[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the impact of tumor growth on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism, liver oxidative stress and cancer cachexia and, (2) the potential benefits of creatine supplementation in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Three experiments were conducted. First, rats were killed on days 5 (D5), 10 (D10) and 14 (D14) after tumor implantation. In experiment 2, rats were randomly assigned to three groups designated as control (C), tumor-bearing (T) and tumor-bearing supplemented with creatine (TCr). A life span experiment was conducted as the third experiment. Creatine was supplied in drinking water for 21 days (8 g/L) in all cases. Tumor implantation consisted of a suspension of Walker-256 cells (8.0 × 107 cells in 0.5 mL of PBS). The progressive increase (P < 0.05) in tumor mass coincided with a progressively lower body weight and higher hepatic oxidative stress; plasma Hcy concentration was 80 % higher (P < 0.05) by 10 days of tumor implantation. Impaired Hcy metabolism was evidenced by decreased hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (Bhmt), glycine N-methyltransferase (Gnmt) and cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) gene expression. In contrast, creatine supplementation promoted a 28 % reduction of tumor weight (P < 0.05). Plasma Hcy (C 6.1 ± 0.6, T 10.3 ± 1.5, TCr 6.3 ± 0.9, µmol/L) and hepatic oxidative stress were lower in the TCr group compared to T. Creatine supplementation was unable to decrease Hcy concentration and to increase SAM/SAH ratio in tumor tissue. These data suggest that creatine effects on hepatic impaired Hcy metabolism promoted by tumor cell inoculation are responsible to decrease plasma Hcy in tumor-bearing rats. In conclusion, Walker-256 tumor growth is associated with progressive hyperhomocysteinemia, body weight loss and liver oxidative stress in rats. Creatine supplementation, however, prevented these tumor-associated perturbations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subjects with chronic liver disease are susceptible to hypovitaminosis A due to several factors. Therefore, identifying patients with vitamin deficiency and a requirement for vitamin supplementation is important. Most studies assessing vitamin A in the context of hepatic disorders are conducted using cirrhotic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 43 non-cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C to evaluate markers of vitamin A status represented by serum retinol, liver retinol, and serum retinol-binding protein levels. We also performed the relative dose-response test, which provides an indirect estimate of hepatic vitamin A reserves. These vitamin A indicators were assessed according to the stage of liver fibrosis using the METAVIR score and the body mass index. The sample study was predominantly composed of male subjects (63%) with mild liver fibrosis (F1). The relative dose-response test was <20% in all subjects, indicating vitamin A sufficiency. Overweight or obese patients had higher serum retinol levels than those with a normal body mass index (2.6 and 1.9 µmol/L, respectively; P<0.01). Subjects with moderate liver fibrosis (F2) showed lower levels of serum retinol (1.9 vs 2.5 µmol/L, P=0.01) and retinol-binding protein levels compared with those with mild fibrosis (F1) (46.3 vs 67.7 µg/mL, P<0.01). These results suggested an effect of being overweight on serum retinol levels. Furthermore, more advanced stages of liver fibrosis were related to a decrease in serum vitamin A levels.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Sports Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective The study was to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on oxidative stress markers and anaerobic performance in rats. Methods Sixty-four rats (Wistar) were divided into two groups: C, anaerobic exercised group (n = 32) and Cr, anaerobic exercised group supplemented with creatine (n = 32). Cr supplementation consisted of the addition of 2% Cr monohydrate to the diet. After 28 days, the rats performed acute exercise (6 × 30 seconds of vertical jumps in the water with 30 seconds rest and 50% of total body weight load attached in the back). The animals were euthanized before (pre) and at 0, 2, and 6 hours (n = 8) after acute exercise. Results Acute exercise induced an increase in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), as well as increased total lipid hydroperoxides and AOPP in gastrocnemius muscle. Cr supplementation inhibited the formation of MDA and lipid hydroperoxides in plasma. However, the antioxidant action of Cr was observed only against AOPP in gastrocnemius muscle. Cr supplementation also increased (P < 0.05) anaerobic performance compared to the C group. Conclusion Cr supplementation is able to inhibit the increase in plasma lipid peroxidation markers induced by high-intensity and short-duration exercise in rats; equivalent actions, however, were not observed fully in muscle tissue.