[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inclusion of phytogenic feed additives (PFA) in feed may enhance performance of broilers. Levels of essential oils in powdered
form (characterized by menthol and anethole) at 150 mg/kg (P-150) and matrix-encapsulated form (characterized by carvacrol, thymol, and limonene) at 100 mg/kg (ME-100) were supplemented in diet to investigate their effect on performance (trial 1) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients (trial 2) in broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old broilers (Cobb 500) were used in trial 1 and 120 broilers in
trial 2. Broilers were distributed in 24 pens with 8 pens per treatment (trial 1) and 6 pens with 2 pens per treatment (trial
2), with 20 birds per pen. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the experimental periods in both trials. In trial 1, body weight of birds at d 42 and overall body weight gain
from d 1 to d 42, was higher in treatment ME-100 than birds in control treatment (P = 0.023 and P = 0.024, respectively). Feed efficiency during finisher phase was improved in treatment ME-100 relatively to control and
P-150 treatments (P = 0.035). At d 21 in trial 2, the apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein was higher in ME-100 treatment in comparison
with control and P-150 treatments (P < 0.001). Apparent ileal absorption (AIA) of phosphorus was higher in ME-100 treatment than control treatment (P = 0.028). AID of cysteine was higher in both phytogenic additive supplemented treatments in comparison with control treatment
(P = 0.001). In conclusion, inclusion of a powdered phytogenic additive characterized by menthol and anethole at 150 mg/kg had
no effect but only a tendency towards improved performance and AIA of phosphorus, whereas essential oils addition in encapsulated
form characterized by caravacol, thymol, and limonene at 100 mg/kg improved performance as well as apparent ileal digestibility
of nutrients in broilers, possibly due to improved secretion of digestive enzymes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various milling methods, thermal treatment and particle sizes are used in feed production for laying hens, which may influence egg quality. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of feed produced by roller (R) and hammer mill (H) as mash (M) and expandate (E) with coarse (C) and fine (F) particle size on exterior and interior egg quality in layers. A total of 240 hens (Lohmann Brown), 19 weeks old, were used in a randomized design with 2×2×2 factorial arrangement. Eight experimental diets were offered ad libitum during the whole experimental period and one week before for diet adaption. Eggs were analyzed for egg weight, area, shape index, shell weight per unit surface area, air cell, yolk color, blood spot, Haugh unit, yolk and albumen measures (weight, index, height, width and length) shell measures (stability, surface area, density, thickness and membrane weight), and percent contents of yolk, albumen, shell and shell membrane. The shell membrane weight and percent shell membrane weight was lower in treatment H as compared to treatment R ( P< 0.01 and P≤0.01, respectively). Thermal treatments displayed higher percent shell membrane weight in treatment E than treatment M ( P≤0.04). The shell density was higher in treatment F in comparison with treatment C ( P≤0.04). The shell thickness and shell weight were higher in treatment C as compared to treatment F ( P≤0.02 and P≤0.04, respectively). The interaction between milling methods and particle size affected shell thickness ( P≤0.01). Milling method influenced yolk index and yolk height, which were higher in treatment H as compared to treatment R ( P< 0.01 and P≤0.02, respectively). The albumen height was higher in treatment C than treatment F ( P≤0.03). The interaction between milling method and particle size affected blood spot, albumen length and yolk height ( P≤0.05, P≤0.04 and P≤0.04, respectively). The interaction between thermal treatments and particle size affected yolk color ( P≤0.04). Additionally, percent albumen weight was affected by interaction between milling methods, thermal treatments and particle size ( P≤0.05). In conclusion, most of egg quality parameters of economic importance were not affected by the treatments used in present study. Therefore, milling method, thermal treatment and particle size of feed seem to be of lower importance for layer feed production regarding the optimized egg quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immune response of piglets to a vaccination against the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) was tested after feeding different feed additives. The trial included four groups of ten piglets and lasted 39 days. Feed additives were added to a control diet (C). Tested substances included an autolyzed yeast preparation from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YA) at 0.2%, dried bovine colostrum (CM) at 0.9% and the probiotic B. cereus var. toyoi NCIMB 40112 (BC) at 109 colony forming units/kg diet. Three-week-old piglets were vaccinated against PRRS-Virus, blood samples were taken before vaccination and 7, 21, and 35 days after vaccination for complete blood counts, flow cytometry for phenotyping of different lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood, measurement of specific IgG antibodies and ELISpot assay to detect specific interferon γ-producing lymphocytes.