Garrett A Wirth

University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, United States

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Publications (60)94.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tamoxifen is an important adjunct therapy in breast cancer treatment; however, it has been implicated in increasing microvascular flap complications. Current recommendations on stopping tamoxifen are conflicting and do not address tamoxifen therapy that is continued perioperatively. The purpose of this study is to determine whether tamoxifen taken at the time of free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) and deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction affects thrombotic complication rates. Methods: A retrospective review of microvascular breast reconstruction with TRAM/DIEP flaps over the last 20 years was carried out at a single institution. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts: those receiving tamoxifen at the time of reconstruction (tamoxifen cohort) and those not taking tamoxifen (control). Demographic information, procedural characteristics, and rates of microvascular flap complications were compared. Results: Forty-three patients (56 flaps) received tamoxifen at the time of microvascular breast reconstruction, and 185 patients (267 flaps) did not. Patients in the tamoxifen cohort had a lower mean age of 48.9 years (P = 0.013). A greater percentage of patients in the tamoxifen cohort had preoperative radiation (P < 0.0001) and chemotherapy (P = 0.018) and underwent delayed reconstruction (P < 0.0001). There were no significant differences between the 2 cohorts with regard to flap complications including both arterial and venous thrombosis, flap failure, and other local flap complications. Conclusions: Patients receiving tamoxifen during TRAM/DIEP flap breast reconstruction did not have increased rates of flap thrombosis or failure; therefore, stopping tamoxifen prior to these procedures may not be necessary.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Annals of Plastic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Microsurgical reconstruction of the breast represents an area of continual evolution, as new autologous flaps are introduced and principles are refined. This progression can be demonstrated by bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature. Methods The top 10 plastic surgery journals were determined by impact factor (IF). Each issue of every journal from 1993 to 2013 was accessed directly, and all articles discussing microsurgery on the female breast were classified by authors' geographic location, study design, and level of evidence (LOE, I-V). The productivity index and productivity share of each geographic region was calculated based on number of articles published and IF. Results A total of 706 breast microsurgery articles were analyzed. There was a significant increase in microsurgical breast research (p < 0.01), with an average 33.6 ± 31.1 articles per year and a mean increase of 4.4 articles per year. Most research was of lower LOE, with level I constituting 0.14% and level II constituting 5.21% of all articles. United States contributed the most research with 336.4 articles, followed by Western Europe with 242.2. However, Western Europe experienced the greatest increase in productivity share, with + 0.50 ± 0.29 growth, while United States demonstrated the greatest decrease in productivity share with - 1.23 ± 0.31 growth. Among autologous flaps, transverse rectus abdominis muscle research had the greatest yearly publication volume until 2002, when overtaken by deep inferior epigastric perforator flap research. Conclusion Over the 21-year study period, the United States contributed the greatest volume of research on female breast microsurgery but also demonstrated the greatest decline in research productivity. Efforts should be made to increase the LOE in breast microsurgery research.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is a rich source of cells with emerging promise for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF), in particular, is an eclectic composite of cells with progenitor activity that includes preadipocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, pericytes, endothelial cells, and macrophages. SVF has enormous potential for therapeutic application and is being investigated for multiple clinical indications including lipotransfer, diabetes-related complications, nerve regeneration, burn wounds and numerous others. In Part 2 of our review, we explore the basic science behind the regenerative success of the SVF and discuss significant mechanisms that are at play. The existing literature suggests that angiogenesis, immunomodulation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix secretion are the main avenues through which regeneration and healing is achieved by the stromal vascular fraction .
