[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Diabetic nephropathy, leading to end-stage renal disease, has a considerable impact on public health and the social economy. However, there are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy in Japan. The aims of this prospective cohort study are to obtain clinical data and urine samples for revising the clinical staging of diabetic nephropathy, and developing new diagnostic markers for early diabetic nephropathy.
The Japanese Society of Nephrology established a nationwide, web-based, and prospective registry system. On the system, there are two basic registries; the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (JRBR), and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (JKDR). In addition to the two basic registries, we established a new prospective registry to the system; the Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study (JDNCS), which collected physical and laboratory data.
We analyzed the data of 321 participants (106 female, 215 male; average age 65 years) in the JDNCS. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 130.1 and 72.3 mmHg, respectively. Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 33.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Proteinuria was 1.8 g/gCr, and serum levels of albumin were 3.6 g/dl. The majority of the JDNCS patients presented with preserved eGFR and low albuminuria or low eGFR and advanced proteinuria. In the JRBR and JKDR registries, 484 and 125 participants, respectively, were enrolled as having diabetes mellitus. In comparison with the JRBR and JKDR registries, the JDNCS was characterized by diabetic patients presenting with low proteinuria with moderately preserved eGFR.
There are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy to evaluate prognosis in Japan. Future analysis of the JDNCS will provide clinical insights into the epidemiology and renal and cardiovascular outcomes of type 2 diabetic patients in Japan.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of chronic kidney disease in humans is associated with a risk of kidney function loss as well as the development of cardiovascular disease. Fibrocytes have been shown to contribute to organ fibrosis. In this study, the presence of fibrocytes was investigated immunohistochemically in kidney biopsy specimens from 100 patients with chronic kidney disease. In addition, 6 patients with thin basement membrane disease were studied as a disease control. In patients with chronic kidney disease, the infiltration of fibrocytes was observed mainly in the interstitium. The number of interstitial fibrocytes in patients with chronic kidney disease was higher than that in patients with thin basement membrane disease. The number of infiltrated fibrocytes in the interstitium correlated well with the severity of tubulointerstitial lesions, such as interstitial fibrosis, in patients with chronic kidney disease. In addition, there were significant correlations between the number of interstitial fibrocytes and the number of CD68-positive macrophages in the interstitium as well as urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2 levels. In particular, there was an inverse correlation between the number of interstitial fibrocytes and kidney function at the time of biopsy. Finally, the numbers of interstitial fibrocytes and macrophages as well as urinary CCL2 levels were significantly decreased during convalescence induced by glucocorticoid therapy. These results suggest that fibrocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease through the interaction with macrophages as well as CCL2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) contribute to autoimmune disease progression and pathogenesis. Mature DC have been reported to secrete high mobility group box protein (HMGB-1), a novel inflammatory cytokine, via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. We investigated whether DC are involved in progression of autoimmune diseases followed by secretion of HMGB-1 via p38 MAPK activation in a lupus-prone mouse model.
FR167653, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, was given orally from 3 months of age in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. Cultured DC, treated with or without FR167653, were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
Inhibition of p38 MAPK led to a reduction in the number of CD11c-positive cells, including those with the mature phenotype, in the diseased kidney and spleen, which resulted in improvement of kidney pathology in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. The number of CD11c-positive cells in circulation was also reduced. HMGB-1 protein and transcripts detected in the diseased kidney, and the number of cells dual-positive for HMGB-1 and CD11c, were reduced by inhibition of p38 MAPK. Maturation of cultured DC and increased cytokines, including HMGB-1, in the supernatant were inhibited by FR167653 treatment. These results suggest that DC are involved in the progression of autoimmune kidney diseases in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice followed by HMGB-1 secretion via p38 MAPK activation.
Our results indicated that DC secrete HMGB-1 via p38 MAPK activation to participate in autoimmunity in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · The Journal of Rheumatology