[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Coronary artery disease (CAD) affects both men and women. Cardiovascular biomarkers have been suggested to relate to CAD severity, but data on sex-specificity is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the association of established biomarkers with the severity of CAD in stable patients undergoing coronary angiography in a sex-specific manner.
We studied stable patients undergoing coronary angiography and measured CAD severity by SYNTAX score and biomarker levels (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP), high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), cystatin C (CysC), myeloperoxidase (MPO), high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) and von Willebrand factor (VWF)). We tested for sex differences in SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXUS™ and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) scores and biomarker levels using multivariable ANCOVA. We investigated the association of biomarker levels with SYNTAX score in a multivariable linear regression with interaction terms for sex.
We analysed data on 460 men and 175 women. SYNTAX scores were significantly lower in women (9.99 points vs. 11.88 points). Univariably, hsCRP and hsTnI levels were significantly associated with SYNTAX scores (both β 2.5). In multivariable analysis only hsCRP associated with SYNTAX score (β 1.9, p = 0.009). Sex did not modify the association of biomarkers with SYNTAX score.
CAD severity as quantified by SYNTAX score is lower in women than men based on coronary angiography. The association of biomarkers with CAD severity did not differ between the sexes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to investigate which factors are associated with failure of thrombus aspiration (TA) and if this has prognostic implications.
The pathophysiological mechanism and clinical benefit of TA during primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is still in debate.
Between August 2001 and October 2007, TA was attempted in 1,399 patients. Failure of TA was defined as the inability to reach and/or cross the occlusion with the aspiration catheter for effective thrombus removal. In addition, we analyzed patients in which no material could be obtained. We examined baseline clinical and angiographic variables related to failure of TA or to the lack of aspirate. Follow-up on vital status was obtained at 1 year.
In 144 (10.3%) patients, the aspiration catheter failed to cross the lesion. After multivariable adjustment, marked proximal tortuosity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.92 to 4.31, p < 0.001), the presence of a calcified lesion (OR: 2.70, 95% CI: 1.77 to 4.13, p < 0.001), and a bifurcation lesion (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.37, p = 0.013) were independent predictors of failed TA. Age over 60 years and the circumflex as infarct-related artery were associated with the lack of aspirate. Mortality rates at 1 year were 6.2% in patients with failed TA and 6.4% with successful TA (hazard ratio: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.95, p = 0.95).
The presence of marked proximal tortuosity of the infarct-related artery, a calcified lesion, and a bifurcation lesion are independent predictors of failure of thrombus aspiration. We found that unsuccessful TA did not affect 1-year mortality.
Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains an issue even in the drug-eluting stent era. Genetic polymorphisms may provide insight in the pathogenesis of restenosis and may help in the stratification of patients at risk for restenosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether polymorphisms at the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) locus, that are associated with impaired innate immune system and with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, were associated with clinical and/or angiographic restenosis after PCI.
The GENetic Determinants of Restenosis (GENDER) project was a prospective, multicenter study that enrolled 3146 consecutive patients after successful PCI. Frequencies of the TLR4 896A/G (Asp299Gly; rs4986790) and 1196C/T (Thr399Ile; rs4986791) polymorphisms and haplotypes were assessed. Patients were followed up for 1 year and in a subgroup of 406 patients angiographic follow-up was obtained.
We included a total of 2682 patients that underwent successful PCI. There was no association between genotypes and the risk of target vessel revascularization at 1-year or late luminal loss at 6-months angiographic follow-up (P=0.53 and 0.44, respectively). Absence of association with target lesion revascularization and late luminal loss was replicated in the GEnetic risk factors for In-Stent Hyperplasia study Amsterdam (GEISHA) cohort study of 674 patients and in a subgroup of 550 patients with angiographic follow-up available (P=0.26, and 0.86, respectively). Moreover, in both the studies, no significant differences between haplotypes A/C and G/T were observed for target vessel revascularization at late luminal loss.
Although inflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of restenosis, the 896A/G and 1196C/T polymorphisms or haplotypes based on these polymorphisms at the TLR4 locus are not associated with an increased risk of target vessel revascularization or angiographic restenosis after PCI. These polymorphisms are not useful for pre-PCI identification of patients at risk for restenosis.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of the selected patients by the local Heart Team to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) stenosis and to compare patients considered at low surgical risk versus at high surgical risk for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
CABG is recommended in patients with ULMCA stenosis according to the AHA/ACC and ESC guidelines, and there are limited data on the long-term outcomes in patients selected by the local Heart Team to undergo PCI.
Between 1996 and 2007, 227 patients underwent PCI for ULMCA stenosis based on decision of the local Heart Team and patient's and/or physician's preference. All patients were contacted at 1 year and in November 2008.
Long-term follow-up was up to 8 years with a mean of 3.9 +/- 2.6 years. Overall, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), or target lesion revascularization (TLR) was 14.8% at 1 year, 18.3% at 3 years, and 20.9% at 5 years with no events occurring thereafter. Patients considered at low surgical risk for CABG had a significantly lower incidence of cardiac death or MI compared to patients considered at high surgical risk at 8 years (1.4 vs. 16.8%; 1.4 vs. 14.8%, respectively); however, no significant difference was observed for cardiac death, MI, or TLR (18.6 vs. 24.4%).
PCI of ULMCA stenosis in patients selected by the Heart Team resulted in good long-term clinical outcomes with most events occurring within the 1st year. Patients considered at low surgical risk for CABG have a significantly better long-term survival than patients at high risk for surgery.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess differences in thrombus healing between ruptured and eroded plaques, given the natural difference in lesion substrate and that thrombi might exist days to weeks before the presentation of sudden coronary death.
Although the ability to distinguish ruptures and erosions remains a major clinical challenge, in-hospital patients dying with acute myocardial infarction establish that erosions account for 25% of all deaths, where women experience a higher incidence compared with men.
Coronary lesions with thrombi (ruptures, n = 65; erosions, n = 50) received in consultation from the Medical Examiner's Office from 111 sudden death victims were studied. Thrombus healing was classified as early (<1 day) or late stage characterized in phases of lytic (1 to 3 days), infiltrating (4 to 7 days), or healing (>7 days). Morphometric analysis included vessel dimensions, necrotic core size, and macrophage density.
Late-stage thrombi were identified in 79 of 115 (69%) culprit plaques. Women more frequently had erosion with a greater prevalence of late-stage thrombi (44 of 50, 88%) than ruptures (35 of 65, 54%, p < 0.0001). The internal elastic lamina area and percent stenosis were significantly smaller in erosions compared with ruptures (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.02), where plaque burden was greater (p = 0.008). Although macrophage infiltration in erosions was significantly less than ruptures (p = 0.03), there was no established relationship with thrombus organization. Other parameters of thrombus length and occlusive versus nonocclusive showed no association with healing.
Approximately two-thirds of coronary thrombi in sudden coronary deaths are organizing, particularly in young individuals-especially women, who perhaps might require a different strategy of treatment.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1) is a key regulator of smooth muscle cell and leukocyte proliferation in vascular disease, including in-stent restenosis. We therefore hypothesized that common genetic variations or single nucleotide polymorphisms in p27(kip1) may serve as a useful tool in risk stratification for in-stent restenosis.
Three single nucleotide polymorphisms concerning the p27(kip1) gene (-838C>A, rs36228499; -79C>T, rs34330; +326G>T, rs2066827) were determined in a cohort of 715 patients undergoing coronary angioplasty and stent placement. We discovered that the p27(kip1)-838C>A single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with clinical in-stent restenosis; the -838AA genotype decreases the risk of target vessel revascularization (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.77). This finding was replicated in another cohort study of 2309 patients (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.93). No association was detected between this end point and the p27(kip1)-79C>T and +326G>T single nucleotide polymorphisms. We subsequently studied the functional importance of the -838C>A single nucleotide polymorphism and detected a 20-fold increased basal p27(kip1) transcriptional activity of the -838A allele containing promoter.
Patients with the p27(kip1)-838AA genotype have a decreased risk of in-stent restenosis corresponding with enhanced promoter activity of the -838A allele of this cell-cycle inhibitor, which may explain decreased smooth muscle cell proliferation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plaque disruption with superimposed thrombus is the predominant mechanism responsible for the onset of acute coronary syndromes. Studies have shown that plaque disruption and thrombotic occlusion are frequently separated in time. We established the histopathological characteristics of material aspirated during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a large consecutive ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) population.
Thrombus aspiration during primary PCI was performed in 1,362 STEMI patients. Thrombus age was classified as fresh (<1 day), lytic (1-5 days), or organized (>5 day). Further, the presence of plaque was documented. The histopathological findings were related to the clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics. Material could be aspirated in 1,009 patients (74%). Components of plaque were found in 395 of these patients (39%). Fresh thrombus was found in 577 of 959 patients (60%) compared to 382 patients (40%) with lytic or organized thrombi. Distal embolization was present in 21% of patients with lytic thrombus compared to 12% and 15% of patients with fresh or organized thrombus.
Material could be obtained in 74% of STEMI patients treated with thrombus aspiration during primary PCI. In 40% of patients thrombus age is older than 24 h, indicating that plaque disruption and thrombus formation occur significantly earlier than the onset of symptoms in many patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Routine thrombus aspiration is frequently used during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction to prevent distal embolization. Recently, evidence of clinical benefit was published. In 50% of the ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients with an onset of symptoms <12 hours before, thrombi were shown to be >1 day old. This observation illustrates that plaque rupture and coronary occlusion are significantly separated in time. In the present study, we correlate the presence of fresh versus older thrombus with long-term mortality.
Thrombus aspiration was performed in 1315 patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention with 3 devices (Rescue, Export, and Proxis). Aspirated material was fixed in formalin and processed for histopathology. If possible, thrombus age was classified as either fresh only (<1 day) or older (>1 day). We identified fresh thrombus in 552 patients and older thrombus in 372 patients. The cumulative Kaplan-Meier estimate of all-cause mortality at 4 years was significantly higher in patients with older thrombus (16.0%) compared with patients with fresh thrombus (7.4%), with a hazard ratio of 1.82 (95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 2.85; P=0.008). Multivariate analysis identified the presence of older thrombus, in addition to other established predictors, as an independent predictor (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 2.93; P=0.01) of long-term mortality.
Our study demonstrates that the presence of older thrombus, in addition to other established predictors, is an independent predictor of long-term mortality in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: Target lesion revascularization (TLR) rates of bifurcated lesions (BL) remain high, mainly due to side branch (SB) restenosis, even when drug-eluting stents (DES) are used. The aim of our study was to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes of a stepwise approach with single bare metal R stent implantation for BL.Methods and results: In 465 patients, PCI was performed using a double guide wire, single stent in main branch (MB), and angioplasty of the SB, aiming at an optimal angiographic result of the MB and an optimal functional result (TIMI 3 flow) of the SB. 105 patients were treated for a true bifurcated lesion (TBL) and 360 patients were treated for a lesion with involvement of a significant side branch (ISB). Procedural success was achieved in all TBL and in 99% of ISB. At 1 year clinical follow-up, 8.6% treated for TBL had clinically driven TLR, 7.6% underwent repeat PCI, 1.0% underwent CABG. For patients treated for ISB, 13% had clinically driven TLR, 9.4% underwent repeat PCI, 3.6% CABG. 4 patients treated for TBL suffered non-fatal MI vs. 20 patients treated for ISB. Cardiac death occurred in 1.9% and 2.5 % respectively. Conclusion: A simple approach in the percutaneous treatment of BL using a single bare metal R stent results in good 1 year clinical outcome comparable to the outcome reported following DES implantation.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C reactive protein (CRP), an important serum marker of atherosclerotic vascular disease, has recently been reported to be active inside human atherosclerotic plaques.
To investigate the simultaneous presence of macrophages, CRP, membrane attack complex C5b-9 (MAC), and oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in atherectomy specimens from patients with different coronary syndromes.
In total, 54 patients with stable angina (SA; n = 21), unstable angina (UA; n = 15), and myocardial infarction (MI; n = 18) underwent directional coronary atherectomy for coronary lesions. Cryostat sections of atherosclerotic plaques were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibodies: anti-CD68 (macrophages), anti-5G4 (CRP), aE11 (MAC), and 12E7 (oxLDL). Immunopositive areas were evaluated in relation to fibrous and neointima tissues, atheroma, and media. Quantitative analysis was performed using image cytometry with systematic random sampling (percentage immunopositive/total tissue area).
Macrophages, CRP, MAC, and oxLDL were simultaneously present in a higher proportion of fibrous tissue and atheroma of atherectomy specimens from patients with UA and MI compared with SA (p<0.05). Quantitative analysis showed significantly higher mean percentages of macrophages in plaques from patients with MI (44%) than UA (30%; p<0.01) and SA (20%; p<0.001). Significantly higher mean percentages of CRP were also seen in MI (25%) and UA (25%) compared with SA (12%; p<0.05).
The presence of CRP, complement, and oxLDL in a high proportion of plaque tissue from patients with unstable coronary artery disease implies that these surrogate markers have important proinflammatory effects inside atherosclerotic plaques. This may increase vulnerability to plaque rupture and thrombosis, with subsequent clinical sequelae.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Clinical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to compare the histopathological features of restenotic tissue after balloon angioplasty and after stent placement. We emphasized on specific types of inflammatory cells to evaluate the type of tissue immune response in both situations.
A total of 32 patients underwent elective directional coronary atherectomy; 16 patients had restenosis after balloon angioplasty, 16 patients had in-stent restenosis (ISR). Atherectomy specimens were stained with antibodies against T cells, eosinophils, smooth muscle cell actin, macrophages and with antibodies against T cell activation markers. Quantitative morphometric analysis was performed using image analysis software.
In-stent restenotic tissue contained more smooth muscle cells (P < 0.001), anti-CD3 positive T cells (P < 0.001) and eosinophils (P = 0.012). Anti-CD40L positive activated T cells were more numerous in ISR lesions (P = 0.003) and were frequently clustered around stent imprints in the tissue. Five ISR specimens contained grossly visible stent fragments amidst the restenotic tissue. In all cases of balloon restenosis, T cells and eosinophils (if present) were concentrated around lipid rich tissue.
Our study indicates involvement of inflammatory responses in both types of restenosis, with significantly more eosinophils encountered in case of in-stent restenosis. In contrast with clustering of inflammatory cells around stent struts after stent placement, the inflammatory cells in balloon restenosis were located in association with lipid rich tissue, suggesting different inflammatory triggers in balloon restenosis and in-stent restenosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to identify polymorphisms in genes that predispose to restenosis.
Variations in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene have been implicated in a number of pathophysiologic conditions associated with coronary heart disease. The present study examines the impact of polymorphisms in the LPL gene on restenosis (defined by target vessel revascularization [TVR]) in a large patient population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A mouse model for restenosis was used to further investigate LPL's role in restenosis.
The GENetic DEterminants of Restenosis (GENDER) project is a multicenter, prospective study design that enrolled 3,104 consecutive patients after successful PCI. These patients were genotyped for four different LPL gene polymorphisms. In apolipoprotein E (ApoE)*3-Leiden transgenic mice, arterial messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was used to assess LPL expression during a cuff-induced restenotic process.
Using multivariable analysis, carriers of the 447Ter allele of the LPL enzyme showed a lower risk of TVR compared with 447Ser homozygotes (p = 0.005). In the mouse model, LPL mRNA levels were increased 40-fold compared with control arteries at 6 h after cuff placement.
The LPL C/G polymorphism (Ser447Ter), resulting in a truncation of the two C-terminal amino acids of the mature LPL protein, appears to be an important protective factor for TVR in humans. The role of LPL in this process was further established in a mouse model, where LPL expression was very strongly up-regulated in the target arterial wall, suggesting a contribution of this lipolytic enzyme to restenosis. Possibly, LPL Ser447Ter genotyping may lead to better risk stratification and tailored therapy in the prevention of restenosis after PCI.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is caused by sudden occlusive coronary thrombosis, after plaque disruption; however, a considerable time interval between plaque disturbance and the onset of symptoms has been suggested. We therefore studied the age of intracoronary thrombi, aspirated during angioplasty in patients with acute STEMI.
Percutaneous intracoronary thrombectomy during angioplasty was performed in 211 consecutive STEMI patients within 6 hours after onset of anginal symptoms. The aspirated material was histologically screened on thrombus and plaque components, and thrombus age was classified as fresh (<1 day), lytic thrombus (1 to 5 days), and organized thrombus (>5 days). In all patients, intracoronary-derived material was retrieved in the filter of the collection bottle. Thrombus was identified in 199 (95%) of 211 patients. In 12 patients (5%), only plaque components were identified, and in 85 patients (41%), both thrombus and plaque material were aspirated. In 18 (9%) of 199 patients, the thrombus was organized, and in 70 patients (35%), the thrombus showed lytic changes, whereas in 98 (49%), a completely fresh thrombus was found. In 14 (7%) of 199 patients, the thrombus showed combined features of both fresh thrombus and organized thrombus.
In at least 50% of patients with acute STEMI, coronary thrombi were days or weeks old. This indicates that sudden coronary occlusion is often preceded by a variable period of plaque instability and thrombus formation, initiated days or weeks before onset of symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In coronary in-stent restenosis (ISR), a substantial contribution of inflammation is assumed. We evaluated the association between polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene and cytokine response after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and the development of ISR.
Patients were included after successful elective stent placement in a native coronary artery and were scheduled for follow-up angiography after 6 months. Quantitative coronary analysis was performed off-line. Patient whole blood was challenged with LPS for 24 h. Baseline and stimulated concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-10 were assessed by ELISA. Two cosegregating single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) were analyzed by allele-specific PCR amplification of genomic DNA.
A total of 236 consecutive patients were included, and 40 (17%) developed ISR. Median baseline and stimulated cytokine concentrations did not differ between patients with and without ISR. In multivariate analysis, male sex, unstable angina, hypertension, and chronic total occlusion were predictors of ISR. TLR4 genotypes were not associated with baseline or stimulated cytokine concentrations or with angiographic variables at follow-up.
In vitro cytokine response to LPS challenge is not increased in patients with ISR. Functionality of the TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism could not be demonstrated in this setting, and this polymorphism was not associated with angiographic outcome, calling into question its role in the progression of neointimal tissue growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the predictive value of preprocedural plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and statin therapy on 6 months angiographic and 1-year clinical outcome after nonurgent coronary stent placement.
Baseline plasma high-sensitivity CRP concentrations were prospectively measured in 345 patients undergoing elective stent placement in a native coronary artery. The binary angiographic in-stent restenosis (ISR; stenosis > or = 50% of vessel diameter) rate was 19% in patients with CRP values within the reference interval (< or = 3 mg/L) and 22% in patients with CRP >3 mg/L [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.73-2.09]. Statin therapy in a univariate analysis significantly reduced both angiographic and clinical ISR rates. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified unstable angina, smoking, and stent length, but neither CRP concentration nor statin therapy as independent predictors for angiographic ISR. Patients with an abnormal CRP value showed a trend toward a higher risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.8% vs 0.5%; OR = 7.43; 95% CI, 0.87-61.65). Target lesion revascularization rates did not differ between the two groups (9.6% vs 10.6%; OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 0.56-2.28). In multivariate analysis, male sex (OR = 0.44, 95% CI, 0.19-0.97) and statin therapy (OR = 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.68) were independent predictors for the occurrence of target lesion revascularization.
This study demonstrated a lack of association between preprocedural plasma CRP concentrations and angiographic coronary ISR or clinically driven target lesion revascularization. Patients with an abnormal CRP concentration showed a trend toward higher risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction during 1 year of follow-up. Statin therapy was independently associated with decreased clinically driven target lesion revascularization, underlining the beneficial effects of statins on clinical outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the influence of coronary artery stent strut thickness on angiographic late luminal loss, 663 patients were included in a single-center observational cohort after receiving an ACS Multilink stent in a native coronary vessel. At 6- to 10-month follow-up, 287 patients treated with a thin-strut stent (50 microm) had significantly less late luminal loss than 376 patients treated with a thick-strut stent (> or =90 microm) (mean 0.92 +/- 0.59 vs 1.06 +/- 0.71 mm, p = 0.011); on multivariate regression analysis, strut thickness was found to be an independent predictor for late luminal loss.
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · The American Journal of Cardiology