[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amino acids play a multitude of roles during early embryonic development and have been demonstrated to facilitate improved development of in vivo or in vitro fertilized and parthenogenetic embryos in several species. However, review of emerging literatures, shows that culture milieu of cloned embryos might be different from those of in vitro fertilized embryos. This study therefore, evaluated the effect of nonessential amino acids (NEAA) on yield and quality of porcine embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and compared them with parthenogenetic embryos as control. Analysis showed that, supplementation of NEAA to culture medium significantly improved the blastocyst rate of parthenogenetic (38.9 +/- 8.8 vs. 27.5 +/- 9.0%) as well as SCNT (22.5 +/- 2.2 vs. 13.8 +/- 3.4%) embryos although cleavage rates were not different (P < 0.05). These blastocysts also had higher hatching ability and contained higher cell number than control blastocysts (P < 0.05). TUNEL labeling revealed that blastocysts cultured in the presence of NEAA were less predisposed to biochemical apoptosis and showed lower indices of TUNEL, fragmentation, and total apoptosis than those cultured in the absence of NEAA (P < 0.05). Real-time qRT-PCR analysis further revealed that NEAA decreased the expression ratio of BAX:BCL-xL and enhanced the relative abundance of IGF2 transcripts. Therefore, our study suggests that NEAA improves the yield and quality of cloned porcine embryos by enhancing blastocyst expansion, hatching, and total cell number and decreasing the apoptosis by positively modulating the expression of embryo survival related genes, similar to those reported for in vivo or in vitro fertilized embryos. Nonessential amino acids improve the yield and quality of cloned and parthenogenetic porcine embryos and modulate the expression of embryo survival related genes.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Molecular Reproduction and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium is an essential trace element in conventional tissue culture media to guarantee adequate biosynthesis of selenoprotein in cellular antioxidant system to protect the cells from oxidative damage and apoptosis. This study investigated the effect of selenium, in the form of sodium selenite (SS), on developmental ability and quality of in vitro produced porcine parthenotes. For this, parthenogenetic presumptive diploid zygotes were produced by electroactivation and cultured in the absence or presence of SS at different concentrations (0, 2.5, 25, 250 ng/ml) in a serum-free defined culture medium supplemented with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA). Results showed that, development rate of 2-4 cell stage parthenotes to blastocyst and their cell number was increased while TUNEL index was decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, when SS was supplemented to NCSU23 + PVA. Interestingly, the blastocyst rate and their quality approached to those cultured in NCSU23 + BSA (P < 0.05), thereby suggesting PVA + 25 ng/ml SS to be a partial replacement of BSA. In the presence of PVA, supplementation of SS at a concentration of 25 ng/ml did not improve the cleavage rate of in vitro matured oocytes but there was significant improvement in the blastocyst rate (45.4 +/- 8.8% vs. 12.7 +/- 4.8%), total nuclei number (42.1 +/- 3.5 vs. 31.3 +/- 2.9) and inner cell mass (ICM) rate (29.4 +/- 1.5% vs. 21.3 +/- 1.2%) and decrease in TUNEL index (5.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 12.9 +/- 1.3) compared to nonsupplemented controls. The SS supplementation also decreased the BAX:BCL-xL transcript ratio, increased the expression of ERK1/2 and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and reduced the level of Caspase 3 proteins (P < 0.05). These data thus suggest that SS improves the development rate and quality of porcine parthenotes by preventing oxidative damage and apoptosis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Molecular Reproduction and Development