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF) is a heterogeneous collection of cells contained within adipose tissue that is traditionally isolated using enzymes such as collagenase. With the removal of adipose cells, connective tissue and blood from lipoaspirate, comes the SVF, a mix including mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial precursor cells, T regulatory cells, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, pericytes and preadipocytes. In part 1 of our 2-part series, we review the literature with regards to the intensifying interest that has shifted toward this mixture of cells, particularly due to its component synergy and translational potential. Trials assessing the regenerative potential of cultured Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) and SVF demonstrate that SVF is comparably effective in treating conditions ranging from radiation injuries, burn wounds and diabetes, amongst others. Aside from their use in chronic conditions, SVF enrichment of fat grafts has proven a major advance in maintaining fat graft volume and viability. Many SVF studies are currently in preclinical phases or are moving to human trials. Overall, regenerative cell therapy based on SVF is at an early investigative stage but its potential for clinical application is enormous.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Fat grafting is commonly employed by plastic and reconstructive surgeons to address contour abnormalities and soft-tissue defects; however, because retention rates and thus volume filling effects are unpredictable, there is a search for new and innovative approaches. Initial studies on the use of human decellularized adipose tissue extracellular matrix (hDAM) show promise for its use not only in tissue engineering, but also in fat grafting. In this review, we examine and analyze the literature for the preparation, characterization, and use of hDAM and its derivatives in tissue engineering and plastic surgery applications. All studies reviewed involve physical, chemical, and/or biological treatment stages for the preparation of hDAM; however a distinction should be made between detergent and nondetergent-based processing, the latter of which appears to preserve the native integrity of the hDAM while most-efficiently achieving complete decellularization. Methods of hDAM characterization vary among groups and included simple and immunohistochemical staining, biochemical assays, 3-dimensional (3D) imaging, and mechano-stress testing, all of which are necessary to achieve a comprehensive description of this novel tissue. Finally, we examine the various preclinical models utilized to optimize hDAM performance, which primarily include the addition of adipose-derived stem cells or cross-linking agents. Overall, hDAM appears to be a promising adjunct in fat-grafting applications or even possibly as a stand-alone soft-tissue filler with off-the-shelf potential for commercial applications. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Aesthetic Surgery Journal
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    Article: LOP25

    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
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    Article: LOP25

    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Combined procedures involving elective breast surgery at the time of abdominoplasty are frequently performed procedures in aesthetic plastic surgery. While found to be safe outpatient procedures, many surgeons elect to perform combined abdominoplasty/breast surgery as inpatient surgery. This study was performed to explore the practice of performing the combined procedure as an inpatient in the United States. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was evaluated using ICD-9CM procedural codes to identify hospitalizations where patients underwent abdominoplasty combined with breast surgery. We trended the frequency of this combined procedure, and evaluated the rate of acute post-operative complications, length of inpatient hospitalization, and total hospital charges. Between 2004 and 2011, 29,235 combined abdominoplasty/breast procedures were performed as inpatient in United States. The rate of major post-operative complications in the acute hospitalization period was 1.12% and included CVA (0.02%), respiratory failure (0.6%), pneumonia (0.3%), VTE (0.1%), and myocardial infarction (0.1%). Hospitalization averaged 1.8 days and resulted in $31,177 of hospital charges. The demographics of the combined procedure transitioned as i) frequency of inpatient surgeries decreased, ii) percent of patients >50 yr increased, and iii) hospital charges increased from 2004 to 2011. A significant number of surgeons are performing combined abdominoplasty and elective breast surgery as inpatient procedures in United States. The combined surgery is safe but is associated with small risk of major post-operative complications. A short inpatient hospitalization may be beneficial for high-risk patients interested in combined procedures, but must be analyzed against the rising costs of inpatient surgery.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) have been proposed to decrease the incidence of capsular contracture in implant-based breast reconstructions. The authors have modified ADMs with fenestrations in order to facilitate greater lower pole expansion and improve contour. The effect of fenestrations on the ability of ADMs to suppress capsule formation, however, has not been examined. A retrospective review of all fenestrated ADM-assisted, implant-based breast reconstructions performed by the two senior authors with a minimum of one-year follow-up after permanent implant placement, was completed. Patient demographics, details of extirpative and reconstructive procedures, and complications were examined. Capsular contractures were scored according the Baker grading scale and compared to those reported in the literature. Thirty patients (50 breasts) underwent fenestrated ADM-assisted reconstruction with mean follow-up of 3.3 and 2.6 years after expander placement and implant exchange, respectively. Seven patients (23%) had a body mass index >30, 3 (10%) were active smokers, and 6 breasts (12%) were irradiated. Complications included 1 (2%) infection, 6 cases (12%) of incisional superficial skin necrosis and 1 (2%) tissue expander extrusion. Zero breasts had clinically significant Baker grade III/IV capsular contracture. The average Baker grade was 1.1. Fenestrated ADMs decrease rates of capsular contracture similar to what is seen with non-fenestrated ADMs. Further research is necessary to determine whether this observation is a result of decreased need for inferolateral ADM coverage to achieve these effects or modified physical interaction of ADMs with surrounding soft tissues.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: There are a limited number of large-scale studies comparing multicenter perioperative outcomes among several different autologous breast reconstruction options.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) are increasingly being utilized in primary and secondary breast reconstruction as they confer several advantages, including soft tissue enhancement at the inferolateral pole of the breast. The senior authors have added fenestrations to ADMs to allow for more rapid expansion and improved breast aesthetics. The purpose of this study is to describe the benefits of ADM fenestration using a mathematical formula as a proof of concept for the effects of these modifications on breast shape. Methods The aggregate effect of symmetrically arranged fenestrations on the ADM’s mechanical properties is explained by a uniform reduction in the effective Young’s modulus of the graft in a direction perpendicular to the chest wall in the area of graft fenestration. Asymmetric reduction of the Young’s modulus is achieved by concentration of the fenestrations at either the cephalic or caudal ends of the ADM. Results The relaxed Young’s modulus facilitates an increased deflection of the ADM from its resting, unaltered state under the weight of the implant or tissue expander and is modeled using a one-dimensional boundary equation. The reduced inferior pole tension allows for enhanced expansion under the weight of the implant or tissue expander. The effects of asymmetrically arranged fenestrations are similarly modeled and appear to afford the surgeon greater precision in controlling inferior pole characteristics. Conclusions Acellular dermal matrix fenestration improves aesthetic outcome by facilitating greater inferior pole expansion. Mathematical models are provided to describe the modifications and elucidate the mechanism behind their effect on breast shape. Level of Evidence: Not ratable
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · European Journal of Plastic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There are limited data regarding blood transfusion following abdominoplasty, especially in post–bariatric surgery patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the frequency and outcomes of blood transfusion in post–bariatric surgery patients undergoing abdominoplasty and (2) the predictive risk factors of blood transfusion in this patient population. Methods: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, the authors examined the clinical data of patients with a history of bariatric surgery who underwent abdominoplasty from 2007 to 2011 in the United States. Results: A total of 20,130 post–bariatric surgery patients underwent abdominoplasty during this period. Overall, 1871 patients (9.3 percent) received blood transfusion. Chronic anemia patients had the highest rate of blood transfusion (25.6 percent). Post–bariatric surgery patients who received blood transfusion experienced a significantly higher complication rate (10.1 percent versus 4.8 percent; p < 0.01), longer mean hospital stay (4.0 days versus 2.4 days; p < 0.01), and higher mean total hospital charges ($49,116 versus $33,927; p < 0.01). Multivariate regression analysis showed that deficiency anemia (adjusted OR, 3.8), congestive heart failure (adjusted OR, 2.4), concurrent breast reduction (adjusted OR, 1.5), diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 1.4), coronary artery disease (adjusted OR, 1.4), African American race (adjusted OR, 1.4), Hispanic race (adjusted OR, 1.4), and female sex (adjusted OR, 1.3) were all independent risk factors for blood transfusion. Conclusions: The blood transfusion rate in post–bariatric surgery abdominoplasty patients is not insignificant. Chronic anemia and congestive heart failure are the two major predictors of transfusion. Modifying risk factors such as anemia before abdominoplasty might significantly decrease the possibility of blood transfusion. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to evaluate 1) the rate of immediate breast reconstruction; 2) the frequency of immediate tissue expander placement; and 3) to compare perioperative outcomes in patients who underwent breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer with immediate tissue expander placement (TE) with those with no reconstruction (NR). Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we examined the clinical data of patients with breast cancer who underwent mastectomy with or without immediate TE from 2006 to 2010 in the United States. A total of 344,253 patients with breast cancer underwent mastectomy in this period in the United States. Of these patients, 31 per cent had immediate breast reconstruction. We only included patients with mastectomy and no reconstruction (NR: 237,825 patients) and patients who underwent only TE placement with no other reconstruction combination (TE: 61,178 patients) to this study. Patients in the TE group had a lower overall postoperative complication rate (2.6 vs 5.5%; P < 0.01) and lower in-hospital mortality rate (0.01 vs 0.09%; P < 0.01) compared with the NR group. Fifty-three per cent of patients in the NR group were discharged the day of surgery compared with 36 per cent of patients in the TE group. Using multivariate regression analyses and adjusting patient characteristics and comorbidities, patients in the TE group had a significantly lower overall complication rate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.6) and lower in-hospital mortality (AOR, 0.2) compared with the NR group. The rate of immediate reconstruction is 31 per cent. TE alone is the most common type of immediate reconstruction (57%). There is a lower complication rate for the patients who underwent immediate TE versus the no-reconstruction cohort.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · The American surgeon
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    ABSTRACT: Although lipotransfer, or fat grafting, is a commonly used procedure in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery, there is still variability in graft survival and neoadipogenesis from one procedure to the next. A better understanding of the sequential molecular events occurring with grafting would allow us to strategize methods to improve the regenerative potency of the grafted tissue. These steps begin with an autophagic process, followed by the inclusion of stromal vascular fraction and matrix components. By tailoring and modifying each of these steps for a particular type of aesthetic or reconstructive procedure, strategic sequencing represents a dynamic approach to lipotransfer with the aim of maximizing adipocyte viability and growth. In the implementation of the strategic sequence, it remains important to consider the clinical viability of each step and its compliance with the US Food and Drug Administration regulations. This review highlights the basic science behind clinically translatable approaches to supplementing various fat grafting procedures.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Annals of Plastic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Wound healing is a complex process resulting in restoration ofthe structural integrity and functionality of injured tissue. Any disruption or delay in this process results in a chronic wound, which is a challenge to treat even with currently available therapy. Diabetic foot ulcers are a prime example of difficult-to-treat wounds. Despite the millions of dollarsspent annually on ulcer management, individuals with diabetes are still at risk for amputations and ulcer recurrence.Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been investigated as a meansto aid the wound healing process.These cells function in a paracrine manner, stimulating surrounding cells and promoting angiogenesis. The studies reviewed highlight the benefit of ADSCs in chronic woundsin both animal models as well asin humans. Research on ADSC in chronic wounds is still in its infancy. Further studies are required to understand their exact mechanism of action, their potential utility in diabetic wounds, and to confirm their safety and efficacy in before this promising therapeutic can be translated to large-scale human therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular thrombosis is one of the major postoperative complications of free flap microvascular breast reconstruction operations. It is associated with higher morbidity, higher cost, increased length of hospital stay, and potentially flap loss. Our purpose is to evaluate the rate of this complication and whether patient characteristics play a role. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, we examined the clinical data of patients who underwent free flap breast reconstruction between 2009 and 2010 in the United States. Multivariate and univariate regression analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors of flap thrombosis. A total of 15,211 patients underwent free flap breast reconstruction surgery (immediate reconstruction: 43%). The most common flap was the free deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap (53.6%), followed by free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap (43.1%), free superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap (2%), and free gluteal artery perforator (GAP) flap (1.3%). The overall rate of flap thrombosis was 2.4 %, with the highest rate seen in the SIEA group (11.4%) and the lowest in the TRAM group (1.7%). Peripheral vascular disease (adjusted odds ration [AOR] 10.61), SIEA flap (AOR, 4.76) and delayed reconstruction (AOR, 1.42) were found to be statistically significant risk factors for flap thrombosis. Other comorbidities were not linked. While the overall rate of flap thrombosis in free flap breast reconstruction was relatively low (2.4%), Plastic Surgeons should be aware that patients with peripheral vascular disease and those undergoing free SIEA flap are at higher risk of flap thrombosis and they should closely monitor flaps to increase the chance for early salvage. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Microsurgery
  • Jenna B Martin · Ryan Moore · Keyianoosh Z Paydar · Garrett A Wirth
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: The authors present a new technique of alteration of the acellular dermal matrix through strategically placed fenestrations, improving the reconstructive experience and overall cosmetic outcome. The authors present a retrospective chart review following two surgeons' experience at the University of California, Irvine, Department of Plastic Surgery using surgeon-designed fenestrated acellular dermal matrices in two-stage tissue expander breast reconstruction. The authors found that this leads to improved intraoperative fill volume, decreased number of postoperative expansions, increased expansion rate with subjectively less pain, decreased time to full expansion, and subjectively improved cosmetic outcome. Clinical question/level of evidence: Therapeutic, III.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Goals/Purpose: Combined procedures involving elective breast surgery at the time of abdominoplasty are frequently performed procedures in aesthetic plastic surgery. To date, few studies have investigated the demographics and safety of this combined procedure. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequency, complications, and costs of the combined procedure in the United States Methods/Technique: We evaluated the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2004-2011. We used ICD-9 CM procedural codes to identify hospitalizations where patients underwent abdominoplasty combined with an elective breast procedure (reduction mammoplasty, mastopexy, and/or augmentation mammoplasty). We trended the frequency of this combined procedure, and evaluated the rate of peri-operative complications, length of inpatient hospitalization, and total hospital charges. Results/Complications: From 2004-2011, 29,235 combined abdominoplasty/breast procedures were performed. After peaking in 2005, the frequency of the combined procedure down-trended in subsequent years. Patients were most likely to be Caucasian (77.5%), privately insured (47%), and in the Southern United States (36.6%). Average patient age was 44 years; the portion of patients older than 50 years increased from 2004 (24.7%) to 2011 (32.7%). The majority of these procedures were performed in teaching hospitals (56.7%). The overall complication rate for the combined procedure was 3.6% (ranged from 2.4-5.6%), with the most frequent being hematoma (1.2%) followed by acute respiratory failure (0.6%). The combined procedure resulted in low rates of mortality (0.02%), VTE (0.1%), wound dehiscence (0.3%), wound infection (0.2%), and seroma (0.3%). The mean hospital stay was 1.8 days and the majority of these procedures were performed as an outpatient surgery. The mean total hospital charge was $31,177. The mean hospital stay demonstrated minimal variation (1.7 days to 1.9 days) during these years, however, the mean total hospital charges significantly increased each year from 2004 ($22,194) to 2011 ($44,302). Conclusion: In the United States, combined abdominoplasty and elective breast surgery procedures are being performed in significant numbers. The combined abdominoplasty and elective breast surgery procedure appears to be a safe surgical option that is associated with a low mortality rate, low complication rate, and short inpatient hospitalization.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: There are limited data regarding blood transfusion following abdominoplasty, especially in post-bariatric surgery patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the frequency and outcomes of blood transfusion in post-bariatric surgery patients undergoing abdominoplasty and (2) the predictive risk factors of blood transfusion in this patient population. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, the authors examined the clinical data of patients with a history of bariatric surgery who underwent abdominoplasty from 2007 to 2011 in the United States. A total of 20,130 post-bariatric surgery patients underwent abdominoplasty during this period. Overall, 1871 patients (9.3 percent) received blood transfusion. Chronic anemia patients had the highest rate of blood transfusion (25.6 percent). Post-bariatric surgery patients who received blood transfusion experienced a significantly higher complication rate (10.1 percent versus 4.8 percent; p < 0.01), longer mean hospital stay (4.0 days versus 2.4 days; p < 0.01), and higher mean total hospital charges ($49,116 versus $33,927; p < 0.01). Multivariate regression analysis showed that deficiency anemia (adjusted OR, 3.8), congestive heart failure (adjusted OR, 2.4), concurrent breast reduction (adjusted OR, 1.5), diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 1.4), coronary artery disease (adjusted OR, 1.4), African American race (adjusted OR, 1.4), Hispanic race (adjusted OR, 1.4), and female sex (adjusted OR, 1.3) were all independent risk factors for blood transfusion. The blood transfusion rate in post-bariatric surgery abdominoplasty patients is not insignificant. Chronic anemia and congestive heart failure are the two major predictors of transfusion. Modifying risk factors such as anemia before abdominoplasty might significantly decrease the possibility of blood transfusion. Risk, III.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery