Abraham Robinson

Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States

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Publications (3)10.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The use of dietary adsorbents to reduce arsenic (As) exposure is innovative. Ferrihydrite successfully sorbs arsenite and asenate over a wide range of pH conditions and the As-ferrihydrite complexes are stable in gastrointestinal (GIT) models. Our objectives were to (1) compare structural characteristics (using x-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared [FTIR] spectroscopy) and As binding affinities of industrially produced ferrihydrite (IDF) and lab-synthesized ferrihydrite and (2) evaluate the efficacy of the material displaying the best sorption capability as an As enterosorbent in a short-term mammalian model. Lab-synthesized ferrihydrite displayed superior binding affinity for both arsenate and arsenite in vitro, which led to its use in the in vivo portion of the study. Young Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed either a control diet or a 0.5% w/w ferrihydrite feed. After 1 wk of acclimation, rats were given 0.5 ml of 500 mg/L arsenate or arsenite via gavage with or without ferrihydrite. Rats were then transferred to metabolism cages, and urine collected after 24 and 48 h was analyzed for total As. Rats were evaluated daily for signs of morbidity and mortality for up to 1 wk. Ferrihydrite reduced mean urinary As levels by 74.9% and 43.6% after 24 h and 49.1% and 39.5% after 48 h for arsenite- and arsenate-treated groups, respectively. Importantly, treatment groups receiving ferrihydrite displayed no signs of As-related toxicity. All As reductions were statistically significant except for arsenate treatments at 24 h. Data suggest that, as an enterosorbent, ferrihydrite reduces bioavailability after As exposures.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is significantly elevated in a Hispanic community in Bexar County, Texas. Chronic exposure to dietary aflatoxins (AFs) is a major risk factor for HCC; increased risk has been linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) co-exposure and hepatitis virus infection. The aims of this study were to assess AF and PAH exposures, investigate dietary factors that may contribute to increased AF exposure, and determine the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection in Bexar Co. Blood and urine samples were collected from 184 volunteers for biomarker analyses and hepatitis screening. Serum AFB(1)-lysine adduct, urinary AFM(1) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The average AFB(1)-lysine adduct level detected in 20.6% of serums was 3.84 ± 3.11 pg/mg albumin (range 1.01-16.57 pg/mg). AFM(1) was detected in 11.7% of urines, averaging 223.85 ± 250.56 pg/mg creatinine (range 1.89-935.49 pg/mg). AFM(1) detection was associated with increased consumption of corn tortillas (p=0.009), nuts (p=0.033) and rice (p=0.037). A significant difference was observed between mean 1-OHP values of non-smokers (0.07 ± 0.13) and smokers (0.80 ± 0.68) μmol/mol creatinine (p<0.01). A high hepatitis C virus positivity rate (7.1%) was observed. Findings suggest that the incidence and level of AF and PAH exposure were less than those observed in a high-risk population; however, participants consuming higher amounts of foods prone to AF contamination may be more vulnerable to exposure and interactions with other environmental/biological factors (i.e., HCV).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Science of The Total Environment
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    ABSTRACT: It was postulated that a population in sub-Saharan Africa, known to be at high risk for aflatoxicosis due to frequent ingestion of aflatoxin (AF)-contaminated foods could also be exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a variety of environmental sources. Previously, participants in this population were shown to be highly exposed to AFs, and this exposure was significantly reduced by intervention with NovaSil clay (NS). Objectives of this study were 1) to assess PAH exposure in participants from the AF study using urinary biomarker 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP); 2) examine the effect of NS clay and placebo (cellulose) treatment on 1-OHP levels; and 3) determine potential association(s) between AF and PAH exposures. A clinical trial was conducted in 177 Ghanaians who received either NS capsules as high dose or low dose, or placebo (cellulose) for a period of 3 months. At the start and end of the study, urine samples were analyzed for 1-OHP. Of the 279 total samples, 98.9% had detectable levels of 1-OHP. Median 1-OHP excretion in nonsmokers was 0.64 micromol/mol creatinine at baseline and 0.69 micromol/mol creatinine after 3 months. Samples collected at both time points did not show significant differences between placebo and NS-treated groups. There was no linear correlation between 1-OHP and AF-albumin adduct levels. Results show that this population is highly exposed to PAHs (and AFs), that NS and cellulose treatment had no statistically significant effect on 1-OHP levels, and that this urinary biomarker was not linearly related with AF exposure.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Science of The Total Environment