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Livestock Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a naturally occurring glycine derivative, which is useful as additive to broiler diets as it improves nutrient digestibility and reduces the development of broiler ascites syndrome. This study evaluated the efficacy of dietary DMG to enhance performance of broiler chickens. Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with 1 g Na DMG/kg on growth performance and carcass characteristics. In Trial 1, the effect of sex was also assessed in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Trials 1 (Germany), 2 (Austria), and 3 (Italy), each treatment consisted of 6, 12, and 11 replicate pens with 20, 15, and 16 one-day-old broiler chickens per pen, respectively. Dietary DMG supplementation resulted in improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) in the starter phase by 8.8 (P=0.004), 6.4 (P=0.001), and 4.8% (P=0.006) compared with the control diet in Trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The overall FCR improved in broiler chickens fed the diets supplemented with DMG by 3.8 and 4.1% in Trials 1 (P=0.007) and 3 (P=0.006), respectively. In addition, final body weight increased by 5.5% (P=0.001) in Trial 2 and production value improved by 6.8% (P=0.015) in Trial 1 by dietary DMG supplementation. Mortality in all trials was similar between dietary treatments. In all 3 trials, cold carcass weight and total meat yield were as well similar between broiler chickens fed the control and DMG diets. In Trial 1, dietary DMG had no effect on breast meat yield in male broiler chickens, but it increased breast meat yield in female broiler chickens (diet x sex, P=0.004). Organoleptic quality of roasted breast meat assessed only in Trial 2 was not affected by dietary treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of DMG at 1 g Na DMG/kg can considerably improve s production performance in broiler chickens.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Livestock Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well as organic acid (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) inclusion levels (0, 0.75, and 1.5%) on gastrointestinal microbiota in broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. At d 35, bacterial cell numbers in the crop, ileum, and cecum, and bacterial metabolites in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were determined. The inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased cell numbers of all clostridial clusters in the crop. The organic acid supplementation increased the propionic acid concentration in the crop and gizzard and there was a decrease in lactic acid concentration. In the ileum, the 0% organic acid group had the highest numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and enterobacteria. Inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased ileal acetate concentration. Increasing the feed processing temperature led to an increase of lactobacilli in the crop and ileum, whereas clostridia and enterobacteria seemed unaffected. Similarly, lactate concentrations increased in the ileum, but short-chain fatty acids remained identical. In the crop, an increase for acetate was found for the E130 group compared with all other thermal treatments. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that thermal treatments and organic acid supplementation to broiler diets more markedly influenced the bacterial status of the crop compared with the downstream segments and their effects decreased along the length of gastrointestinal tract. Whereas organic acids markedly modified bacterial composition and activity in the crop, expansion increased lactobacilli and lactate in the crop and ileum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minerals play an important role for growth and bone stability in broilers. Thermal treatment and inclusion of organic acids in feed may affect the mineral absorption and tibial quality in broilers. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of thermal processing of feed including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C (L), and expanding at 130°C (E) without and with 1.5% of an acid mixture containing 64% formic and 25% propionic acid on the apparent ileal absorption (AIA) of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, and zinc, their concentrations in liver and tibia, as well as various tibial quality parameters in broilers. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb broiler chicks were assigned using a completely randomized design with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. The ileal digesta, liver, and tibia were collected at d 35. The AIA of calcium and sodium was improved in group E compared with L (P ≤ 0.02 and P ≤ 0.01). Group P and E showed higher AIA for potassium than L (P ≤ 0.01). Bone ash content was increased in group E compared with L (P ≤ 0.04). The BW to bone weight ratio was lower and tibial zinc content was higher in group P compared with E (P ≤ 0.05). Tibial iron content was higher in group L than E (P ≤ 0.03). Acid addition did not affect AIA, mineral content in tibia, or tibial quality parameters. Thermal and acid treatment did not affect mineral concentrations in the liver, except an inconsistent interaction effect for DM content and sodium (P ≤ 0.03 and P ≤ 0.04, respectively). In conclusion, long-term thermal treatment reduced AIA of some minerals compared with short-term thermal treatments, but had no impact on tibia composition. Acid inclusion had no effect on AIA of minerals and tibia quality. Thermal treatment and the use of organic acids can therefore be considered as safe with regard to their impact on bone development in broilers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal treatment and acid supplementation for hygienization of broiler feed without negatively influencing performance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary inulin can affect the composition and metabolic activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota in piglets. To investigate whether the chain length of inulin may influence its stability in the gut and the bacterial community, 18 weaned piglets were housed 2 per cage, with 1 female and 1 castrated male animal each. The piglets received a control diet without or with 4% inulin, defined by an average degree of polymerisation (DP) of 31 (short-chain, I31) or 57 (long-chain, I57), with 6 piglets/diet. After a short feeding period of 6 d, fructan concentrations, selected bacterial groups, lactic acid, short-chain fatty acid concentrations, and the pH were determined in the digesta of different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The results indicated that differences in the microbial degradation of inulin were depending on the DP. Compared to the short-chain inulin, the concentrations of the long-chain inulin were numerically greater in the small intestine and caecum, and greater in the digesta of the ascending colon. Differences were also observed in the bacterial composition of the digesta, showing greater cell numbers of enterococci (P=0.029), bifidobacteria (P=0.029), and Lactobacillus mucosae (P=0.028) in the ileum in group I57 compared to group I31. However, most bacteria tended to be numerically reduced in the ileum in group I31 compared to both control and I57 groups. Minor effects were observed in the ascending colon: L. reuteri and L. amylovorus were decreased in group I57 compared to the control group (P=0.031 and 0.034, respectively), and L. mucosae was decreased in group I31 compared to the control animals (P=0.029). The concentrations of bacterial metabolites were distinctively changed in the large intestine of the piglets fed inulin. The pH was lower in the rectum contents in group I57 compared to the control piglets (P=0.026), but lactic acid and total short-chain fatty acid concentrations were not affected. The molar ratios of propionic acid increased in the caecal contents (P=0.040) and in both, the ascending and descending colonic digesta (P=0.017 and 0.013, respectively) in group I57 compared to the control group, while acetic acid decreased (P<0.001) and n-valeric acid increased (P<0.001 and P=0.011, respectively) in the digesta of the ascending and descending colon in group I57. In conclusion, the microbial degradation of inulin was dependent on its chain length. Long-chain inulin affected the microbial fermentation more pronounced compared to short-chain inulin. The effects were already observed after 6 d, a relatively short application period, indicating that inulin may be used specifically during the sensitive post-weaning period for piglets.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Livestock Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fenugreek seed has been shown to affect the intestinal microbiota and immunological responses in animals. A feeding trial with male castrated piglets was performed over 28 d without or with the addition of 1·5 g fenugreek seeds/kg complete diet in ten and eleven piglets, weaned at 21 d. In the intestinal tract, pH, lactate and SCFA were measured as major bacterial metabolites. Immune cell phenotypes, phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin M were measured by flow cytometry. Health status and performance of the piglets were not affected by fenugreek. The pH in the caecum and colon were reduced compared with the control (P < 0·05). Higher concentrations of l-lactic acid were recorded in the small-intestinal digesta (average concentrations from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum; P < 0·05), while the concentrations of SCFA remained unchanged except an increase in n-butyric acid in colon contents (P < 0·05). The piglets fed the fenugreek diet had higher Lactobacillus and clostridium cluster I concentrations and lower Escherichia, Hafnia and Shigella concentrations in the small intestine. The addition of fenugreek increased the relative concentration of the γδ T-cell population (TCR1+CD8α-) in the blood with a simultaneous reduction of antigen-presenting cells (MHCII+CD5-) (P < 0·05). Proliferation rate and phagocytosis activity of monocytes were not affected by the additive. In conclusion, fenugreek seeds might be interesting as a feed ingredient for young piglets due to their effects on the intestinal microbiota and immunological variables. The impact on performance and animal health has to be further evaluated.
Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of low dietary levels of free and encapsulated medium-chain fatty acids on their concentrations in the digesta, the gastric microbial ecology and bacterial metabolic products in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in weaned piglets was studied. Starting after weaning, 36 piglets were fed a diet without (Control) or with medium-chain fatty acids uncoated (MCFA) or coated with vegetable fat and lecithin (MCFAc). After 4 weeks, the animals were killed, and digesta from the stomach and different sections of the GIT were collected. The concentrations of caprylic (p < 0.001) and capric (p = 0.001) acids were higher in the stomachs of piglets fed diets MCFA and MCFAc compared to the Control group. The concentrations dropped rapidly along the GIT, regardless of encapsulation, and tended to be higher in groups MCFA and MCFAc compared to the Control. Compared to the Control group, ingestion of diet MCFAc led to an increase in the number of eubacteria (p = 0.001), enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.001), clostridial clusters I (p = 0.001) and IV (p = 0.019), Lactobacillus johnsonii (p < 0.001) and Lactobacillus amylovorus (p = 0.001) in gastric contents. A similar trend was seen with diet MCFA. Relative concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were characterised by lower propionic acid levels (p = 0.045), numerically (p < 0.1) higher acetic, lower n-butyric and i-valeric acid concentrations in the small intestine. Lactic acid concentrations were not significantly changed in the GIT, but ammonia concentrations increased (p < 0.001) in the distal small intestine in the MCFA and MCFAc groups. In conclusion, medium-chain fatty acids affected microbial ecology parameters in the gastric contents and bacterial metabolites in the small intestine. At low dietary levels, medium-chain fatty acids may be regarded as modulators of the gastric microbiota in weaned piglets.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Archives of animal nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study was undertaken to examine the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) containing essential oils of thyme and star anise as lead active components on the growth performance and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. In total, 528 one-day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatment groups with 6 replicate pens per treatment group (22 birds each). The dietary treatments were a control starter and grower basal diet without PFA or 150, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg of PFA. Body weight, weight gain, and feed intake were not significantly influenced by the feed additive, but the feed conversion ratio during the grower (22-42 d) and overall (1-42 d) periods improved linearly (P < 0.05) by the administration of PFA compared with that of the control diet. The average weights of the liver, heart, kidneys, and spleen were not significantly affected by the PFA. The results of the apparent ileal digestibility of crude ash, CP, crude fat, calcium, and phosphorus showed a linear increase (P < 0.05) related to the increase of PFA dose in the diet. Therefore, the means of digestibility of these nutrients were significantly higher in birds fed the PFA for all categories of age compared with the digestibility of these nutrients in the controls. In conclusion, the mode of action of the tested PFA can be explained by an improvement in the nutrient digestibility in the small intestine. The underlying physiological mechanisms, however, need to be characterized further.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N,N-Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a tertiary amino acid that naturally occurs as an intermediate metabolite in choline-to-glycine metabolism. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate tolerance, safety and bioaccumulation of dietary DMG in broilers when supplemented at 1 g and 10 g Na-DMG/kg. A feeding trial was conducted using 480 1-d-old broiler chicks that were randomly allocated to twenty-four pens and fed one of three test diets added with 0, 1 or 10 g Na-DMG/kg during a 39 d growth period. Production performance was recorded to assess tolerance and efficacy of the supplement. At the end of the trial, toxicity was evaluated by means of haematology, plasma biochemistry and histopathology of liver, kidney and heart (n 12), whereas bioaccumulation was assessed on breast meat, liver, blood, kidney and adipose tissue (n 8). Carcass traits were similar between the control and 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed groups (P>0·05), but the feed:gain ratio was significantly improved at 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed compared with the control or the 10-fold dose (P=0·008). Histological examinations showed no pathological effects and results of haematology and plasma biochemistry revealed similar values between the test groups (P>0·05). Bioaccumulation occurred at the 10-fold dose, but the resulting DMG content in breast meat was comparable with, for instance, wheat bran and much lower than uncooked spinach. In conclusion, DMG at 1 g Na-DMG/kg improved the feed:gain ratio in broilers without DMG being accumulated in consumer parts. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with DMG up to 10 g Na-DMG/kg did not induce toxicity or impaired performance in broilers.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 2 different phytogenic products on performance, ileal nutrient digestibility, and composition of the intestinal microbiota. The 2 phytogenic products contained different essential oil mixtures (EOM) characterized by either menthol (Mentha arvensis; EOM-M) or cinnamon aldehyde (Cinnamomum aromaticum; EOM-C) as main constituents. Three treatments consisted of control diet without EOM addition and diets supplemented with EOM-M or EOM-C. Reproducibility of the effects was examined in 4 trials with a total of 300 male castrated and female piglets weaned at 25 d of age. The number of pens per treatment in trials I through III were 7, 9, and 9, respectively, for research station conditions, and 10 in trial IV for simulated farm conditions. In research station conditions, the experimental unit consisted of flat deck pens with 2 piglets per pen, whereas it consisted of floor pens with straw bedding with 5 piglets per pen in farm conditions. The feed additives had no effect on feed intake or BW gain. Improvements (P < 0.05) in G:F were observed for EOM-M supplemented diets in 2 of 4 trials as well as for the combined data of all trials. These improvements were associated with greater (P<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility of CP and of most AA. The effect of EOM-C on these response criteria was intermediate between control and EOM-M. Real-time PCR analysis of the gastrointestinal contents for 7 bacterial groups (Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum cluster, Escherichia spp., and Escherichia coli toxin estII) indicated no effect of treatments on the gastrointestinal microbiota. It was concluded that EOM-M consistently improved feed efficiency in weaned piglets, and it was associated with improved ileal protein and AA digestibility. In general, however, the effectiveness of EOM as feed additives differs considerably depending on the constituents.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eleven mature, non-lactating, non-pregnant, Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows were given, via a ruminal cannula, 2000mEq of one of three chloride salts, four sulfate salts, two combinations of anionic salts (AS), sodium chloride (as neutral salt), or water as control. The salts and controls were assigned in an 11x11 Latin square and the cows were randomly distributed. All of the AS induced a metabolic acidosis that resulted in a small reduction of blood pH, base excess, and bicarbonate (P<0.001), and notable changes in urinary pH, net acid base excretion (P<0.001), and urinary calcium excretion (P<0.001). Only calcium chloride had a significantly greater impact on acid-base status (ABS) than the sulfate salts. The effect of other chloride salts did not differ from calcium sulfate. There was no indication that chloride salts in general have a greater impact than sulfate salts on the ABS.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · The Veterinary Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether the different anionic salts used in the prevention of parturient paresis have an impact on the ruminal pH and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in mature non-pregnant, non-lactating cows.
Eleven Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows were administered 2,000 mEq of either one of three chloride salts, viz CaCl2, MgCl2, or NH4Cl; four sulphate salts, viz CaSO4, CaSO4 with a grain size of 10 microm, MgSO4, or (NH4)2SO4; two combinations of anionic salts, viz CaCl2+MgSO4, or CaSO4+NH4Cl; NaCl; or water, via a ruminal cannula over a 14-day treatment period. The salts and controls were assigned in an 11 x 11 Latin square, and the cows were distributed randomly. Ruminal fluid was collected four times in each treatment period for monitoring the ruminal pH, and four times a day at Days 7 and 14 for monitoring any changes in the concentrations of SCFA.
Feeding anionic salts did not change the ruminal pH, total concentration of SCFA, or distribution pattern of the main SCFA acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid or valeric acid (p>0.05).
Feeding anionic salts has no negative side effect on the ruminal pH and concentrations of SCFA in mature non-pregnant, non-lactating cattle. Impaired function of the rumen due to the feeding of anionic salts is not likely.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · New Zealand veterinary journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present report demonstrates the effect of α toxin from Clostridium perfringens on electrophysiological indexes of jejunal mucosa from laying hens pretreated with inulin and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (ACC), a mucolytic agent. In a first set of experiments, the effect of α toxin with or without pretreatment with
ACC on the electrophysiological parameters was determined when jejunal tissues from laying hens were mounted in Ussing chambers.