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Redox report: communications in free radical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the benefits of different amounts of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil (FO) on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and gene expression in rats fed a high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into two groups: Control (C, n = 6) and Fructose (Fr, n = 32), the latter receiving a diet containing 63% by weight fructose for 60 days. After this period, 24 animals from Fr group were allocated to three groups: FrFO2 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 2% FO plus 5% soybean oil; FrFO5 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 5% FO plus 2% soybean oil; and FrFO7 (n = 8) receiving 63% fructose and 7% FO. Animals were fed these diets for 30 days. Fructose led to an increase in liver weight, hepatic and serum triacylglycerol, serum alanine aminotransferase and HOMA1-IR index. These alterations were reversed by 5% and 7% FO. FO had a dose-dependent effect on expression of genes related to hepatic β-oxidation (increased) and hepatic lipogenesis (decreased). The group receiving the highest FO amount had increased markers of oxidative stress. It is concluded that n-3 fatty acids may be able to reverse the adverse metabolic effects induced by a high fructose diet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is no consensus about the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism, especially in animals fed a high-fat diet. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation of CLA isomers into serum, liver and adipose tissue, as well as the oxidative stress generated in rats refed with high-fat diets after a 48 hour fast. Rats were refed with diets containing soybean oil, rich in linoleic acid [7% (Control Group - C) or 20% (LA Group)], CLA [CLA Group - 20% CLA mixture (39.32 mole% c9,t11-CLA and 40.59 mole% t10,c12- CLA)], soybean oil + CLA (LA+CLA Group - 15.4% soybean oil and 4.6% CLA) or animal fat (AF, 20% lard). The CLA group showed lower weight gain and liver weight after refeeding, as well as increased serum cholesterol. The high dietary fat intake induced fat accumulation and an increase in -tocopherol in the liver, which were not observed in the CLA group. Circulating -tocopherol was increased in the CLA and CLA+LA groups. The high- fat diets reduced liver catalase activity. CLA isomers were incorporated into serum and tissues. In this shortterm refeeding experimental model, CLA prevented hepatic fat accumulation, although it produced an increase in serum cholesterol.
Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and liver oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 8) to receive one of the following diets for 4 weeks: control diet (C), whey protein-composed diet (WP), and whey protein-supplemented diet (WPS). The C and WP diets consisted of AIN-93 with 20% casein and 20% whey protein as protein source, respectively. WPS was AIN-93 (20% casein) supplemented by the addition of 20% (w/w) whey protein. Four weeks of ingesting a WPS diet resulted in a significantly higher (P < 0.05) total protein and methionine intakes. Although a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine levels occurred in WPS group compared with C and WP, no significant change was observed in plasma Hcy concentration between groups. Furthermore, the levels of lipid hydroperoxides and advanced oxidation protein products, known liver oxidative stress markers, were increased in the WPS group compared with the C group. In addition, no change in glutathione liver concentration was observed in any of the groups studied. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake substantially; however, it does not change plasma Hcy concentrations. On the other hand, increased hepatic oxidative stress markers were observed in whey protein supplemented rats were probably due to high protein intake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of dialysis modality on oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation is not yet clear. Elucidating this influence could provide novel therapy concepts for cardiovascular diseases.
To compare protein OS, antioxidant vitamins and inflammation in patients undergoing either hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD).
A cross-sectional study was performed with 19 PD and 21 HD patients treated for ≥ 6 months. The control group was composed of 17 healthy individuals. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), vitamins C, A and E, C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 were measured in plasma samples.
OS was higher in the dialysis group when compared with controls, but HD patients showed higher AOPP compared with PD (HD:141.9 ± 75.2 µmol/L; PD: 112.5 ± 69.3 µmol/L, P< 0.01) and AGEs (HD: 32.2 ± 10.6 AU x10³; PD: 26.6 ± 4.9 AUx10³, P< 0.05). There was no difference in inflammation and vitamin levels among dialysis patients. In HD patients, AGEs correlated moderately with serum vitamin C (r = 0.46; P< 0.05).
