assigned to the high EG group (hard, score 4 and 5). The low EG group had significantly higher clinical complete response and pCR rates than the high EG group (clinical complete response, low EG group 38 % vs. high EG group 10 %, P = 0.024; pCR, low EG group 50 % vs. high EG group 14 %, P = 0.003, respectively). Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that estrogen receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and low EG (odds ratio 13.04, 95 % confidence interval 1.19-458.28, P = 0.035) were independent predictive factors of pCR.
Tumor stiffness evaluated by EG bears predictive potential for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Stiffness evaluated by EG may be recognized as a clinically significant tumor characteristic, comparable to other data obtained by functional imaging techniques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) is the most important endocrine therapy responsiveness predictor for women with breast cancer. The accuracy of the prediction of the response to endocrine therapy was thought to be affected by involving the estrogen receptor coregulatory proteins and cross-talk between ER and other growth factor-signaling networks. Nuclear corepressor 1 (NCOR1) is one of the ER a transcription repressor. The objective of the study is to investigate the expression of NCOR1 at the protein level and pursue its predictive value for breast cancer endocrine therapy.
In the present study, the level of expression of NCOR1 protein has been assessed by immunohistochemistry in 104 cases of invasive carcinoma of the breast. Associations between NCOR1 protein expression and different clinicopathological factors and survival were sought.
It was found that NCOR1 was expressed at significantly higher levels in responsive patients treated with endocrine therapy as first-line treatment on relapse. Responsive patients also had a significantly longer post-relapse survival and overall survival. No NCOR1 expression difference was found between patient by age, tumor size, lymph node status, different histological grade groups and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Multivariate analysis showed that NCOR1 is an independent prognostic factor for over-all survival.
In breast cancer, NCOR1 protein expression level predicts response to endocrine therapy as first-line treatment for breast cancer patients on relapse and NCOR1 protein level assay may increase the accuracy in the endocrine treatment determination and, therefore, improving the patients survival.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor (ER) alpha plays a crucial role in normal breast development and has also been linked to mammary carcinogenesis and clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the expression of ERalpha are as yet not fully understood. Gene amplification is one of the important factors regulating protein expression. Recent studies on the amplification of the ESR1 gene, which encodes ERalpha, have presented conflicting data. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, we examined the ESR1 status in a series of breast cancer tissues and analyzed its clinical importance. ESR1 gene amplification and gain were found in 22.6 and 11.3% of samples, respectively, as determined by three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. Moreover, ESR1 amplification and amplification plus gain were significantly negatively correlated with tumor size, number of positive lymph nodes, negative ERalpha, and positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. It has also been shown that ESR1 amplification strongly correlates with higher expression levels of ER protein and that patients with ESR1 amplification in their tumors apparently experience longer disease-free survival than those without. Our data suggest that ESR1 amplification might prove to be helpful in selecting patients who may potentially benefit from endocrine therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telomerase maintains telomere length and is implicated in senescence and immortalization of mammalian cells. Two essential components for this enzyme are telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and the telomerase RNA component (encoded by the TERC gene). These telomerase subunit genes are known to be mainly expressed by specificity protein 1 (Sp1). MBD1-containing chromatin-associated factor 1 (MCAF1), also known as ATFa-associated modulator (AM) and activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein (ATF7IP), mediates gene regulation, although the precise function of MCAF1 remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that MCAF1 is involved in Sp1-dependent maintenance of telomerase activity in cancer cells. Two evolutionarily conserved domains of MCAF1 directly interact with Sp1 and the general transcriptional apparatus. Selective depletion of MCAF1 or Sp1 down-regulates TERT and TERC genes in cultured cells, which results in decreased telomerase activity. The transcriptionally active form of RNA polymerase II and the general transcription factor ERCC3 decreased in the TERT promoter under the loss of MCAF1 or Sp1. Consistently, MCAF1 is found to be frequently overexpressed in naturally occurring cancers that originate in different tissues. Our data suggest that transcriptional function of MCAF1 facilitates telomerase expression by Sp1, which may be a common mechanism in proliferative cancer cells.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Biological Chemistry