[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trapped-charge-induced transformation of pentacene polymorphs is observed by using in situ Raman spectroscopy and the molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the charge should be localized in pentacene molecules at the interface with static intermolecular disorder along the long axis. Quantum chemical calculations of the intermolecular transfer integrals suggest the disorder to be large enough to induce Anderson-type localization.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Advanced Materials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose a "field-induced polymorphous disorder" model to explain bias-stress instability in molecular organic thin-film transistors, based on the experimental results showing the strong correlation between the micro-structural change in semiconductor layer composed of penrtacene molecules and the threshold voltage (Vth) shift due to electron trapping in a reversible manner under the successive bias-stress, thermal annealing, and light irradiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have used scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) as a local probe to study charge trapping in zone-cast pentacene field effect transistors on both SiO(2) and benzocyclobutene (BCB) substrates. Annealing at 130 degrees C was found to reduce the threshold voltage, susceptibility to negative gate bias stress and trapping of positive charges within single pentacene grains. We conclude that oxygen is able to penetrate and disassociatively incorporate into crystalline pentacene, chemically creating electrically active defect states. Screening of a positive gate bias caused by electron injection from Au into pentacene was directly observed with SKPM. The rate of screening was found to change significantly after annealing of the film and depended on the choice of gate dielectric.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A scanning Kelvin probe microscopy(SKPM) study of the surface potential of-vacuum sublimed pentacene transistors under bias stress and its correlation with the film morphology is presented. While for thicker films there are some trapping centers inhomogeneously distributed over the film, as previously reported by other authors, by decreasing the film thickness the effect of thin intergrain regions (IGRs) becomes clear and a very good correlation between the topography and the potential data is observed. It is shown that in the thick pentacene grains the potential is homogeneous and independent of the gate bias applied with negligible charge trapping, while in the thin IGRs the potential varies with the applied gate bias, indicating that only an incomplete accumulation layer can be formed. Clear evidence for preferential charge trapping in the thin IGRs is obtained.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Advanced Functional Materials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the growth and field-effect transistor performance of aligned pentacene thin films deposited by zone-casting from a solution of unsubstituted pentacene molecules in a chlorinated solvent. Polarized optical microscopy shows that solution processed pentacene films grow as large crystalline domains with pronounced anisotropy in the substrate plane, in contrast to vacuum sublimed pentacene films, which consist of small crystalline grains with random in-plane orientation. The high structural alignment is confirmed by in-plane and out-of-plane X-ray diffraction analysis, with out-of-plane 00n reflections up to at least the seventh order, and a pronounced in-plane anisotropy with the a-axis of the triclinic unit cell predominantly aligned parallel to the zone-casting direction and the ab-plane parallel to the substrate. The average charge carrier mobility of the zone-cast pentacene devices depends strongly on the underlying dielectric. Divinylsiloxane-bis-benzocyclobutene (BCB) resin is found to be a suitable gate dielectric allowing reproducible film deposition and high field-effect mobilities up to 0.4-0.7 cm(2)/(V s) and on/off ratios of 10(6)-10(7). A small mobility anisotropy is observed for devices with channels aligned along and perpendicular to the zone-casting direction.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Chemistry of Materials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose a field-induced polymorphous disorder model to explain bias-stress instability in pentacene organic thin-film transistors Field-effect mobility at 0.7 cm^2/Vs and threshold voltage, Vth, at 0 V were obtained by using highly crystalline zone-casted pentacene semiconductor on benzocyclobutene insulator. Vth shifted up to +25V with positive gate bias-stress at +40 V for 15 hours and recovered after gate bias removal. Vth recovery was drastically accelerated by direct photo-excitation of pentacene and it indicated electrons were trapped in pentacene and not in BCB. After annealing at 130 C in N2, the initial electrical performance were recovered. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of pentacene at the channel revealed that shape of the C-H vibrational peaks at around 1160 cm-2 changed reversibly in accordance with the positive shift and recovery of Vth. Our pentacene films with average d-spacing at 14.3 A were considered to be composed of a mixture (mosaic) of two kind of polymorphs with d-spacing at 14.1 A and 14.5 A. The polymorphous mixture should be disordered by electric field to create electron traps and induce Vth shift.