The dialysis modality adopted influences protein OS, but it has no effect on antioxidant status or inflammation. Hemodialysis probably exacerbates OS due to the increased bioincompatibility of the dialysis procedure, and this scenario seems to be related to the intravenous supplementation of vitamin C. Peritoneal dialysis allows for a better oxidative balance, which may reduce cardiovascular risk.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Liver transplant recipients are at an increased oxidative stress risk due to pre-existing hepatic impairment, ischemia-reperfusion injury, immunosuppression, and functional graft rejection. This study compared the oxidative status of healthy control subjects, patients with liver cirrhosis on the list for transplantation, and subjects already transplanted for at least 12 months.
Patients and methods:
Sixty adult male patients, aged between 27 and 67 years, were subdivided into 3 groups: a control group (15 healthy volunteers), a cirrhosis group (15 volunteers), and a transplant group (30 volunteers). Oxidative stress was evaluated by activity of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and vitamin E.
There was a significant difference (P < .01) in the plasma concentration of reduced glutathione in the 3 groups, with the lowest values observed in the transplanted group. The malondialdehyde values differed significantly (P < .01) among the 3 groups, with the transplanted group again having the lowest concentrations. The lowest concentrations of vitamin E were observed in patients with cirrhosis compared with control subjects, and there was a significant correlation (P < .05) among the 3 groups. No correlations were found between reduced glutathione and vitamin E or between vitamin E and malondialdehyde. However, there were strong correlations between plasma malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione in the 3 groups: control group, r = 0.9972 and P < .0001; cirrhotic group, r = 0.9765 and P < .0001; and transplanted group, r = 0.8981 and P < .0001.
In the late postoperative stage of liver transplantation, oxidative stress persists but in attenuated form.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Transplantation Proceedings
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the effects of taurine supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and liver injury in rats fed a choline-deficient diet.
Thirty rats were divided into three groups (n=10), to receive one of the following diets for 4weeks: control diet (C), choline-deficient diet (CDD), or choline-deficient diet supplemented with taurine (CDDT). The CDD and the CDDT consisted of AIN-93 without the recommended choline content of 2.5%, and the CDDT was supplemented by the addition of 2.5% taurine.
Four weeks of ingesting a CDD resulted in a significant increase in plasma Hcy (50%) as well as a decrease in liver S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) concentration and S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio. No changes were found in plasma methionine and cysteine plasma levels compared to control group. Four weeks of ingesting a CDD also caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in hepatic total fat, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. In addition, reduced hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH/GSSG) were found in rats fed a CDD compared to controls. Taurine supplementation of the CDD normalized genes involved in the remethylation pathway, BHMT and CHDH, which were impaired by CDD alone. However, taurine supplementation failed to prevent CDD-induced Hcy metabolism disturbances and hepatic injury. Also, taurine added to CDD caused decreased expression of PEMT, CHKa, and CHKb, key genes involved in phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis and liver fat accumulation.
Taurine supplementation failed to ameliorate impaired Hcy metabolism and liver injury caused by CDD intake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess oxidative stress and the profile of fatty acids incorporated into the hepatic tissue of animals refed with high-fat (HF) diets after acute food restriction.
Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups and fasting for 48 hours. One group was sacrificed without refeeding (NR), a control group (C) was refed with the standard AIN-93 diet and the remaining groups with HF diets respectively consisting of hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO), trans-free (TF) margarine and trans-free margarine enriched with ω-3 and ω-6 (O). After this period the animals were sacrificed for malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase and hepatic fatty acid determination.
The groups refed with HF diets showed elevation of MDA levels compared to the C group (p<0.001 for GVH and p<0.01 for TF and O). Hepatic catalase activity was higher in the TF and O groups compared to group C (p<0.05 for both). The amount of saturated fatty acids was lower in the PHVO and O groups compared to the remaining ones (p<0.001).
The consumption of high-fat diets after prolonged fasting favors oxidative imbalance in hepatic tissue.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of creatine supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) plasma levels after acute exercise in humans.
Twenty-three young (under-20) soccer players were divided into 2 groups: creatine (Cr)- and placebo (Pla)-supplemented groups. The supplementation was performed in double-blind controlled manner using creatine or placebo tablets with 0.3 g/kg during 7 days. Before and after 7 days of supplementation, the athletes performed an acute high-intensity sprint exercise (two consecutive running-based anaerobic sprint test protocol consisted in 6 × 35 m sprint with 10 s between them). Blood samples were collected before and after 7 days of supplementation as well as 0 and 1 h after exercise protocol.
Homocysteine concentration significant increased (P < 0.05) 1 h after acute exercise (18 %). Acute exercise also decreased red blood cell S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) 30 % with no changes in SAM/SAH ratio. Seven days of creatine supplementation were able to increase (P < 0.05) plasma creatine concentration (Pla 130.1 ± 21.7 vs Cr 1,557.2 ± 220.3 μmol/L) as well as decrease (P < 0.05) plasma guanidinoacetic acid (33 %). Controversially, creatine supplementation did not change Hcy plasma level after 7-day supplementation (Pla 6.9 ± 0.2 vs Cr 7.2 ± 0.2 μmol/L) or after acute exercise (Pla 8.2 ± 0.3 vs Cr 8.4 ± 0.3 μmol/L). No changes in plasma vitamin B12 and folate as well as cysteine and methionine were found.
Seven days of creatine supplementation does not avoid increased plasma Hcy induced by acute sprint exercise in humans.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · European Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This controlled, prospective, nonrandomized clinical investigation has as its chief strength the fact that it was done in humans with active disease and apparently on fairly modest therapeutic regimens. The aim was to present the results of oxidative-stress biomarkers in humans suffering from pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Inflammation and oxidative stress are essential in PAH with increased lipid peroxidation and reduced antioxidant defenses. Twenty-four adult patients of both sexes, with a mean age of 21 years, were subdivided into 2 groups: a control group of 12 healthy, nonsmoking volunteers and a PAH group (PAHG) of 12 volunteers with PAH receiving outpatient treatment. Oxidative stress was evaluated by plasma activity of reduced glutathione (GSH); lipid peroxidation was expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid hydroperoxide (ferrous oxidation of xylenol orange [FOX] assay); vitamin E was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses showed significant differences for (1) the TNF-α measure, with highest values in PAHG patients; (2) the plasma GSH, with lowest values in PAHG patients; (3) vitamin E, with the lowest concentrations in PAHG patients; (4) MDA measure, with highest values in PAHG patients; and (5) the lipid hydroperoxide FOX measure, with highest values in PAHG patients. In conclusion, inflammation and oxidative stress are present in patients with PAH, as confirmed by increased lipid peroxidation, reduced GSH, and low concentrations of vitamin E.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin C offered through a dietary supplement and an ascorbic acid (AA)-rich diet on exercise-induced oxidative stress. METHODS: The sample consisted of 13 elite swimmers (6 men and 7 women) aged 18 to 26 years. The same athletes were submitted to an acute exercise session in 3 phases, with different treatments: control (C), AA-rich diet (D) and AA supplement (S), where blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 24 hours after exercise. A mixed effects linear regression model was used to compare phases and stages. RESULTS: The habitual consumption of antioxidants did not differ between phases, except that AA intake was higher during the D and S phases than during the C phase. The use of an AA-rich diet provided lower lipid peroxidation due to lower lipid hydroperoxide (FOX) values, a reduction of peroxidation after exercise due to reduction of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and an increase in vitamin C levels after exercise. The use of an AA supplement also restricted lipid peroxidation after exercise and increased the antioxidant power due to higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). Without the addition of AA , the swimmers had greater hepatic damage as shown by higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lower antioxidant levels (vitamin C and GSH) and increased uric acid. CONCLUSION: Thus, the changes observed after the addition of AA to the diet of swimmers suggest an important role of this micronutrient in the defense against exercise-induced oxidative stress.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte