[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal.kgBW-0.75.day-1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW-0.93.day-1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feline obesity is a prevalent medical disease and the main therapeutic strategy is dietary energy restriction. However, at present there are no data regarding long-term outcome in this species. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if, as in other species, some cats regain weight following successful weight loss, and to identify any influencing factors in a cohort of client-owned cats with naturally occurring obesity. Twenty-six cats were included, all of which had successfully completed a weight management programme. After weight loss, cats were periodically monitored. The median duration of follow-up was 954 d (72-2162 d). Ten cats (39 %) maintained their completion weight (±5 %), four (15 %) lost >5 % additional weight and 12 (46 %) gained >5 % weight. Seven of the rebounding cats (58 %) regained over 50 % of their original weight lost. Older cats were less likely to regain weight than younger cats (P = 0·024); with an approximately linear negative association between the cat's age and the amount of weight regained (Kendall's τ = -0·340, P = 0·016). Furthermore, cats whose energy intake during weight loss was greater were also more likely to regain weight (P = 0·023). When the characteristics of weight regain in cats were compared with those from a similar cohort of dogs, cats that rebounded were more likely to regain >50 % of the weight they had lost. These results suggest that weight regain, after successful weight loss, is common in obese cats, and that young cats (<7 years of age) are most at risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasingly domestic cats live in an overfeeding and underexercising environment where obesity is a major health concern. One strategy to aid healthy body weight maintenance is dietary energy dilution. Published data indicate that increasing dietary moisture content leads to a reduction in energy intake and increased activity. However, a number of different methodologies were employed in these studies and associated changes in physical activity have only been measured once. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of diets of three different moisture contents offered in excess of energy requirements, on body weight, energy intake and physical activity in adult neutered cats. Sixty-nine adult cats randomised into three groups, received 100 % of their daily individual maintenance energy requirements (IMER) of dry diet or dry diet hydrated to 40 or 80 % total moisture content (tmc). Baseline activity, intake, body weight and body composition were measured. Following this baseline phase, the cats received the same diets at 200 % of daily IMER and the measurements repeated over the next 28 d. When offered the diets at 200 % IMER, cats fed the dry diet significantly increased body weight and percentage of body fat (P < 0·01), while those offered the hydrated diets did not (P > 0·01). The levels of physical activity in cats offered the hydrated 80 % tmc diet were significantly (P < 0·01) higher than those offered the dry or 40 % tmc diet. We suggest that dietary energy dilution by addition of water may be a useful strategy for healthy body weight maintenance in overfed cats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal).
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs.
Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%). The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS]), systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured using validated assays.
Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008), cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglyceride (P = 0.018), and fasting insulin (P < 0.001) all decreased after weight loss, whilst plasma total adiponectin increased (P = 0.001). However, hsCRP did not change with weight loss. Prior to weight loss, 7 dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P = 0.031), and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P = 0.030) in ORMD dogs.
In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations and outcomes of weight loss.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · BMC Veterinary Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The safe upper limit for inclusion of vitamin A in complete diets for growing dogs is uncertain, with the result that current recommendations range from 5.24 to 104.80 μmol retinol (5000 to 100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy (ME). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding four concentrations of vitamin A to puppies from weaning until 1 year of age. A total of forty-nine puppies, of two breeds, Labrador Retriever and Miniature Schnauzer, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. Following weaning at 8 weeks of age, puppies were fed a complete food supplemented with retinyl acetate diluted in vegetable oil and fed at 1 ml oil/100 g diet to achieve an intake of 5·24, 13·10, 78·60 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000, 12 500, 75 000 and 100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) ME. Fasted blood and urine samples were collected at 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 26, 36 and 52 weeks of age and analysed for markers of vitamin A metabolism and markers of safety including haematological and biochemical variables, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptides of type I collagen and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Clinical examinations were conducted every 4 weeks. Data were analysed by means of a mixed model analysis with Bonferroni corrections for multiple endpoints. There was no effect of vitamin A concentration on any of the parameters, with the exception of total serum retinyl esters, and no effect of dose on the number, type and duration of adverse events. We therefore propose that 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) is a suitable safe upper limit for use in the formulation of diets designed for puppy growth.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Weight rebound after successful weight loss is a well-known phenomenon in humans and dogs, possibly due to the fact that energy restriction improves metabolic efficiency, reducing post-weight-loss maintenance energy requirements (MER). The aim of the present study was to estimate post-weight-loss MER in obese pet dogs that had successfully lost weight and did not subsequently rebound. A total of twenty-four obese dogs, successfully completing a weight management programme at the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), were included. In all dogs, a period of >14 d of stable weight ( < 1 % change) was identified post-weight loss, when food intake was constant and activity levels were stable (assessed via owners' diary records). Post-weight-loss MER was indirectly estimated by determining dietary energy consumption during this stable weight period. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify factors that were associated with post-weight-loss MER. The mean length of stable weight after weight loss was 54 (SD 34.1) d. During this time, MER was 285 (SD 54.8) kJ/kg(0.75) per d. The rate of prior weight loss and food intake during the weight-loss phase was positively associated with post-weight-loss MER, while the amount of lean tissue lost was negatively associated with post-weight-loss MER. MER are low after weight loss in obese pet dogs (typically only 10 % more than required during weight-loss MER), which has implications for what should constitute the optimal diet during this period. Preserving lean tissue during weight loss may maximise post-weight-loss MER and help prevent rebound.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary factors (e.g. feeding treats and table scraps) can predispose to obesity in dogs, but it is not known whether they also influence success of weight loss. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine which pre-weight-loss factors were associated with outcome of their weight management regimen in dogs. Information from ninety-five dogs attending the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), was reviewed. The effect of different food types (e.g. dry, wet and home-prepared), feeding practices (e.g. method of portion size calculation and number of meals per day) and use of treats was assessed on outcome measures of the weight management regimen. Before weight loss, most owners (sixty-three out of ninety-five, 66 %) fed twice daily, used complete dry food (seventy-two out of ninety-five, 76 %) and calculated portion size either by measuring cup (thirty-six out of ninety-five, 38 %) or by visual estimation (thirty-seven out of ninety-five, 39 %). Feeding treats was common and included purchased treats (forty-one out of ninety-five, 43 %), table scraps (twenty-four out of ninety-five, 25 %), pet food (eighty-three out of ninety-five, 87 %) and human food (eighty-one out of ninety-five, 85 %). The majority of feeding practices did not influence any outcome measure for the weight-loss period (P>0.05 for all). However, metabolisable energy intake during weight loss was significantly higher in dogs fed dry food (P = 0.047) and lower in dogs fed purchased snacks before weight loss (P = 0.036). Thus, most pre-weight-loss factors have limited effect on outcomes of weight loss. The significance of the associations identified between feeding of dried food and purchased treats, and weight-loss energy intake, requires further study.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess performance of a portable bioimpedance monitor for measurement of body composition in dogs.
24 client-owned dogs.
Percentage body fat was measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and with a portable bioimpedance monitor, and body condition score (BCS) was measured by use of a 9-integer scale.
Although the precision of the bioimpedance monitor was good, this varied among dogs. Body position (standing vs sternal) had no effect on bioimpedance results. There was a significant association between results determined via DEXA and bioimpedance, but this association was weaker than between DEXA and BCS. When agreement was assessed via Bland-Altman plot, the bioimpedance monitor under- and overestimated values at high and low body fat percentages, respectively. In 9 dogs, body fat measurements were taken before and after weight loss to determine the proportional loss of tissue mass during weight management. There was a significant difference in the estimated percentage of weight lost as fat between the DEXA and bioimpedance methods.
Although percentage body fat measured by use of a portable bioimpedance monitor correlated well with values determined via DEXA, the imprecision and inaccuracy in dogs with high percentage body fat could make the monitor inappropriate for clinical practice.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A newly-formulated, high protein high fibre (HPHF) diet has recently been shown to improve satiety in dogs. The current study examined its performance during weight loss in client-owned dogs with naturally-occurring obesity. Fifteen dogs were fed the HPHF diet, whilst a matched 'control' group of 27 dogs, received a high protein medium fibre diet (HPMF), with an equivalent caloric density. Baseline characteristics (signalment, percentage overweight, and body fat percentage) were not significantly different between groups. However, percentage weight loss was greater (median [range] 31.8% [12.0-41.2%] vs. 20.0% [5.9-45.0%], P=0.016) and mean rate of weight loss faster (median [range] 1.0%/week [0.3-1.6%] vs. 0.7%/week [0.3-1.5%], P=0.028) on HPHF compared with HPMF. Percentage body fat mass decrease (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) was also greater in dogs fed the HPHF diet (median (range] 58% [32-85%) vs. 37% [15-72%), P=0.002). Thus, a diet formulated to include high levels of both protein and fibre, improves outcome during weight loss in obese dogs.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · The Veterinary Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is one of the most common medical diseases in cats, but there remains little information on success of weight loss regimes in obese client-owned cats. No information currently exists on body composition changes during weight loss in clinical cases. Twelve obese client-owned cats undertook a weight loss programme incorporating a high-protein low fat diet. Body composition was quantified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, before and after weight loss. Mean (+/-standard deviation) weight loss was 27+/-6.8% of starting weight, and mean rate of weight loss was 0.8+/-0.32% per week. Mean energy allocation during weight loss was 32+/-7.0 kcal/kg target weight. Mean composition of tissue lost was 86:13:1 (fat:lean:bone mineral). The proportion of lean tissue loss was positively associated with overall percentage of weight loss (simple linear regression, r(2)=44.2%, P=0.026). Conventional weight loss programmes produce safe weight loss, but lean tissue loss is an inevitable consequence in cats that lose significant proportions of their starting body weight.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery