[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with an autoimmune reaction to thyroid antigens including thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin (anti-Tg).
We determined in children with T1DM the relationship of positive anti-thyroid antibodies to potential risk factors, including, age, gender, duration of diabetes, and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD).
We studied 144 children and adolescents with T1DM. Their age was 12.3 +/- 4.6 (mean +/- SD) years, and duration of diabetes was 4.6 +/- 3.8 years. Anti-thyroid antibodies were determined using a luminescence method and anti-GAD using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The prevalence rates of anti-thyroid antibodies among the children with T1DM in our study were: anti-TPO (17.4%), anti-Tg (11.1%), and of both anti-thyroid antibodies (10.4%). The presence of serum anti-thyroid antibodies was positively associated with age (16.6 years in those with positive tests versus 12.0 years in those with negative tests, P = 0.027), duration of diabetes (7.4 versus 4.3 years, P = 0.031), and serum TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels (4.8 versus 2.3 microIU/mL, P = 0.002). The presence of both anti-thyroid antibodies was associated with female sex (boys: 4/75 (5.3%), girls: 11/69 (15.9%), chi-square = 6.44, P = 0.04). Subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis (SAIT) was present in 55.5% of the patients with thyroid antibody-positivity and was positively associated with age (16.6 versus 12.0 years, P = 0.001) and diabetes duration (7.6 versus 4.2 years, P = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the development of anti-thyroid antibodies was predicted by: 1) the presence of anti-GAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.92), 2) the presence of a second anti-thyroid antibody (OR 134.4, 95% CI 7.7-2350.3), and 3) older age (OR 22.9, 95% CI 1.13-463.2).
Thyroid autoimmunity was associated with female gender, increasing age, long diabetes duration, the persistence of anti-GAD, and with TSH elevation, indicating subclinical hypothyroidism.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Upsala journal of medical sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is associated with autoimmune thyroid, celiac, autoimmune gastric and Addison's disease. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of associated autoantibodies in relation to the demographic and beta-cell autoantibody status (anti-GAD).
Antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), thyroglobulin (anti-Tg), tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG IgA), parietal cells (APCA) and adrenal tissue (AAA) were measured in 144 children with T1DM with a mean +/- SD age of 12.3 +/- 4.6 years and a diabetes duration of 4.6 +/- 3.8 years.
The prevalence of antibody positivity among our patients was: anti-GAD 53.2%, anti-thyroid (anti-TPO 17.4%, anti-Tg 11.1%); anti-tTG IgA 7.6%, APCA 4.0%, and AAA 0%. Among the children with positive anti-thyroid antibodies, 60% developed autoimmune thyroiditis, while among those anti-tTG IgA positive, 62.5% developed biopsy-confirmed celiac disease. Female gender was more frequent among anti-tTG IgA-positive patients (OR 4.47, p = 0.068), while increasing age was associated with anti-Tg positivity (OR 22.9, p = 0.041). The presence of anti-thyroid antibodies was associated with the presence of anti-GAD (OR 1.45, p = 0.01) and parietal cell antibodies (OR 4.98, p = 0.09).
Among T1DM patients, the prevalence rates of anti-thyroid and parietal cell antibodies increased with age and diabetes duration. As the presence of anti-GAD was associated with gastric and thyroid autoimmunity, it could serve as marker for the development of additional autoimmunity in adolescents with diabetes.