Anthony Mathur

Barts Health NHS Trust, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (141)858.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: AAR measurement is useful when assessing the efficacy of reperfusion therapy and novel cardioprotective agents after myocardial infarction. Multi-slice (Typically 10-12) T2-STIR has been used widely for its measurement, typically with a short axis stack (SAX) covering the entire left ventricle, which can result in long acquisition times and multiple breath holds. This study sought to compare 3-slice T2-short-tau inversion recovery (T2- STIR) technique against conventional multi-slice T2-STIR technique for the assessment of area at risk (AAR). Methods: CMR imaging was performed on 167 patients after successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention. 82 patients underwent a novel 3-slice SAX protocol and 85 patients underwent standard 10-slice SAX protocol. AAR was obtained by manual endocardial and epicardial contour mapping followed by a semi- automated selection of normal myocardium; the volume was expressed as mass (%) by two independent observers. Results: 85 patients underwent both 10-slice and 3-slice imaging assessment showing a significant and strong correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.92;p < 0.0001) and a low Bland-Altman limit (mean difference -0.03 ± 3.21 %, 95 % limit of agreement,- 6.3 to 6.3) between the 2 analysis techniques. A further 82 patients underwent 3-slice imaging alone, both the 3-slice and the 10-slice techniques showed statistically significant correlations with angiographic risk scores (3-slice to BARI r = 0.36, 3-slice to APPROACH r = 0.42, 10-slice to BARI r = 0.27, 10-slice to APPROACH r = 0.46). There was low inter-observer variability demonstrated in the 3-slice technique, which was comparable to the 10-slice method (z = 1.035, p = 0.15). Acquisition and analysis times were quicker in the 3-slice compared to the 10-slice method (3-slice median time: 100 seconds (IQR: 65-171 s) vs (10-slice time: 355 seconds (IQR: 275-603 s); p < 0.0001. Conclusions: AAR measured using 3-slice T2-STIR technique correlates well with standard 10-slice techniques, with no significant bias demonstrated in assessing the AAR. The 3-slice technique requires less time to perform and analyse and is therefore advantageous for both patients and clinicians.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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    ABSTRACT: The REGENERATE-DCM trial is the first phase II randomized, placebo-controlled trial aiming to assess if granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration with or without adjunctive intracoronary (IC) delivery of autologous bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) improves global left ventricular (LV) function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and significant cardiac dysfunction. Sixty patients with DCM and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at referral of ≤45%, New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification ≥2 and no secondary cause for the cardiomyopathy were randomized equally into four groups: peripheral placebo (saline), peripheral G-CSF, peripheral G-CSF and IC serum, and peripheral G-CSF and IC BMC. All patients, except the peripheral placebo group, received 5 days of G-CSF. In the IC groups, this was followed by bone marrow harvest and IC infusion of cells or serum on Day 6. The primary endpoint was LVEF change from baseline to 3 months, determined by advanced cardiac imaging. At 3 months, peripheral G-CSF combined with IC BMC therapy was associated with a 5.37% point increase in LVEF (38.30% ± 12.97 from 32.93% ± 16.46 P = 0.0138), which was maintained to 1 year. This was associated with a decrease in NYHA classification, reduced NT-pro BNP, and improved exercise capacity and quality of life. No significant change in LVEF was seen in the remaining treatment groups. This is the first randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a novel combination of G-CSF and IC cell therapy that demonstrates an improvement in cardiac function, symptoms, and biochemical parameters in patients with DCM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · European Heart Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Raised blood pressure is the leading attributable risk factor for global morbidity and mortality. Real world data demonstrates that half of treated patients are at elevated cardiovascular risk because of inadequately controlled BP. In addition to pharmacotherapy, certain interventional strategies to reduce blood pressure and cardiovascular risk in hypertension can be considered according to international guidelines. One of the newer technologies entering this field is a proprietary arteriovenous coupler device that forms a fixed flow arteriovenous conduit in the central vasculature. In this review, we examine the development of and rationale for the creation of a central arteriovenous anastomosis in patients with hypertension and review the proposed mechanisms by which it may ameliorate hypertension. We critically review the clinical trial evidence base to date and postulate on future therapeutic directions.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Current Hypertension Reports

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · JACC Cardiovascular Interventions
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Mean platelet volume is increased in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is a poor prognostic marker despite antiplatelet use. The megakaryocyte (platelet precursor) that resides in the bone marrow has a mean physiological ploidy of 16n. Megakaryocyte size and DNA content are also shown to be increased in AMI. To investigate if megakaryocytes of higher ploidy are transcriptionally different and therefore have the ability to produce larger and more active platelets we performed RNA sequencing in megakaryocytes cultured with or without dimethylfasudil (diMF), an exogenous peptide that drives megakaryocyte ploidy further than previously documented by non-selective aurora kinase inhibition. Methods Human adult blood CD34+ derived megakaryocytes from 4 individuals underwent 3 days of culture with or without 5 µM diMF. RNA from untreated and treated cells was sequenced and used for differential gene and transcript expression analysis. Results Mean ploidy in the untreated megakaryocytes was 2n while diMF treatment drove mean ploidy to approximately 8n. This was associated with a morphological increase in size and nuclear multilobulation. Differential gene expression analysis revealed that in megakaryocytes that had been driven to high ploidy levels, 33 genes were downregulated while 65 genes underwent significant upregulation when compared with untreated megakaryocytes. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated that the downregulated genes were significantly enriched for transcripts involved in the cell cycle including CDC45, chromatin assembly factor 1β, and MCMs. In contrast, genes that were upregulated in higher ploidy megakaryocytes were significantly enriched for transcripts involved in haemostatic and coagulation pathways including VWF, coagulation factor XIII, thrombin receptor-like 2, PDGFβ, angiopoietin 1, thrombospondin 1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1. Furthermore, glycoprotein IIIa (part of the fibrinogen/VWF receptor) and tubulin β1 (involved in microtubule changes in platelet release) were both significantly upregulated in higher ploidy megakaryocytes. Both of these genes are specific to megakaryocytes and platelets. Conclusion This is the first analysis of megakaryocytes driven to high ploidy level in vitro using RNA sequencing. Our results demonstrate that along with the anticipated modulation of cell cycle genes with increasing ploidy, higher ploidy megakaryocytes significantly overexpress genes that are involved in megakaryocyte function, platelet activation and thrombosis. These results therefore support a role for platelet production from megakaryocytes of higher ploidy in thrombotic disease.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)
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    ABSTRACT: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the treatment of choice for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Resources are limited during out of working hours (OWH). Whether PPCI outside working hours is associated with worse outcomes and whether outcomes have improved over time are unknown. We analyzed 11 466 patients undergoing PPCI between 2004 and 2011 at all 8 tertiary cardiac centers in London, United Kingdom. We defined working hours as 9 am to 5 pm (Monday to Friday). We analyzed in-hospital bleeding and all-cause mortality ≤3 years, comparing OWH versus in-working hours. A total of 7494 patients (65.3%) were treated during OWH. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that PPCI during OWH was not a predictor for bleeding (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-2.24; P=0.071) or 3-year mortality (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.94-1.32; P=0.20). This was confirmed in propensity-matched analyses. Time-stratified analyses demonstrated that PPCI during OWH was a predictor for bleeding (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.06-3.80; P=0.034) and 3-year mortality during 2005 to 2008 (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.50; P=0.050), but this association was lost during 2009 to 2011. During 2005 to 2008, transradial access was predominantly used during in-working hours and PPCI during OWH was predictive of reduced transradial access use (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.98; P=0.033), but this association was lost during 2009 to 2011. In this study of unselected patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, PPCI during OWH versus in-working hours had comparable bleeding and mortality. Time-stratified analyses demonstrated a reduction in adjusted bleeding and mortality during OWH over time. This may reflect the improved service provision, but the increased adoption of transradial access during OWH may also be contributory. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions
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    ABSTRACT: Intolerance of antihypertensive medications is a major cause of non-adherence to pharmacotherapy leading to poor blood pressure control in the hypertensive population. We investigated the role of a central iliac arteriovenous (AV) anastomosis in a woman with uncontrolled hypertension due to multidrug intolerances. A sixty-one year old Caucasian female with long-standing poorly-controlled hypertension was referred with multiple drug intolerances. She was unable to take Amlodipine, Nifedipine, Lercanidipine, Lisinopril, Candesartan, Bendroflumethiazide, Indapamide, Spironolactone, Amiloride, Doxazosin, Bisoprolol due to unacceptable side effects. After multiple pharmacotherapeutic attempts over a one year period, she could only tolerate Nebivolol 2.5 mg daily, liquid Nifedipine solution 16 mg twice daily and one quarter Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 5 mg transdermal patch daily. Despite this BP control remained suboptimal and she was offered treatment with the ROX coupler device having declined renal denervation for personal reasons. At baseline the office BP (OBP) was 165/92 mmHg and 24 hour ambulatory BP (ABP) confirmed suboptimal control with an average daytime mean of 158/83 mmHg, nocturnal mean 126/65 mmHg. At 6 months after creation of a right-sided iliac AV anastomosis, OBP was reduced by 24/21 mmHg), and 24 hour ABP daytime average by 14/12 mmHg. At this point her BP was sufficiently well controlled to allow discontinuation of the nebivolol and GTN patch with no further change in BP at 1 year follow up. Baseline and 6 month echocardiograms both showed mild LVH with no change in ventricular wall thickness or ejection fraction. There was no significant change in renal function post-AV anastomosis. Right heart catheterisation at 6 months showed normal pressure in the right heart and pulmonary system. This is the first report of a patient with multiple drug intolerances and uncontrolled hypertension undergoing treatment with a central iliac AV anastomosis resulting in early and sustained OBP lowering to target levels and reduction in daytime mean ABP. This novel therapy appears to target mechanical properties of the circulation and may be of benefit in the management of patients with uncontrolled hypertension including those with multiple medication intolerances.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Hypertension
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    ABSTRACT: Novel therapies capable of reducing myocardial infarct (MI) size when administered prior to reperfusion are required to prevent the onset of heart failure in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Experimental animal studies have demonstrated that mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) therapy administered prior to reperfusion can reduce MI size, and MRA therapy prevents adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in post-MI patients with LV impairment. With these 2 benefits in mind, we hypothesize that initiating MRA therapy prior to PPCI, followed by 3 months of oral MRA therapy, will reduce MI size and prevent adverse LV remodeling in STEMI patients. The MINIMISE-STEMI trial is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that will recruit 150 STEMI patients from four centers in the United Kingdom. Patients will be randomized to receive either an intravenous bolus of MRA therapy (potassium canrenoate 200 mg) or matching placebo prior to PPCI, followed by oral spironolactone 50 mg once daily or matching placebo for 3 months. A cardiac magnetic resonance imaging scan will be performed within 1 week of PPCI and repeated at 3 months to assess MI size and LV remodeling. Enzymatic MI size will be estimated by the 48-hour area-under-the-curve serum cardiac enzymes. The primary endpoint of the study will be MI size on the 3-month cardiac magnetic resonance imaging scan. The MINIMISE STEMI trial will investigate whether early MRA therapy, initiated prior to reperfusion, can reduce MI size and prevent adverse post-MI LV remodeling. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Cardiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Clinical Cardiology
  • Fizzah A Choudry · Chia Yeo · Abdul Mozid · John F Martin · Anthony Mathur
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    ABSTRACT: Tβ4 is an integral factor in repair of myocardium in animal models. To investigate whether Tβ4 is important in human cardiac disease and has a role in mediating the beneficial cardiac effects of bone-marrow-derived stem cell (BMSC) therapy, we measured serial plasma Tβ4 levels in patients enrolled on the REGENERATE-IHD cell therapy trial. Plasma Tβ4 concentrations were measured in 13 patients who received BMSCs and 14 controls. There was a significant increase in plasma Tβ4 in the BMSC group 24 h after intracardiac injection. Increases in Tβ4 levels were associated with improvement in New York Heart Association symptom class. This exploratory study highlights the need for further study of Tβ4 in human cardiovascular disease.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Regenerative Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess the impact of thrombus aspiration on mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The clinical effect of routine intracoronary thrombus aspiration before primary PCI in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is uncertain. We undertook an observational cohort study of 10,929 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients from January 2005 to July 2011 at 8 centers across London, United Kingdom. Patients' details were recorded at the time of the procedure into local databases using the British Cardiac Intervention Society PCI dataset. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality at a median follow-up of 3.0 years (interquartile range: 1.2 to 4.6 years). In our cohort, 3,572 patients (32.7%) underwent thrombus aspiration during primary PCI. Patients who had thrombus aspiration were younger, had lower rates of previous myocardial infarction but were more likely to have poor left ventricular function. Procedural success rates were higher (90.9% vs. 89.2%; p = 0.005) and in-hospital major adverse cardiac event rates were lower (4.4% vs. 5.5%; p = 0.012) in patients undergoing thrombus aspiration. However, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no significant difference in mortality rates between patients with and without thrombus aspiration (14.8% aspiration vs. 15.3% PCI only; p = 0.737) during the follow-up period. After multivariate Cox analysis (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65 to 1.23) and the addition of propensity matching (HR: 0.85 95% CI: 0.60 to 1.20) thrombus aspiration was still not associated with decreased mortality. In this cohort of nearly 11,000 patients, routine thrombus aspiration was not associated with a reduction in long-term mortality in patients undergoing primary PCI, although procedural success and in-hospital major adverse cardiac event rates were improved. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
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    ABSTRACT: The field of percutaneous intervention for chronic total occlusion (CTO) has enjoyed significant innovations in the recent years. Novel techniques and technologies have revolutionized the field and have resulted in considerably higher success rates even in patients with high anatomical complexity. Successful CTO recanalization is associated with significant clinical benefits, such as the improvement of angina and quality of life, reduced rates of surgical revascularization, improvement of left ventricular function and decreased mortality rates. However, complex CTO procedures often require prolonged x-ray exposure which have been associated with adverse long term outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Current Cardiology Reviews

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: The relation between socio-economic status (SES) and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not been established. We sought to determine whether or not socio-economic status impacts on prognosis after PCI. This was an observational cohort study of 13,770 consecutive patients who underwent PCI at a single centre between 2005 and 2011. Patient socio-economic status was defined by the English Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) score, according to residential postcode. Patients were analysed by quintile of IMD score (Q1, least deprived; Q5, most deprived). Median follow-up was 3.7 (IQR: 2.0-5.1) years and the primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Patients in Q5 (most deprived) were younger, more commonly South Asian, and had higher rates of smoking, diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, previous MI, and previous PCI than patients in Q1. Rates of long-term mortality increased progressively across the five quintiles of IMD score in a linear fashion (p=0.0004), as did rates of recurrent MI, target vessel revascularisation, and CABG. The difference in mortality rates persisted after adjustment for other potential confounding factors after multivariate analysis (Q5 vs. Q1: HR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.38-2.69). In this large contemporary cohort of patients receiving PCI, socio-economic status was associated with prognosis in a linear fashion.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Several studies have examined the relationship between age and clinical outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). The majority of studies have concentrated on describing elderly patients and there has been less focus on the profile and outcome of young patients suffering from STEMI. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical profile and outcomes of young patients compared with an older cohort and to establish what risk factors were associated with young patients having PPCI for STEMI. Methods: This was an observational cohort study of 3618 patients with STEMI treated by PPCI at a regional heart attack centre in London between January 2004 and September 2012. Clinical characteristics and outcomes in (young) patients aged ≤45 years were compared with those in (older) patients aged >45 years. The primary and main secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular event rates, respectively, at a median follow-up of 3.0 (interquartile range 1.2-4.6) years. Results: Of the 3618 patients, 367 (10.1%) were aged ≤45 years and 3251 (89.9%) were aged >45 years. The proportion of patients aged ≤45 years increased from 8.5% to 11.5% (p=0.04) during the study period. Compared with older patients, those aged ≤45 years were more likely to be male, smokers, of South Asian ethnicity and to have a family history of premature coronary artery disease. Young patients were less likely to have a history of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularisation, or to have left ventricular systolic impairment or renal impairment. Over the follow-up period, mortality (2.7% vs. 7.6%; p<0.0001) and major adverse cardiovascular event rates (7.0% vs. 13.5%; p<0.0001) were significantly lower in patients aged ≤45 years compared with older patients. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, young age remained a predictor of reduced all cause mortality when compared with older patients (hazard ratio 0.12 (95% confidence interval 0.04-0.38)), including after incorporation of a propensity score (hazard ratio: 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.04-0.36)). Conclusions: In this cohort of patients with STEMI treated by PPCI there was an increasing incidence of young patients aged ≤45 years throughout the study period. These patients were more often male, smokers and of South Asian ethnicity. Outcomes in younger patients was good. Focusing preventative strategies on smokers and high risk ethnic groups may help reduce the incidence of premature coronary artery disease.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · European Heart Journal: Acute Cardiovascular Care
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent a major challenge in percutaneous coronary revascularization. The recent advances in strategies and techniques and the development of dedicated equipment, such as microcatheters and wires, have resulted in considerably higher success rates. Although successful CTO recanalization is associated with significant clinical benefits, including improvement of angina, quality of life, reduced need for surgical revascularization, and improvement of left ventricular function, CTO procedures may require prolonged x-ray exposure and use of larger volumes of contrast compared with non-CTO procedures. Large volumes of contrast medium have been associated with increased rates of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) and adverse short- and long-term outcomes. Application of specific measures and algorithms should be considered by all CTO operators to prevent CI-AKI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The American Journal of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Pre-clinical evidence demonstrates that inorganic nitrite, following its in situ conversion to nitric oxide, attenuates consequent myocardial reperfusion injury. Objective: We investigated whether intra-coronary injection of nitrite during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) might improve infarct size in ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and Results: Patients undergoing primary PCI (n=80) were randomised to receive intracoronary (10mL) sodium nitrite (1.8μmol) or NaCl (placebo) before balloon inflation. The primary endpoint was infarct size assessed by measuring creatine kinase (CK) release. Secondary outcomes included infarct size assessed by troponin T release and by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) on day 2. Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. No evidence of differences in CK release (p=0.92), troponin T (p=0.85) or CMR-assessed infarct size (p=0.254) were evident. In contrast there was a reduction in myocardial salvage index (p=0.05) and MACE at 1 year (2.6% vs 15.8%, p=0.04) in the nitrite group. In a 66-patient sub-group with TIMI≤1 flow there was reduced serum CK (p=0.030) and a 19% reduction in CMR-determined infarct size (p=0.034) with nitrite. No adverse effects of nitrite were detected. Conclusions: In this phase II study intra-coronary nitrite infusion did not alter infarct size although a trend to improved myocardial salvage index and a significant reduction in MACE was evident. In a sub-group of patients with TIMI flow≤1 nitrite reduced infarct size and MACE and improved myocardial salvage index indicating that a phase III clinical trial assessing intra-coronary nitrite administration as an adjunct to PCI in STEMI patients is warranted. Clinical Trial Registration: - NCT01584453.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Circulation Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It is estimated that up to two thirds of patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction have multivessel disease. The optimal strategy for treating nonculprit disease is currently under debate. This study provides a real-world analysis comparing a strategy of culprit-vessel intervention (CVI) versus multivessel intervention at the time of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Methods and results: We compared CVI versus multivessel intervention in 3984 patients with multivessel disease undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention between 2004 and 2011 at all 8 tertiary cardiac centers in London. Multivariable-adjusted models were built to determine independent predictors for in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and all-cause mortality at 1 year. To reduce confounding and bias, propensity score methods were used. CVI was associated with reduced in-hospital MACE (4.6% versus 7.2%; P=0.010) and mortality at 1 year (7.4% versus 10.1%; P=0.031). CVI was an independent predictor for reduced in-hospital MACE (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-0.75; P<0.001) and survival at 1 year (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.47-0.91; P=0.011) in the complete cohort; and in 2821 patients in propensity-matched cohort (in-hospital MACE: odds ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.32-0.76; P=0.002; and 1-year survival: hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.90; P=0.010). Inverse probability treatment weighted analyses also confirmed CVI as an independent predictor for reduced in-hospital MACE (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15-0.96; P=0.040) and survival at 1 year (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21-0.93; P=0.033). Conclusions: In this observational analysis of patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention, CVI was associated with increased survival at 1 year. Acknowledging the limitations with observational analyses, our findings support current recommended practice guidelines.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Current recommendations are for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, information about longer-term outcomes is sparse, particularly among high-risk patients who do not regain consciousness promptly after resuscitation. Methods and results: Of 1836 consecutive patients admitted with STEMI for pPCI between April 2008-October 2011, 132 (7.2%) who had suffered OHCA with recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) form the study population. 101 patients survived to hospital discharge (76.5%) with only one further death in the first year. Prognosis was worse for the 62 patients who were unconscious on arrival and required admission to the intensive therapy unit (ITU), only 54% of whom survived. Every additional minute in the time to ROSC increased the hazard of death by 1.7% while alertness upon ROSC and successful reperfusion in response to pPCI reduced the hazard of death by 90% and 65% respectively. Full neurological recovery was recorded in 85.1% of those who survived to be discharged but in only 30.6% of the 34 survivors who were admitted unconscious and received ITU treatment. Every additional minute in the time to ROSC increased the odds of neurological deficit by 7.0%. Conclusions: In patients with STEMI who are conscious after OHCA, high rates of survival can be achieved with pPCI, depending in part on the time it takes for ROSC. Prognosis is less good in the subgroup brought to hospital unconscious but even in this high risk group neurologically intact survival can be achieved in about one-third of cases, suggesting the benefit of immediate pPCI in STEMI patients successfully resuscitated after OHCA.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · European Heart Journal: Acute Cardiovascular Care
  • Constantinos O'Mahony · Martin Rothman · Anthony Mathur
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous coronary intervention is currently the most commonly used revascularization procedure. This success is a direct consequence of the improved medium- and long-term target vessel patency achieved with drug-eluting stents (DES). However, DES are associated with stent thrombosis (ST), a rare but potentially catastrophic complication. Early interruption of dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) is a major risk factor for ST and guidelines recommend a minimum duration of DAPT of 6 to 12 months post implantation. Recently published observational data suggest that premature DAPT interruption is not associated with ST in patients treated with the second-generation Resolute zotarolimus-eluting stent. This article reviews the background to the development of Resolute DES and reviews recently published data on ST and DAPT interruption.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014

Publication Stats

2k Citations
858.42 Total Impact Points


  • 2011-2015
    • Barts Health NHS Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009-2015
    • Liverpool Heart And Chest Hospital
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004-2015
    • William Harvey Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      • Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust
      Harefield, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999-2005
    • University College London
      • • Centre for Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine
      • • Division of Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • The University of York
      • Department of Biology
      York, England, United Kingdom