[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective investigation was conducted to determine whether the consumption of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) used was correlated with the incidence of acquired nosocomial infection due to meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or to extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains. Between 2005 and 2008, the use of ABHRs increased significantly by 8 L per 1000 patient-days of hospitalization per year. During the same period, adherence to hand hygiene increased significantly from 55.6% to 70.9% (P < 0.0001). Despite these improvements there was a steady increase in the incidence of ESBL-producing strains in the past three years and no correlation was found between ABHR consumption and either nosocomially acquired ESBL or adherence to hand hygiene.
Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · The Journal of hospital infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
The incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria (ESBLE) has regularly increased over the last few years. However, little is known about epidemiology of ESBLE carriers in France. The objective of this study was to determine the ESBLE carriers or infected patients profile, identified within 48hours following hospital admission.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria (ESBLE) has regularly increased over the last few years. However, little is known about epidemiology of ESBLE carriers in France. The objective of this study was to determine the ESBLE carriers or infected patients profile, identified within 48 hours following hospital admission.
This retrospective study included all patients admitted in 2006 and 2007 at the Necker-Enfants-Malades (NEM) teaching hospital, carrying or infected with ESBLE isolated within 48 hours following admission. The pediatric and adult populations were compared.
There was no significant difference between pediatric and adult populations. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two main species isolated, accounting respectively for 59.6 and 21.1 % of the 114 isolated strains. Among the 114 analyzed files, 24 patients (21 %) were known to be EBLSE carriers, 37 (32 %) were transferred from another hospital, including 16 from another country. Concerning the 54 (47 %) other patients, five (4 %) came from a country with high prevalence, and 44 (39 %) were treated for a chronic illness. Only five patients (4 %) carrying ESBLE did not have any usual risk factor for multidrug resistance (MDR) bacterial carriage.
In our study, 4 % of patients carrying ESBLE admitted had no usual risk factor for MDR bacteria. Targeted screening of previous carriers, patients with chronic illness, transferred patients, or patients coming from country with high prevalence, would help to limit the spread of ESBLE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), fractures, and vitamin D deficiency in pediatric patients in complete remission of solid tumor; and to identify risk factors for these three abnormalities.
Data were collected prospectively after completion of cancer treatment. Hormonal and vitamin D deficiencies were treated. The patients were evaluated again 1 year later.
52 consecutive patients, 30 boys and 22 girls. Among them, 21 completed the second evaluation.
A clinical examination, nutritional assessment, and laboratory workup were performed. BMD was measured by absorptiometry.
Calcium intake was inadequate in 75% of patients and vitamin D reserves were low in 61.5%. BMD was low at the spine in 32.7%, and at the femur in 24% of patients. Spinal and femoral BMD Z-scores correlated significantly with each other. Femoral BMD Z-score showed significant positive correlations with changes in body mass index, urinary calcium/creatinine ratio, and time since treatment completion, and a significant negative correlation with treatment duration. Fractures were noted in 10 patients but were not correlated with BMD. In the 21 re-evaluated patients, no significant improvements were found in calcium intake, vitamin D status, or BMD Z-score.
Survivors of childhood solid cancer have high rates of insufficient calcium intake, vitamin D deficiency, low bone mass and fractures.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Hormone Research in Paediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung hypoplasia (LH) is a life-threatening congenital abnormality with various causes. It involves vascular bed underdevelopment with abnormal arterial muscularization leading to pulmonary hypertension. Because underlying molecular changes are imperfectly known and sometimes controversial, we determined key factors of angiogenesis along intrauterine development, focusing at the angiopoietin (ANG)/Tie-2 system. Lung specimens from medical terminations of pregnancy (9-37 wk) were used, including LH due to congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) or other causes, and nonpulmonary disease samples were used as controls. ELISA determination indicated little ANG-1 change during pregnancy and no effect of LH, whereas Tie-2 declined similarly between 9 and 37 wk in LH and controls. By contrast, ANG-2 markedly increased in LH from 24 wk, whereas it remained stable in controls. Because VEGF increased also, this was interpreted as an attempt to overcome vascular underdevelopment. Hypothesizing that its inefficiency might be due to impaired downstream mechanism, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was determined by semiquantitative Western blot and found to be reduced by approximately 75%, mostly in the instance of CDH. In conclusion, angiogenesis remains defective in hypoplastic lungs despite reactive enhancement of VEGF and ANG-2 production, which could be due, at least in part, to insufficient eNOS expression.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since 2000's, community extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producing bacteria have spread worldwide, i.e. mostly Escherichia coli that produce ESBL such as CTX-M enzymes. Previous cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones usage are the two most frequent risk factors identified in patients that harbor ESBL-producing bacteria. In addition surveys have shown an alarming trend of associated resistance to others classes of antimicrobial agents among isolates. The emergence of ESBL-producing isolates limits the therapeutic options considerably. For serious systemic infections caused by ESBL-producing bacteria, carbapenems should be regarded as drugs of choice. Preventing the spread and appropriately managing these infections caused by community acquired ESBL producing bacteria have become mandatory.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Medecine sciences: M/S
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are the most common cause of renal impairment in boys during early childhood. Although antenatal suspicion of this pathology has become quite common in recent years, prenatal diagnosis remains challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of different ultrasound criteria currently used to diagnose PUV.
We reviewed the antenatal and postnatal files of 54 male patients referred to our center from 2000 to 2006 after detection of fetal bilateral hydronephrosis. The following ultrasound criteria were evaluated in relation to the postnatal diagnosis of PUV: amniotic fluid volume, bladder wall thickness, bladder dilatation and the presence of the 'keyhole sign'.
Forty-two fetuses (77.8%) were suspected to have PUV on prenatal examination. Out of these, 29 (69.0%) had PUV confirmed postnatally. The sensitivity and specificity of the antenatal diagnosis of PUV were 94% and 43%, respectively. Increased bladder wall thickness and bladder dilatation were highly associated with the diagnosis of PUV (P < 0.001). However, a thick-walled bladder was observed in 39.1% and a dilated bladder in 47.8% of the infants with a postnatal diagnosis other than PUV. The presence of the keyhole sign was not found to predict a diagnosis of PUV (P = 0.27).
In this series the use of classical prenatal ultrasound signs to diagnose PUV showed high sensitivity but low specificity. The best diagnostic indicators were increased bladder wall thickness and dilatation of the bladder. The keyhole sign was not found to be a reliable predictor of PUV.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the context of the increasing resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), we evaluated the efficacy of mefloquine (MQ) for intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp).
A multicenter, open-label equivalence trial was conducted in Benin from July 2005 through April 2008. Women of all gravidities were randomized to receive SP (1500 mg of sulfadoxine and 75 mg of pyrimethamine) or 15 mg/kg MQ in a single intake twice during pregnancy. The primary end point was the proportion of low-birth-weight (LBW) infants (body weight, <2500 g; equivalence margin, 5%).
A total of 1601 women were randomized to receive MQ (n=802)or SP (n=799).In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, which assessed only live singleton births, 59 (8%) of 735 women who were given MQ and 72 (9.8%) of 730 women who were given SP gave birth to LBW infants (difference between low birth weights in treatment groups, -1.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.8% to 1.1%]), establishing equivalence between the drugs. The per-protocol analysis showed consistent results. MQ was more efficacious than SP in preventing placental malaria (prevalence, 1.7% vs 4.4% of women; P = .005),clinical malaria (incidence rate, 26 cases/10,000 person-months vs. 68 cases/10,000 person-months; P = .007) and maternal anemia at delivery (as defined by a hemoglobin level <10 g/dL) (prevalence, 16% vs 20%; marginally significant at P = .09). Adverse events (mainly vomiting, dizziness, tiredness, and nausea) were more commonly associated with the use of MQ (prevalence, 78% vs 32%; P < 10(-3)) One woman in the MQ group had severe neuropsychiatric symptoms.
MQ proved to be highly efficacious--both clinically and parasitologically--for use as IPTp. However, its low tolerability might impair its effectiveness and requires further investigations.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Standard treatment for lupus nephritis, including corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, is efficient but is still associated with refractory or relapsing disease, or severe deleterious effects. Rituximab, a monoclonal chimeric anti-B cell antibody, is increasingly used in patients with lupus nephritis, but reported series were small and had a short follow-up.
The authors analyzed clinical and histologic data of 20 patients who were treated with rituximab for lupus nephritis and followed up for at least 12 mo.
Nineteen women and one man received rituximab as induction treatment for an active class IV (15 cases) or class V (5 cases) lupus nephritis. Rituximab was given for lupus nephritis refractory to standard treatment (12 cases), for relapsing disease (6 cases), or as first-line treatment (2 cases). Three patients received cyclophosphamide concomitantly with rituximab. Ten received new injections of rituximab as maintenance therapy. Side effects included mainly five infections and four moderate neutropenias. After a median follow-up of 22 mo, complete or partial renal remission was obtained in 12 patients (60%). Lupus nephritis relapsed in one patient, who responded to a new course of rituximab. The achievement of B cell depletion 1 mo after rituximab, which negatively correlated with black ethnicity and hypoalbuminemia, was strongly associated with renal response. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis did not respond to rituximab.
Rituximab is an interesting therapeutic option in relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis when early B cell depletion is obtained.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology