[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of cancer (IOC) on subsequent quality of life (QOL), 718 long-term haematological cancer survivors completed validated psychosocial, functional and QOL scales, including IOC. Fifteen percent reported significant psychological distress, 18% high levels of fatigue and 10% moderate to severe functional impairment. These groups of participants also showed poorer QOL. There were no significant differences in psychological distress (P = 0·76), fatigue (P = 0·23) or functional impairment (P = 0·74) across different cancer subtypes. Two separate hierarchical regression analyses examined the combined association of disease-type, psychosocial and other factors on negative and positive IOC scores respectively. Higher negative IOC scores were significantly associated (P ≤ 0·001) with medical comorbidity, psychological distress, lower social support, high fatigue levels and functional impairment. Paediatric patients (diagnosed at <17 years) were significantly more negative than adult patients (P = 0·001); greater years since diagnosis was significantly (P < 0·001) associated with less negative IOC. Higher positive IOC was associated with acute leukaemia (P = 0·01); lower positive IOC with paediatric patients (P < 0·001), white ethnicity (P < 0·001), higher education (P = 0·003), no partner (P = 0·01) and lower social support (P = 0·01). Screening for medical comorbidity, psychological distress and fatigue identifies those needing most support and should allow earlier interventions to address negative and positive IOC to improve the well-being of cancer survivors.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported presentation serum selenium level to be predictive of outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This has now been studied in a further 430 patients, 163 with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 156 with Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL), and 111 with Follicular Lymphoma (FL). Serum selenium was below the UK normal reference range in 45% of patients, and correlated with serum albumin (r=0·24-0·46, P<0·001-0·003) in all tumour types. Independent predictors of presentation selenium were; French-American-British subtype and albumin (P<0·001 for both) in AML, haemoglobin (P=0·002) and B-symptoms (P=0·01) in HL, and albumin (P<0·001) in FL. In AML and HL, response to first line therapy was lower in patients with low serum selenium, but selenium was no longer predictive of response when other variables were entered into a multivariate model. Low selenium was also associated with a worse overall survival in FL [Hazard Ratio (HR) 2·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·4, 4·0] and a trend to a worse overall survival in AML (HR 1·43, 95% CI 0·96, 2·13) by univariate Cox regression analysis, but not by multivariate analysis. In conclusion, low serum selenium is associated with a worse outcome in patients with haematological malignancies, but is not independently predictive, suggesting that it reflects other factors.
Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intensification of chemotherapy in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved outcome. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate outcome of patients treated with an intensive regimen based on that used in the German national trials, but adapted in order to enable treatment to be given mainly on an out-patient basis, once complete remission (CR) had been achieved. Between 2000 and 2007, 53 patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL (40 with B-ALL and 13, T-ALL) received treatment. CR was achieved in 47/53 (89%), with no significant difference in CR rate between B- and T-ALL. At a median follow-up of 6.3 years, 25 patients are alive, 23 (43%) in 1st CR, and 20 have relapsed. No patient died in CR due to treatment-related toxicity. At 5 years, overall survival was 50%, and disease-free survival, 53%. Thirty four of the 47 patients in whom CR was achieved completed therapy and are evaluable for duration of hospital stay and number of Day Unit attendances. The median time in hospital during the year of treatment was 10 weeks (range, 6-44) with no significant difference between patients ≤ vs. >30 years old. It was possible to administer this intensive protocol largely on an out-patient basis without compromising patient safety.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Annals of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium (LLBC) evaluated the prognostic value of IHC biomarkers in a large series of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Clinical data and tumor samples were retrieved from 12 studies from Europe and North America, with patients treated before or after the rituximab era. Using tissue microarrays from 1514 patients, IHC for BCL2, BCL6, CD5, CD10, MUM1, Ki67, and HLA-DR was performed and scored according to previously validated protocols. Optimal cut points predicting overall survival of patients treated in the rituximab era could only be determined for CD5 (P = .003) and Ki67 (P = .02), whereas such cut points for BCL2, BCL6, HLA-DR, and MUM1 could only be defined in patients not receiving rituximab. A prognostic model for patients treated in the rituximab era identified 4 risk groups using BCL2, Ki67, and International Prognostic Index (IPI) with improved discrimination of low-risk patients. Newly recognized correlations between specific biomarkers and IPI highlight the importance of carefully controlling for clinical and biologic factors in prognostic models. These data demonstrate that the IPI remains the best available index in patients with DLBCL treated with rituximab and chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with follicular lymphoma can have long survival times, but disease progression typically occurs 3-5 years after initial treatment. We assessed the potential benefit of 2 years of rituximab maintenance after first-line treatment in patients with follicular lymphoma receiving a rituximab plus chemotherapy regimen.
Methods The randomised, open-label PRIMA study was undertaken in 223 centres in 25 countries. 1217 patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma needing systemic therapy received one of three non-randomised immunochemotherapy induction regimens used in routine practice. 1019 patients achieving a complete or partial response were then randomly assigned to receive 2 years of rituximab maintenance therapy (375 mg/m(2) every 8 weeks) or observation. Treatment was assigned equally by centralised block randomisation, stratified by induction regimen, response, region, and centre. Neither the participants nor those giving the interventions, assessing outcomes, and analysing data were masked to group assignments. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00140582.
Findings 505 patients were assigned to rituximab maintenance and 513 to observation (one patient died during randomisation). With a median follow-up of 36 months (IQR 30-42), PFS was 74.9% (95% CI 70.9-78.9) in the rituximab maintenance group (130 patients progressed) and 57.6% (53.2-62.0) in the observation group (218 progressed; hazard ratio [HR] 0.55, 95% CI 0.44-0.68, p
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination of bortezomib and rituximab was evaluated in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), follicular lymphoma (FL) and Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM), in a Phase I and later, a randomized Phase II study. In the randomized study, 42 patients with recurrent/refractory disease received either: bortezomib 1·3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 of a 3-week cycle with rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on day 1 (21 patients) or: bortezomib 1·6 mg/m(2) and rituximab on days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of a 5-week cycle (with rituximab being given only in cycles 1 and 4).Twenty-eight patients were withdrawn (toxicity 16, progression 7, and 'patient choice' 5). The main toxicities were neurological, gastro-intestinal and haematological. The overall response rate was 28/42(67%) and by histology: MCL 11/19, FL 8/15, and WM 9/10. Ten of 28 responding patients remained progression-free at 1-3·5 years. Toxicity and efficacy were equivalent between the two groups. The combination has significant toxicity but is effective, particularly in patients with WM.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE The randomized First-Line Indolent Trial (FIT) was conducted in patients with advanced follicular lymphoma (FL), to evaluate the safety and efficacy of yttrium-90 ((90)Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan given as consolidation of complete or partial remission. This study of minimal residual disease was undertaken in parallel, to determine the rate of conversion from bcl-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -detectable to -undetectable status and the corresponding effect on progression-free survival (PFS). PATIENTS AND METHODS Blood samples from 414 patients ((90)Y-ibritumomab, n = 208; control, n = 206) were evaluated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR); 186 were found to have the bcl-2 rearrangement and were thus eligible for inclusion in the RQ-PCR analysis. Results Overall, 90% of treated patients converted from bcl-2 PCR-detectable to -undetectable disease status, compared with 36% in the control group. Treatment significantly prolonged median PFS in patients converting to bcl-2 PCR-undetectable status (40.8 v 24.0 months in the control group; P < .01, hazard ratio [HR], 0.399). In patients who had bcl-2 PCR-detectable disease at random assignment, treatment significantly prolonged median PFS (38.4 v 8.2 months in the control group; P < .01, HR, 0.293). CONCLUSION Eradication of PCR-detectable disease occurred more frequently after treatment with (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and was associated with prolongation of PFS.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is genetically characterized by the presence of the t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation in approximately 90% of cases. In contrast to FL carrying the t(14;18), their t(14;18)-negative counterparts are less well studied about their immunohistochemical, genetic, molecular, and clinical features. Within a previously published series of 184 FLs grades 1 to 3A with available gene expression data, we identified 17 FLs lacking the t(14;18). Comparative genomic hybridization and high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array profiling showed that gains/amplifications of the BCL2 gene locus in 18q were restricted to the t(14;18)-positive FL subgroup. A comparison of gene expression profiles showed an enrichment of germinal center B cell-associated signatures in t(14;18)-positive FL, whereas activated B cell-like, NFkappaB, proliferation, and bystander cell signatures were enriched in t(14;18)-negative FL. These findings were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in an independent validation series of 84 FLs, in which 32% of t(14;18)-negative FLs showed weak or absent CD10 expression and 91% an increased Ki67 proliferation rate. Although overall survival did not differ between FL with and without t(14;18), our findings suggest distinct molecular features of t(14;18)-negative FL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aurora kinases play a critical role in regulating mitosis and cell division, and their overexpression has been implicated in the survival and proliferation of human cancer. In this study, we report the in vitro and in vivo activities of AZD1152, a compound that has selectivity for aurora B kinase, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, primary AML samples, and cord blood cells. AZD1152 exerted antiproliferative or cytotoxic effects in all cell lines studied, inhibited the phosphorylation of histone H3 (pHis H3) on Ser10 in a dose-dependent manner, and resulted in cells with >4N DNA content. THP-1 cells treated with AZD1152 accumulated in a state of polyploidy and showed a senescent response to the drug, in contrast to the apoptotic response seen in other cell lines. Accordingly, AZD1152 profoundly affected the growth of AML cell lines and primary AML in an in vivo xenotransplantation model. However, concentration-dependent effects on cell growth, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression were also observed when human cord blood and primary lineage-negative stem and progenitor cells were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that the inhibition of aurora B kinase may be a useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of AML and that further exploration of dosing and treatment schedules is warranted in clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed the recruitment to an acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) trial (AML15) in a single centre, evaluated whether outcome was influenced by trial entry and whether the trial population could be considered representative of all AML patients by retrospective comparison of patient characteristics, trial entry and outcome for 81 consecutive patients (<60 years). All patients were considered for trial entry, however the trial was not offered to 12 (15%) patients. These patients had a worse outcome than the 69 (85%) patients that were invited to participate (P = 0.04). Sixteen patients (23%) invited to participate in the trial declined and were treated on equivalent protocols. These patients had a similar outcome to those who accepted entry into the trial (P = 0.2). These results suggested that physicians exert a selection bias when evaluating patients for trial entry. Thus the overall survival estimates generated from large phase III trials may indicate that the outcome for patients with AML is better than the outcome experienced in the 'real' world. Furthermore, patients who are considered appropriate for randomization into a trial, but decline entry, experience a similar outcome to those treated on trial when treated in an equivalent manner.
Preview · Article · Feb 2009 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results of class prediction and the determination of prognostic markers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been variably reported. Apart from biological variations, this may be caused by differences in laboratory techniques, scoring definitions and inter- and intra-observer variation. In this study, an international collaboration of clinical lymphoma research groups has concentrated on validation and standardisation of immunohistochemistry of the currently potentially interesting prognostic markers in DLBCL.
Sections of a tissue microarray with 36 cases of DLBCL were stained in eight laboratories with antibodies to CD20, CD5, bcl-2, bcl-6, CD10, HLA-DR, MUM-1 and Ki-67 according to local methods. The study was performed in two rounds, firstly focused on the evaluation of laboratory staining variation, and secondly on the scoring variation.
Different techniques resulted in highly variable results and poor reproducibility for almost all markers. Reproducibility of the nuclear markers was highly sensitive to technical variations, including immunological enhancement techniques (agreements 34%). With elimination of variation due to staining and uniformly agreed on scoring criteria, significant improvement was seen; however less so for bcl-6 and Ki-67 (agreement 53-58%). Absence of internal controls that preclude scoring, significantly influenced the results for CD10 and bcl-6.
Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry for subclassification of DLBCL is feasible, but with varying rates of concordance for different markers and only using optimised techniques and strict scoring criteria. These findings may explain the wide variation in prognostic impact reported in the literature. Harmonisation of techniques and centralised consensus review appears mandatory when using immunohistochemical biomarkers for treatment stratification.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of clinical pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is rare. As a result, there is limited guidance for clinicians on how to manage these patients. Detailed information was collected on 16 patients, the largest number to date, with meningeal or parenchymal CNS-HL confirmed by histopathology (15) or CSF (1). Eight patients presented with CNS-HL at diagnosis, 2 of whom had isolated CNS disease, while 8 patients developed CNS-HL at relapse. Patients received a range of treatments including surgery or radiation alone, radiation with chemotherapy, or chemotherapy alone. Median overall survival for all 16 patients was 60.9 months from first diagnosis of HL (systemic or CNS) and 43.8 months from diagnosis of CNS-HL. Although a majority of patients have died, long-term survival is possible in patients who achieve a complete response to treatment, particularly those who present with CNS involvement or involvement of the CNS is the sole site of relapsed disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results of immunohistochemical class prediction and prognostic stratification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been remarkably various thus far. Apart from biologic variations, this may be caused by differences in laboratory techniques, scoring definitions, and inter- and intraobserver variations. In this study, an international collaboration of clinical lymphoma research groups from Europe, United States, and Canada concentrated on validation and standardization of immunohistochemistry of the currently potentially interesting prognostic markers in DLBCL.
Sections of a tissue microarray from 36 patients with DLBCL were stained in eight laboratories with antibodies to CD20, CD5, bcl-2, bcl-6, CD10, HLA-DR, MUM1, and MIB-1 according to local methods. The study was performed in two rounds firstly focused on the evaluation of laboratory staining variation and secondly on the scoring variation.
Different laboratory staining techniques resulted in unexpectedly highly variable results and very poor reproducibility in scoring for almost all markers. No single laboratory stood out as uniformly poor or excellent. With elimination of variation due to staining, high agreement was found for CD20, HLA-DR, and CD10. Poor agreement was found for bcl-6 and Ki-67. Optimization of techniques and uniformly agreed on scoring criteria improved reproducibility.
This study shows that semiquantitative immunohistochemistry for subclassification of DLBCL is feasible and reproducible, but exhibits varying rates of concordance for different markers. These findings may explain the wide variation of biomarker prognostic impact reported in the literature. Harmonization of techniques and centralized consensus review appears mandatory when using immunohistochemical biomarkers for treatment stratification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis of follicular lymphomas (FL) is heterogeneous and numerous treatments may be proposed. A validated prognostic index (PI) would help in evaluating and choosing these treatments. Characteristics at diagnosis were collected from 4167 patients with FL diagnosed between 1985 and 1992. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to propose a PI. This index was then tested on 919 patients. Five adverse prognostic factors were selected: age (> 60 years vs < or = 60 years), Ann Arbor stage (III-IV vs I-II), hemoglobin level (< 120 g/L vs > or = 120 g/L), number of nodal areas (> 4 vs < or = 4), and serum LDH level (above normal vs normal or below). Three risk groups were defined: low risk (0-1 adverse factor, 36% of patients), intermediate risk (2 factors, 37% of patients, hazard ratio [HR] of 2.3), and poor risk (> or = 3 adverse factors, 27% of patients, HR = 4.3). This Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) appeared more discriminant than the International Prognostic Index proposed for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Results were very similar in the confirmation group. The FLIPI may be used for improving treatment choices, comparing clinical trials, and designing studies to evaluate new treatments.