[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals convicted of committing a domestic violent crime are often court mandated to attend a Batterer Intervention Program (BIP). Evidence of the effectiveness of these programs, however, is inconclusive largely because of the diversity in approaches used by BIPs. In a pre-test/post-test design, the current study assessed outcomes associated with one specific BIP: a counseling-based, non-punitive psychoeducational program designed to treat both male and female domestic violence offenders. A sample of 149 clients completed a comprehensive survey both prior to and upon completion of the BIP. Participation in this BIP fostered attitudes known to be associated with nonviolence, including perceptions of accountability, anger management, indications of safety planning, and reported desire for change. Additionally, self-reported levels of psychological and physical violence decreased from pre- to post-treatment. Theoretical and therapeutic implications for BIPs are discussed.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Family Violence
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract We assessed the association between self-reported Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) and Facebook overlap. Ninety-two participants completed online measures of IOS and investment model constructs. Researchers then recorded Facebook data from participants' profile pages. Results from multilevel models revealed that IOS predicted Facebook overlap. Further, Facebook overlap was associated with commitment and investment in ways comparable to self-reported IOS. These findings suggest that overlap in Facebook profiles can be used to measure relationship closeness.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Journal of Social Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Do men base their self-worth on relationships less than do women? In an assessment of lay beliefs, men and women alike indicated that men are less reliant on relationships as a source of self-worth than are women (Study 1). Yet relationships may make a different important contribution to the self-esteem of men. Men reported basing their self-esteem on their own relationship status (whether or not they were in a relationship) more than did women, and this link was statistically mediated by the perceived importance of relationships as a source of social standing (Studies 1 and 2). Finally, when relationship status was threatened, men displayed increased social-standing concerns, whereas women displayed increased interdependence concerns (Study 3). Together, these findings demonstrate that both men and women rely on relationships for self-worth, but that they derive self-esteem from relationships in different ways.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Psychological Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wives are considered more effective support providers than are husbands. As support promotes healthy physiological functioning, husbands should derive greater health benefits from spousal support than do wives. Yet, a growing literature indicates that men are relatively insulated from the physiological consequences of marital interactions, suggesting that men may not reap the benefits that support can provide. To examine gender differences in physiological responses to spousal support, couples completed a 6-day diary task that assessed daily support exchanges and diurnal cortisol slopes. On days of greater spousal support, wives exhibited steeper cortisol slopes, whereas husbands exhibited flattened cortisol slopes. Furthermore, for husbands, the association between daily support and cortisol was moderated by problem-solving efficacy; the less efficacious husbands perceived their problem-solving abilities, the flatter their cortisol slopes on high support days. All results held controlling for daily stress and marital satisfaction. Thus, support may incur costs for husbands’ health.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Social Psychological and Personality Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study evaluated the association between maternal disrupted communication and the reactivity and regulation of the psychobiology of the stress response in infancy. Mothers and infants were recruited via the National Health Service from the 20% most economically impoverished data zones in a suburban region of Scotland. Mothers (N=63; M age=25.9) and their 4-month-old infants (35 boys, 28 girls) were videotaped interacting for 8min, including a still-face procedure as a stress inducer and a 5-min coded recovery period. Saliva samples were collected from the dyads prior to, during, and after the still-face procedure and later assayed for cortisol. Level of disruption in maternal communication with the infant was coded from the 5-min videotaped interaction during the recovery period which followed the still-face procedure. Severely disrupted maternal communication was associated with lower levels of maternal cortisol and a greater divergence between mothers' and infants' cortisol levels. Results point to low maternal cortisol as a possible mechanism contributing to the mother's difficulty in sensitively attuning to her infant's cues, which in turn has implications for the infant's reactivity to and recovery from a mild stressor in early infancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Participant sex and a theorized correlate of biological sex, relational interdependence, were tested as relative predictors of the extent to which daters 1) missed and 2) used emotional support to cope when geographically separated from their dating partners. One hundred twenty-four daters completed multiple measures of missing and coping during their colleges' winter breaks. Results from regression analyses indicated that levels of missing and seeking emotional support differed as a function of biological sex. Further, relational interdependence was reliably associated with missing and seeking emotional support in theoretically consistent ways. Mediation analyses highlighted the importance of considering relational interdependence or other individual differences that covary with biological sex when studying close relationship phenomena.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · The Journal of Social Psychology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Working from the perspective of interdependence theory and models of relationship maintenance, this study examined the functional role of missing a romantic partner during a brief geographic separation. Eighty-eight undergraduate students involved in romantic relationships completed a measure of commitment prior to separation, and measures of missing a romantic partner, relationship maintenance, and physical infidelity during their winter break. Commitment was associated with participants’ self-reports of missing their romantic partners. Further, commitment predicted participants’ use of relationship maintenance strategies (i.e., positivity, openness, and assurances) and physical infidelity during the separation. These associations were mediated by how much participants missed their romantic partners. Findings are discussed in terms of interdependence theory and the growing literature on geographic distance between relationship partners.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of social support role (i.e., recipient versus provider) and experimentally manipulated closeness on men's and women's cortisol responses during an acute stress paradigm.
We manipulated psychological closeness (high versus low) between 50 same-sex stranger pairs and subsequently randomly assigned individuals to either prepare a speech (i.e., support recipient) or provide support to the speech presenter (i.e., support provider).
When receiving support, cortisol responses of men in the high closeness condition increased over time relative to a) men in the low closeness condition and b) women in the high closeness condition. Cortisol responses of female support recipients did not differ as a function of condition. For support providers, whereas both men's and women's cortisol declined throughout the procedure, the decline for men was steeper than the decline for women.
With few exceptions, psychological closeness, sex, and social support role interacted in theoretically consistent ways and each significantly contributed to the pattern of cortisol responses observed in men and women during a standardized acute stress paradigm. This work expands the growing literature on potential mechanisms underlying the social support-health link. Further, the employed methodology highlights the utility of borrowing established paradigms from the close relationships literature to help illuminate specific interpersonal characteristics that might affect social support dynamics in naturally existing relationships and at the same time control for extraneous variables.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Psychosomatic Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the impact of an individual difference variable, relationship-focused thinking, on women's acute salivary cortisol responses during and after a guided imagery task. Specifically, 29 healthy women, all of whom were experiencing high levels of passionate love, but varied on levels of relationship-focused thinking, were assigned to one of two experimental conditions: a partner reflection condition or a cross-sex friend reflection condition. Results indicated that women experiencing passionate love evidenced increased cortisol levels when asked to reflect on their romantic partner and relationship relative to women asked to reflect on a cross-sex friendship, but this difference was particularly pronounced and relatively long-lasting for those women characterized by a high amount of relationship-focused thinking. Our study significantly expands extant work on the passionate love–cortisol link by isolating the impact of a specific psychological variable, relationship-focused thinking, on the physiological experience of falling in love. We believe our work highlights the advances that can be made when established work in the close relationships and neuroendocrine fields are integrated.