The short-circuit current remained unchanged when α toxin was added mucosally in the tissues whether pretreated with ACC or
not. The change in the transmural tissue conductance (ΔGt) was higher (P = 0.18) after 90 min exposure of toxin independent of pretreament with ACC. The effect of α toxin on ΔGt became significant
(P ≤ 0.05) after 120 min of incubation. In the second set of experiments, the effect of α toxin on the jejunal tissues preincubated
with inulin (0.1%) was investigated. The effect of toxin was also time dependent, and ΔGt became significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) after 120 min of incubation independent of preinubation with inulin. Inulin did not influence the ΔGt during the
experimental period when compared with control tissues. In conclusion, α toxin from C. perfringens can impair the intestinal mucosal barrier. The effect is obviously not dependent on the presence of a mucolytic agent nor
can it be affected by direct addition of inulin under in vitro conditions. Whether there is an effect of inulin after long-term
supplementation in feeding trials or it is due to fermentation bacterial metabolites remains an open question.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the impact of the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on the influence of anionic salts (AS) on the metabolism of dairy cows using a study-design that included control of feed intake. Ten mature, non-lactating, non-pregnant, Holstein-Friesian-crossbreed cows received 2000 mEq of either one of the seven anionic salts tested, two combinations of the anionic salts or water as control via a rumen cannula. Salts and controls were assigned in a 10x10 Latin square design. Whole blood, serum and urine samples were taken during treatment (TP) and washout period. Samples of whole blood were tested for pH, base-excess and bicarbonate concentrations. In urine, pH and net acid-base excretion (NABE) were analysed. Calcium was measured in serum and urine. According to the different batches of hay, five groups of DCAD were created regarding cluster analysis. Changes in urine and blood parameters were statistically analysed for each DCAD group separately. The different DCAD had an impact on the amount of change in acid-base balance (ABB) and calcium metabolism and for how long these changes lasted. In the DCAD group receiving the highest amount of AS (239 mEq/kg dry matter with AS), changes of ABB were only noticeable in urine and these changes only differed from day zero in the first week of TP (P<0.05). In the other four groups changes of ABB were also visible in blood parameters, but only on a few days of TP did the deviations differ significantly (P<0.05) from day zero. Changes of ABB parameters in urine samples were more pronounced than those in blood and differed clearly from day zero (P<0.05). Parallel to the changes of ABB, calcium concentrations in these samples were significantly increased (P<0.001) in all DCAD groups. Except for the highest DCAD group, ionized calcium concentrations changed over time (P<0.020). However, the differences were very small and only differed from day zero on a few TP days. We conclude that the DCAD of a dairy cow's diet has an important impact on the effect of AS on ABB and calcium metabolism with respect to the duration and amount of change. The target regions of DCAD should be clearly below 100 mEq/kg dry matter to ensure the desired effect on ABB and calcium metabolism. Extremely negative DCAD should be avoided to minimize the risk of clinical acidosis induced by AS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Three bacterial phytases derived from Bacillus, Escherichia coli or Klebsiella were compared with a phytase derived from Aspergillus niger in vitro and in vivo. 2. The in vitro results indicated that Aspergillus, E. coli and Klebsiella phytase displayed their activity optima in an acid pH range while Bacillus phytase did so in neutral pH. 3. The trials also revealed that only Bacillus phytase is more resistant to heat treatments, while E. coli and Klebsiella phytases are more stable against proteolytic inactivation. 4. In vivo phytases derived from Aspergillus, Bacillus, E. coli, Klebsiella or a combination of Bacillus and E. coli improved the utilisation of phosphorus (P balance) significantly to 0.54, 0.54, 0.55, 0.55 or 0.58, respectively, compared to 0.42 in the negative control. 5. The phytases used in this study seemed to be equally effective in improving P utilisation regardless of proposed intestinal site of activity. Combination of phytases acting in the gizzard with phytases acting in the intestine seems to be a promising way to further improving in vivo efficacy of phytases in poultry.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · British Poultry Science