[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic activation of hemostasis and thrombosis has been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. D-dimer has been used as an indicator for the thrombosis. Here, we investigated the role of the activation of coagulation in patients with metastatic gastric cancer by measuring D-dimer level.
We conducted an observation study of 46 metastatic gastric cancer patients who received palliative chemotherapy (CTx). D-dimer levels were assessed before CTx and at the first response evaluation after CTx.
The overall survival (OS) of patients with pretreatment D-dimer levels <1.5 μg/mL was significantly longer than that of patients with D-dimer levels ≥1.5 μg/mL (22.0 vs 7.9 months, P = 0.019). At the first response evaluation, the mean level of D-dimer was significantly decreased by 2.11 μg/mL in patients either with partial response or stable disease (P = 0.011) whereas the mean level of D-dimer, although the difference did not reach statistical significance, was increased by 2.46 μg/mL in patients with progressive disease. In addition, the OS of patients with D-dimer levels <1.0 μg/mL at the first response evaluation was significantly longer than that of patients with D-dimer levels ≥1.0 μg/mL (22.0 vs 7.0 months, P = 0.009). The lower D-dimer levels (<1.0 μg/mL) at the first response evaluation after CTx was independent predictive factor for better survival in multivariate analysis (P = 0.037).
This study suggests that D-dimer levels may serve as a biomarker for response to CTx and OS in patients with metastatic gastric cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Submucosal injection for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) may effect performing the prophylactic argon plasma coagulation (APC) of non-bleeding visible vessels on ulcer crater.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of visible vessels in iatrogenic ulcers over time after prophylactic APC in colonic EMR.
This study was designed as a prospective study. Between August and November 2013, a total of 40 patients who were admitted underwent prophylactic APC for non-bleeding visible vessels after colonic EMR. After confirming whether visible vessels were completely coagulated or not, the number of visible vessels in ulcers was counted over a specific time period, e.g. 1, 3, 5, or 7 min.
The mean number of visible vessels was significantly higher at 5 min (0.85 ± 1.14) after EMR with prophylactic APC compared to 1 and 3 min (1 min: 0.28 ± 0.60, P < 0.001; 3 min: 0.65 ± 0.87, P = 0.02) and there was no significant difference between 5 and 7 min (P = 0.31). Multivariate analysis showed that the size of the iatrogenic ulcer after EMR was associated with the occurrence of visible vessels (ulcer size >1 vs. ≤0.5 cm: OR 27.32, 95 % CI 2.86-infinity).
A 5-min observation of the ulcer may be advantageous for the assessment of visible vessels after performing colonic EMR with prophylactic APC, and large (>1 cm) iatrogenic ulcers were associated with the occurrence of visible vessels after colonic EMR.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and AimsTherapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) tends to require considerable air insufflation, which results in abdominal pain or distension. We investigated the efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO2) compared with air insufflation when using two different sedation protocols in therapeutic ERCP.Methods
Patients who required therapeutic ERCP were randomly assigned to four groups based on preliminary data: air insufflation with balanced propofol sedation (BPS), air with propofol + opioid sedation (PS), CO2 with BPS, and CO2 with PS. Post-ERCP abdominal pain, distension and nausea by the 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS), and gas volume score (GVS) by the 4-point ordinal scale were measured according to the time interval. Overall satisfaction with sedation, sedation efficacy, and complications were also measured.ResultsThe CO2 with BPS group showed lowest mean VAS score for abdominal pain (immediately after recovery, P=0.002; and 3 h post-ERCP, P=0.047) and distension (immediately after recovery, P=0.018; 3 h post-ERCP, P<0.01; and 24 h post-ERCP, P=0.042). Overall satisfaction with sedation was greater in the CO2 with BPS group (P=0.005). Mean GVS at 2 h and 12 h post-ERCP was significantly lower in the CO2 with BPS group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in procedure or sedation-related complications.ConclusionsCO2 with BPS showed the lowest VAS score for early abdominal pain, distension and GVS, and had a higher score for overall satisfaction for sedation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Digestive Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease is commonly accompanied by colonic dysmotility and causes changes in intestinal smooth muscle contractility. In this study, colonic smooth muscle contractility in a chronic inflammatory condition was investigated using smooth muscle tissues prepared from interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice.
Prepared smooth muscle sections were placed in an organ bath system. Cholinergic and nitrergic neuronal responses were observed using carbachol and electrical field stimulation with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The expression of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) networks, muscarinic receptors, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was observed via immunofluorescent staining.
The spontaneous contractility and expression of ICC networks in the proximal and distal colon was significantly decreased in IL-10(-/-) mice compared to IL-10(+/+) mice. The contractility in response to carbachol was significantly decreased in the proximal colon of IL-10(-/-) mice compared to IL-10(+/+) mice, but no significant difference was found in the distal colon. In addition, the expression of muscarinic receptor type 2 was reduced in the proximal colon of IL-10(-/-) mice. The nictric oxide-mediated relaxation after electrical field stimulation was significantly decreased in the proximal and distal colon of IL-10(-/-) mice. In inflamed colon, the expression of nNOS decreased, whereas the expression of iNOS increased.
These results suggest that damage to the ICC network and NOS system in the proximal and distal colon, as well as damage to the smooth muscle cholinergic receptor in the proximal colon may play an important role in the dysmotility of the inflamed colon.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methimazole (MMI)-induced acute pancreatitis is very rare but severe adverse reaction. A 51-yr-old male developed a high fever, chills, and abdominal pain, two weeks after commencement on MMI for the treatment of Graves' disease. There was no evidence of agranulocytosis, and fever subsided soon after stopping MMI treatment. However, 5 hr after taking an additional dose of MMI, abdominal pain and fever developed again. His symptoms, biochemical, and imaging studies were compatible with acute pancreatitis. After withdrawal of MMI, he showed clinical improvement. This is the first case of MMI-induced acute pancreatitis in Korea. Clinicians should be aware of the rare but possible MMI-induced pancreatitis in patients complaining of fever and abdominal pain.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Korean Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims:
There are few data supporting the diagnostic yield of brush cytology depending on the order of cytologic preparation method or the location or shape of tumors in biliary strictures. We investigated diagnostic yields and variations in brush cytology with direct smear and cell-block preparations according to sampling preparation sequence and tumor location and shape in biliary strictures.
Patients who had undergone ERCP with tissue sampling between August 2009 and April 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Group A was examined using brush cytology with direct smear followed by cell-block with or without biopsy, while the reverse order was performed for group B.
Among 138 enrolled patients, 92 patients (A: 36, B: 56) underwent both brush cytology with direct smear and cell-block preparations. No differences in sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy were observed according to the sampling preparation method and the location or shape of tumors in biliary strictures. The cellularity observed from brush cytology with direct smear was better than that from cell-block according to the location of the tumor (p<0.01). The diagnostic yield was increased in both groups with addition of an endobiliary biopsy.
No difference in diagnostic accuracy was observed between the sequences of preparation for brush cytology with direct smear and cell-block techniques. Brush cytology showed better cellularity for diagnosis.
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm arising from FDCs. The exact origin of FDCs remains unclear; both a hematopoietic lineage origin and a stromal cell derivation have been proposed. Proliferation of FDCs can lead to benign reactive lesions or generate neoplastic conditions. The lesions are most commonly found in lymph nodes and usually involve the head and neck area. Castleman's disease is a rare non-neoplasitic lymphoproliferative disorder. Rare cases of hyaline-vascular Castleman's disease have been associated with FDC sarcoma, but a clonal relationship has not been convincingly demonstrated. A pathway toward tumor evolution, beginning with hyperplasia and dysplasia of FDCs, has been proposed. Despite this known association between Castleman's disease and FDC sarcoma, there have only been few reported cases of sarcoma arising as a complication of pre-existing Castleman's disease, especially in abdominal lesions. We describe here a 51-year-old female with an FDC sarcoma arising from unicentric, hyaline-vascular type Castleman's disease in an intra-abdominal mass. Pathologically, the lesion showed a series of changes during the process of transformation from Castleman's disease to FDC sarcoma. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2013;62:131-134).
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brunner's gland hamartoma is a rare benign small bowel neoplasm and most lesions are small and asymptomatic. However, large hamartoma-related obstructive symptoms and hemorrhage related to tumor ulceration manifest as hematemesis or melena. The exact pathogenesis if these lesions is not well known, but they are thought to be frequently associated with Helicobacter pylori infections and chronic pancreatitis. We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with melena due to a large pedunculated Brunner's gland hamartoma arising from the pylorus. It was successfully removed by endoscopic mucosal resection with piecemeal technique because of too large tumor size for application of a conventional snare.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Case Reports in Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aim:
Endoscopic biliary drainage (BD) is an effective palliative treatment for acute cholangitis. Transnasal endoscopy (TNE) using an ultraslim endoscope can be less stressful and has limited hemodynamic effects compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography using a conventional duodenoscope. Here, we evaluate the clinical usefulness of direct BD by TNE in critically ill patients with acute cholangitis who had undergone endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) previously.
Twenty-three patients with severe-to-moderate acute cholangitis who had undergone ES previously were enrolled prospectively. BD was achieved by TNE, using an ultraslim upper endoscope with a 5-Fr nasobiliary drainage catheter and/or a plastic stent. The technical and clinical success, as well as the safety, of the procedure were investigated.
A total of 23 patients were enrolled, including 17 with bile duct stones. The severity of the cholangitis was severe in nine (39.1%) and moderate in 14 patients (60.9%). The technical success rate was 95.7% (22/23). Nasobiliary drainage was performed in 15 patients, a plastic stent was placed in three, and both treatments were used in four patients. In three patients, direct BD by TNE was achieved in the intensive care unit without fluoroscopy. Direct cholangioscopy for distal common bile duct was performed in nine patients (40.9%), and three patients underwent immediate stone extraction under endoscopic visualization. Clinical improvement was achieved in 20/23 (87.0%) of patients. No significant procedure-related complications occurred.
Direct BD by TNE may be useful in critically ill patients with severe-to-moderate acute cholangitis who had undergone ES previously.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A concise asymmetric total synthesis of (S)-dapoxetine from commercially available 3-chloropropiophenone is described. The key step includes a highly stereoselective amination of chiral benzylic ether, with the retention of stereochemistry, using chlorosulfonyl isocyanate.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Tetrahedron Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haddad syndrome is a form of neurocristopathy characterized by a combination of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and Hirschsprung disease (HD). Although Haddad syndrome is extremely rare, awareness of the combination of long-segment HD in Haddad syndrome as well as radiographic manifestations may help to ensure a timely diagnosis as well as to facilitate optimal treatment of this unusual condition. We report a case of Haddad syndrome with long-segment, intestinal aganglionosis in a newborn infant. This report emphasizes the features of HD in children with Haddad syndrome and suggests that specific attention be given to its interpretation on plain radiographs.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Clinical imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie syndrome) associated with herpes zoster is extremely rare, and few cases have been reported. An 81-year-old woman diagnosed with herpes zoster was referred for accompanying colonic ileus. The diameter of the cecum was 7 cm and a computed tomographic scan showed no definite obstructive cause. Because the patient showed minimal improvement with conservative treatment, endoscopic colonic decompression was performed successfully. Previous studies revealed that the treatment of Ogilvie syndrome associated with herpes zoster does not differ from that of other conditions, and the role of the varicella-zoster virus in this syndrome is unclear. Here, we present the first case of Ogilvie syndrome associated with herpes zoster in Korea, which was improved by endoscopic colonic decompression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of the BACTEC MGIT (Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube) 960 system for mycobacteria culture and immunochromatographic assay to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in positive MGIT culture. METHODS: Mycobacteria-culture-positive cases were retrospectively analyzed from December 2010 to July 2011. The detection rates and the recovery times of the mycobacteria between the Ogawa media and the MGIT were compared. An immunochromatographic assay (ICA) (SD BIO-LINE) was also performed in the positive MGIT culture for identification, and the results were compared with those of the Ogawa media in the Korea National Tuberculosis Association. RESULTS: Among the 261 patients (M:F, 168:93; mean age, 61.6+/-17.16 yrs), 450 specimens (sputa, 365; bronchial washing, 61; and pleural effusion, 24) were found positive with mycobacteria. Mycobacteria were grown both on the MGIT and Ogawa media in 310 cases (68.9%); only on the MGIT in 115 cases (22.6%); and only on the Ogawa media in 25 cases (5.5%) (p<0.05).The recovery time was 28.2+/-8.9 days in the Ogawa media and 11.1+/-5.8 days in the MGIT (p<0.05). Among the 127 cases from the positive MGIT culture, all 92 cases that were confirmed as MTB cases bythe Korea National Tuberculosis Association were identified as MTB by ICA, with 100% sensitivity. CONCLUSION: MGIT increases the detection rate and shortens the recovery time of mycobacteria in clinical respiratory specimens, and the TB Ag MPT64 kit using ICA is useful in identifying MTB in a positive MGIT culture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract occurs in about 76% of patients who are diabetic for more than 10 years. Although diabetes-related dysfunctions of the stomach such as gastroparesis have been extensively studied over the recent years, studies about the mechanism underlying colonic symptoms in long-term diabetes models are rare. Therefore, the goal of our study was to clarify the nature of colonic dysfunction in a long-term diabetic rat model.
The characteristics of colonic smooth muscle were investigated in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. These results were compared to those obtained from Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) control rats.
Spontaneous contractility of the proximal colon was significantly decreased in the diabetic rats compared to the controls, while the spontaneous contractility of the distal colon was not. The number of interstitial cells of Cajal networks in the proximal colon was greatly decreased in diabetic rats compared to the controls. Contractility of the proximal colon in response to carbachol, an acetylcholine receptor agonist, was significantly weaker in the diabetic rats. In addition, the degree of relaxation in response to nitric oxide in the proximal colon of diabetic rats also appeared to be attenuated.
The results from our study suggest that the decrease of interstitial cells of Cajal network, cholinergic receptors, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the proximal colon plays important roles in diabetes-related dysfunction of colon.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate recently developed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay kit to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in respiratory specimens. METHODS: We assessed the positive rate of the real-time PCR assay to detect MTB and NTM in 87 culture-positive specimens (37 sputum, 50 bronchial washing), which were performed real-time PCR by using Real-Q(TM) MTB&NTM Kit from January 2009 to June 2009, at Gyeongsang University Hospital. To compare the efficacy with the TB-PCR assay, we evaluated 63 culture-positive specimens (19 sputum, 44 bronchial washing) for MTB or NTM, which were performed TB-PCR by using ABSOLUTE(TM) MTB II PCR Kit from March 2008 to August 2008. RESULTS: Among 87 specimens tested using real-time PCR, MTB and NTM were cultured in 58 and 29, respectively. The positive rate of real-time PCR assay to detect MTB was 71% (22/31) and 92.6% (25/27) in AFB stain-negative and stain-positive specimens. For NTM, the positive rate of real-time PCR was 11.1% (2/18) and 72.7% (8/11) in AFB stain-negative and stain-positive specimens. Among 63 specimens performed using TB-PCR, MTB and NTM were cultured in 46 and 17, respectively. The positive rate of TB-PCR was 61.7% (21/34) and 100% (12/12) in AFB stain-negative and stain-positive specimens. TB-PCR was negative in all NTM-cultured 17 specimens. CONCLUSION: TB/NTM real-time PCR assay is useful to differentiate MTB and NTM in AFB stain-positive respiratory specimens and it is as effective in detecting MTB with TB-PCR.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotide chips targeting the bacterial internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the 16S-23S rRNA gene, which contains
genus- and species-specific regions, were developed and evaluated. Forty-three sequences were designed consisting of 1 universal,
3 Gram stain-specific, 9 genus-specific, and 30 species-specific probes. The specificity of the probes was confirmed using
bacterial type strains including 54 of 52 species belonging to 18 genera. The performance of the probes was evaluated using
825 consecutive samples that were positive by blood culture in broth medium. Among the 825 clinical specimens, 708 (85.8%)
were identified correctly by the oligonucleotide chip. Most (536 isolates, or 75.7%) were identified as staphylococci, Escherichia coli, or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thirty-seven isolates (4.5%) did not bind to the corresponding specific probes. Most of these also were staphylococci, E. coli, or K. pneumoniae and accounted for 6.3% of total number of the species. Sixty-two specimens (7.5%) did not bind the genus- or species-specific
probes because of lack of corresponding specific probes. Among them, Acinetobacter baumannii was the single most frequent isolate (26/62). The oligonucleotide chip was highly specific and sensitive in detecting the
causative agents of bacteremia directly from positive blood cultures.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of clinical microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chagas' disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite, which is transmitted by blood-sucking bugs or through blood transfusion or organ transplantation. It is endemic in Central and South America. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of immunochromatographic SD Bioline Chagas Ab Rapid (Standard Diagnostics, Korea) with three immunochromatographic kits for the detection of antibodies to T. cruzi.
A total of 320 serum specimens (140 positive and 180 negative) from National Reference Laboratory for Chagas and Leishmaniasis (NRLCL, Honduras) were used for the evaluation of four different test kits: SD Bioline Chagas Ab Rapid, Chagas Stat-Pak Assay (Chembio Diagnositc Systems, USA), OnSite Chagas Ab Rapid test-Cassette (CTK Biotech, USA), and Trypanosoma Detect Rapid Test (InBios International, USA). The results of four kits were compared with those of NRLCL. Cross-reactivity with other parasites was also evaluated.
Compared with the results of NRLCL, sensitivity and specificity were 99.3% and 100% for both of SD and Chembio kits, 97.2% and 100% for InBios kit, and 97.9% and 98.8% for CTK kit. None of other parasites showed cross-reactivity.
SD Bioline Chagas Ab Rapid kit showed test results highly correlating with those of National Reference Laboratory for Chagas and Leishmaniasis. It can be used for a rapid detection of Chagas' disease in endemic region and monitoring the disease among overseas travelers in Korea.
Preview · Article · Mar 2009 · The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between post-endoscopic resection (ER) scars on magnifying endoscopy (ME) and the pathological diagnosis in order to validate the clinical significance of ME.
From January, 2007 to June, 2008, 124 patients with 129 post-ER scar lesions were enrolled. Mucosal pit patterns on ME were compared with conventional endoscopy (CE) findings and histological results obtained from targeted biopsies.
CE findings showed nodular scars (53/129), erythematous scars (85/129), and ulcerative scars (4/129). The post-ER scars were classified into four pit patterns of sulci and ridges on ME: (I) 47 round; (II) 54 short rod or tubular; (III) 19 branched or gyrus-like; and (IV) 9 destroyed pits. Sensitivity and specificity were 88.9% and 62.5%, respectively, by the presence of nodularity on CE. Erythematous lesions were high sensitivity (100%), but specificity was as low as 36.7%. The range of the positive predictive value (PPV) on CE was as low as 10.6%-25%. Nine type IV pit patterns were diagnosed as tumor lesions, and 120 cases of type I-III pit patterns revealed non-neoplastic lesions. Thus, the sensitivity, specificity, and the PPV of ME were 100%.
ME findings can detect the presence of tumor in post-ER scar lesions, and make evident the biopsy target site in short-term follow-up. Further large-scale and long-term studies are needed to determine whether ME can replace endoscopic biopsy.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · World Journal of Gastroenterology