[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Four hundred ninety-three consecutive patients undergoing elective or emergency PCI received unfractionated heparin (70 U/kg, intravenously) or enoxaparin (1 mg/kg, intravenously). Patients who had received subcutaneous enoxaparin in the emergency department were given a supplementary 0.3-mg/kg intravenous dose. There was no crossover of therapies. All patients received oral antiplatelet therapy and eptifibatide. Primary safety outcomes were bleeding and a postprocedural hemoglobin decrease of >or=3 g/dL. Troponin I levels were considered a marker for myocardial injury.Two hundred twenty-two patients received enoxaparin, and 271 received unfractionated heparin. There were no thrombotic events or in-hospital deaths. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared with unfractionated heparin, enoxaparin yielded a lower risk of bleeding (odds ratio [OR]=0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-1.05) and significantly fewer >3-g/dL decreases in hemoglobin (OR=0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.94). Enoxaparin also produced less of a decrease in mean platelet count (41 +/- 34 vs 55 +/- 63 x10(9)/L; P = 0.02) and in platelets >30% from baseline (OR=0.56; 95% CI, 0.31-0.99). After elective PCI, fewer enoxaparin patients had troponin I levels >or=3 times the upper limit of normal (OR=0.40; 95% CI, 0.028-0.66).Compared with unfractionated heparin, enoxaparin entailed less bleeding during both elective and emergent PCI and less cardiac enzyme elevation in patients undergoing elective PCI. Therefore, we believe that intravenous enoxaparin is a safe alternative to unfractionated heparin in both settings.
Full-text available · Article · Apr 2009 · Texas Heart Institute journal / from the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To evaluate the use of citrated clotting time (CCT) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in both emergent and elective scenarios and using intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) dosing.
Monitoring of enoxaparin during PCI had limitations in the past due to lack of point-of-care testing. Introduction of the CCT enables the determination of the degree of anticoagulation by enoxaparin.
An analysis on 51 consecutive patients revealed that after three SC doses (1 mg/kg twice a day) or a single IV bolus (1 mg/kg) of enoxaparin, the CCT was consistently in the therapeutic range of > or =260 seconds (475 +/- 105 and 565 +/- 151 sec, respectively). Patients who received < 3 SC doses of enoxaparin were subtherapeutic for PCI. A supplemental IV bolus of 0.3 mg/kg was found always to raise the CCT to therapeutic level (499 +/- 178 sec).
Enoxaparin was found to be effective and safe during PCI with low vascular complication rate (9.3%). Patients who received < 3 SC doses of enoxaparin benefit most from using CCT monitoring. IV dosing consistently achieved adequate anticoagulation.
Article · Nov 2004 · Journal of Interventional Cardiology