[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psilocin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol) is a hallucinogenic component of the Mexican mushroom Psilocybe mexicana and a skeletal serotonin (5-HT) analogue. Psilocin is the active metabolite of psilocybin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-yl dihydrogen phosphate). In the present study, we examined the effects of systemically administered psilocin on extracellular dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex of the dopaminergic pathway in awake rats using in vivo microdialysis. Intraperitoneal administration of psilocin (5 and 10 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Psilocin did not affect the extracellular 5-HT level in the nucleus accumbens. Conversely, systemic administration of psilocin (10 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular 5-HT levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats, but dopamine was decreased in this region. However, neither extracellular dopamine nor 5-HT levels in the VTA were altered by administration of psilocin. Behaviorally, psilocin significantly increased the number of head twitches. Thus, psilocin affects the dopaminergic system in the nucleus accumbens. In the serotonergic system, psilocin contribute to a crucial effect in the medial prefrontal cortex. The present data suggest that psilocin increased both the extracellular dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the mesoaccumbens and/or mesocortical pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Selegiline, a therapeutic drug for Parkinson's disease (PD), structurally resembles the endogenous parkinsonism-related compound 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of 3-methyl-TIQ (3-MeTIQ) and 3-methyl-N-propargyl-TIQ (3-Me-N-proTIQ), selegiline mimetic TIQ derivatives, for preventing 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism-like symptoms in mice.
We evaluated the preventative effects of 3-MeTIQ and 3-Me-N-proTIQ on MPTP-induced bradykinesia and depletion of striatal dopamine (DA) and nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells.
MPTP-induced bradykinesia was not different when mice were pretreated with 3-MeTIQ, except for the high-dose group. However, pretreatment with 3-Me-N-proTIQ significantly prevented the appearance of this akinesic status. MPTP-induced striatal DA and 3,4-dehydroxyphenylacetic acid reduction were significantly prevented by pretreatment with 3-Me-N-proTIQ, but not 3-MeTIQ, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, levels of serotonin and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, in the striatum were increased following treatment with 3-MeTIQ. In addition, the MPTP-induced decrease in TH-positive cells in the substantia nigra was significantly reduced by pretreatment with 3-Me-N-proTIQ, but not 3-MeTIQ.
These results suggest that not only does 3-Me-N-proTIQ have potential as a candidate compound for disease-modifying therapy for PD, but also the N-propargyl functional group plays an important role in neuroprotection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral neuropathic pain is a serious side effect of paclitaxel treatment. However, the mechanism of this paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of paclitaxel on the voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) current in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Behavioral assessment using von Frey filament stimuli showed that 2 and 4 mg/kg paclitaxel treatment induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia. Paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was significantly inhibited by gabapentin (100 mg/kg). Using the patch clamp method, we observed that paclitaxel (4 mg/kg) treatment significantly increased the VDCC current in small- and medium-diameter DRG neurons. Moreover, paclitaxel-induced increase in the VDCC current in medium-diameter DRG neurons was completely inhibited by 10 and 100 μM gabapentin. Similar effects in small-diameter DRG neurons were only seen with 100 μM gabapentin. Western blotting revealed that paclitaxel increased protein levels of the VDCC subunit α(2)δ-1 (Ca(v)α(2)δ-1) in DRG neurons. Immunohistochemistry showed that paclitaxel treatment increased Ca(v)α(2)δ-1 protein expression in DRG neurons. Thus, paclitaxel treatment increases the VDCC current in small- and medium-diameter DRG neurons and upregulates Ca(v)α(2)δ-1. The antihyperalgesic action of gabapentin may be due to inhibition of paclitaxel-induced increases in the VDCC current in DRG neurons.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is well known as an exogenous dopaminergic neurotoxin that induces Parkinson's disease-like symptoms. In addition, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) derivatives have been investigated as endogenous MPTP mimetic compounds that structurally resemble selegiline, a commercially available drug for treating Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we examined the ability of 1,3-dimethyl-TIQ (1,3-diMeTIQ) and 1,3-dimethyl-N-propargyl-TIQ (1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ) to prevent MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in mice and to prevent 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+, an active metabolite of MPTP)-induced cytotoxicity in vitro, including its structural stereoselectivity. Repeated administration of MPTP induced bradykinesia, a symptom of behavioral abnormality; this was prevented by both 1,3-diMeTIQ and 1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ pretreatments. Pretreatment with 1,3-diMeTIQ did not prevent the MPTP-induced decrease in dopamine content in the striatum or the decrease in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra. On the other hand, 1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ prevented these Parkinson's disease-like symptoms; in particular, the trans-isomer of this agent showed potent protective effects. However, the ability of the trans-1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ isomer to prevent MPP+-induced PC12 cell death was weaker than that of its cis-isomer. Thus, stereoisomers of 1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ exhibit different effects; cis-1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ inhibits MPP+-induced cytotoxicity while trans-1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ exhibits neuroprotective effects primarily through MPTP-related biological events in mice. These results also indicate the possibility of utilizing, at least in part, the stereoselective efficacy of 1,3-diMe-N-proTIQ against MPTP and/or MPP+-induced adverse states.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that psychostimulants stimulate dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens. In the present study, we examined the effects of systemically administered beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), a psychomotor-stimulating trace amine, on dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex in freely moving rats, using an in vivo microdialysis technique. Intraperitoneal administration of beta-PEA (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell. The observed increase in the dopamine concentration in nucleus accumbens shell dialysate after intraperitoneal administration of 25 mg/kg beta-PEA was inhibited by pre-treatment with a dopamine uptake inhibitor, GBR12909 (10 mg/kg, i.p.). In contrast, beta-PEA (25 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core. Although a high dose of beta-PEA (50 mg/kg) significantly increased dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens core, the dopamine increasing effect of beta-PEA was more potent in the nucleus accumbens shell. Systemic administration of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg beta-PEA also increased extracellular dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex of rats. However, systemic 25 mg/kg beta-PEA-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels were not blocked by GBR12909 within the prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that beta-PEA has a greater effect in the shell than in the core and low-dose beta-PEA stimulates dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell through uptake by a dopamine transporter. Similarly, beta-PEA increased extracellular dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, beta-PEA may increase extracellular dopamine concentrations in the mesocorticolimbic pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a combined neurochemical and behavioral study to determine the effects of 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1-BnTIQ) on the extracellular dopamine concentrations in the striatum. Single dose administration of 1-BnTIQ (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg i.p.) increased striatal dopamine extracellular levels in a dose-dependent manner when an in vivo microdialysis technique was used to assess dopamine levels in the striatum of rats. Enhancement of striatal dopamine levels by systemic administration of a single dose of 1-BnTIQ was suppressed by perfusion of tetrodotoxin and a calcium ion-free solution into the striatum. This 1-BnTIQ-induced increase in extracellular dopamine concentration was also inhibited by pre-treatment with a dopamine uptake inhibitor, GBR12909 (1-(2-[bis(4-Fluorophenyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine dihydrochloride). Local application of 1-BnTIQ into the striatum via a dialysis probe failed to enhance the extracellular concentration of dopamine. However, microinjection of 1-BnTIQ into the substantia nigra pars compacta increased the extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum. Locomotor activity was increased by systemic administration of a single dose of 1-BnTIQ in a dose-dependent manner. This 1-BnTIQ-induced locomotor activity was attenuated by pre-treatment with SCH23390 (R(+)-7-Chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochlodride) and raclopride, D(1) and D(2) dopaminergic receptor antagonists, respectively. Moreover, 1-BnTIQ induced ipsilateral rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. These results suggest that systemic administration of a single dose of 1-BnTIQ increases striatal extracellular dopamine concentration through activation of dopaminergic nigra striatal neurons via the dopamine transporter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of systemic administration of beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA) and microiontophoretically applied beta-PEA on the spontaneous discharge of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the anesthetized rat were examined. Intravenous administration of beta-PEA (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg) and microiontophoretic applications of beta-PEA caused inhibitory responses in DA neurons. Systemic administration and microiontophoretic applications of beta-PEA induced dose- or current-dependent responses. The systemic beta-PEA-induced inhibitory responses were reversed by pretreatment with the DA D(2) receptor antagonists haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) and sulpiride (10 mg/kg i.p). Pretreatment with reserpine (5 mg/kg i.p. 24 h earlier) did not completely block the systemic administration of beta-PEA (2.5 mg/kg) inhibition. A microdialysis study of freely moving rats demonstrated that the extracellular DA level increased significantly in response to local application of beta-PEA (100 muM) in the VTA via a microdialysis probe, and local application of beta-PEA-stimulated somatodendritic DA release in the VTA. The beta-PEA-induced release of DA was calcium ion-independent and was enhanced by pretreatment with pertussis toxin. These findings indicate that beta-phenylethylamine inhibits DA neuron activity via DA D(2) autoreceptors in the rat VTA and that this inhibitory effect is mediated by the somatodendritic DA release.
Preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics