[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) regulates numerous gene expression programs through its signal-dependent repression of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) and serum response factor (SRF) transcription factors. In cardiomyocytes, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling promotes hypertrophy and pathological remodeling, at least in part by phosphorylating HDAC4, with consequent stimulation of MEF2 activity. In this paper, we describe a novel mechanism whereby protein kinase A (PKA) overcomes CaMKII-mediated activation of MEF2 by regulated proteolysis of HDAC4. PKA induces the generation of an N-terminal HDAC4 cleavage product (HDAC4-NT). HDAC4-NT selectively inhibits activity of MEF2 but not SRF, thereby antagonizing the prohypertrophic actions of CaMKII signaling without affecting cardiomyocyte survival. Thus, HDAC4 functions as a molecular nexus for the antagonistic actions of the CaMKII and PKA pathways. These findings have implications for understanding the molecular basis of cardioprotection and other cellular processes in which CaMKII and PKA exert opposing effects.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs inhibit mRNA translation or promote mRNA degradation by binding complementary sequences in 3' untranslated regions of target mRNAs. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is upregulated in response to cardiac stress, and its inhibition by a cholesterol-modified antagomir has been reported to prevent cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in rodents in response to pressure overload. In contrast, we have shown here that miR-21-null mice are normal and, in response to a variety of cardiac stresses, display cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, upregulation of stress-responsive cardiac genes, and loss of cardiac contractility comparable to wild-type littermates. Similarly, inhibition of miR-21 through intravenous delivery of a locked nucleic acid-modified (LNA-modified) antimiR oligonucleotide also failed to block the remodeling response of the heart to stress. We therefore conclude that miR-21 is not essential for pathological cardiac remodeling.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80% of cases. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) expression is increased and predicts poor survival in NSCLC. Although miR-21 function has been studied in vitro with cancer cell lines, the role of miR-21 in tumor development in vivo is unknown. We utilize transgenic mice with loss-of-function and gain-of-function miR-21 alleles combined with a model of NSCLC to determine the role of miR-21 in lung cancer. We show that overexpression of miR-21 enhances tumorigenesis and that genetic deletion of miR-21 partially protects against tumor formation. MiR-21 drives tumorigenesis through inhibition of negative regulators of the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway and inhibition of apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythrocyte formation occurs throughout life in response to cytokine signaling. We show that microRNA-451 (miR-451) regulates erythropoiesis in vivo. Mice lacking miR-451 display a reduction in hematrocrit, an erythroid differentiation defect, and ineffective erythropoiesis in response to oxidative stress. 14-3-3zeta, an intracellular regulator of cytokine signaling that is repressed by miR-451, is up-regulated in miR-451(-/-) erythroblasts, and inhibition of 14-3-3zeta rescues their differentiation defect. These findings reveal an essential role of 14-3-3zeta as a mediator of the proerythroid differentiation actions of miR-451, and highlight the therapeutic potential of miR-451 inhibitors.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Genes & development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute and chronic injuries to the heart result in perturbation of intracellular calcium signaling, which leads to pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been implicated in the transduction of calcium signals in the heart, but the specific isoforms of CaMKII that mediate pathological cardiac signaling have not been fully defined. To investigate the potential involvement in heart disease of CaMKIIdelta, the major CaMKII isoform expressed in the heart, we generated CaMKIIdelta-null mice. These mice are viable and display no overt abnormalities in cardiac structure or function in the absence of stress. However, pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling are attenuated in response to pressure overload in these animals. Cardiac extracts from CaMKIIdelta-null mice showed diminished kinase activity toward histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), a substrate of stress-responsive protein kinases and suppressor of stress-dependent cardiac remodeling. In contrast, phosphorylation of the closely related HDAC5 was unaffected in hearts of CaMKIIdelta-null mice, underscoring the specificity of the CaMKIIdelta signaling pathway for HDAC4 phosphorylation. We conclude that CaMKIIdelta functions as an important transducer of stress stimuli involved in pathological cardiac remodeling in vivo, which is mediated, at least in part, by the phosphorylation of HDAC4. These findings point to CaMKIIdelta as a potential therapeutic target for the maintenance of cardiac function in the setting of pressure overload.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences