[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart transplantation is a standard treatment for end-stage heart disease. Pediatric heart transplantation, however, is not frequently performed due to the shortage of pediatric heart donors. This is the first report of pediatric heart transplantation in Korea. Our retrospective study included 37 patients younger than 18 yr of age who underwent heart transplantation at Asan Medical Center between August 1997 and April 2009. Preoperative diagnosis was either cardiomyopathy (n = 29, 78.3%) or congenital heart disease (n = 8, 22.7%). Mean follow up period was 56.9 ± 44.6 months. There were no early death, but 7 late deaths (7/37, 18.9%) due to rejection after 11, 15, 41 months (n = 3), infection after 5, 8, 10 months (n = 3), suspicious ventricular arrhythmia after 50 months (n = 1). There was no significant risk factor for survival. There were 25 rejections (25/37, 67.6%); less than grade II occurred in 17 patients (17/25, 68%) and more than grade II occurred in 8 patients (8/25, 32%). Actuarial 1, 5, and 10 yr survival was 88.6%, 76.8%, and 76.8%. Our midterm survival of pediatric heart transplantation showed excellent results. We hope this result could be an encouraging message to do more pediatric heart transplantation in Korean society.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Journal of Korean medical science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with congenital heart disease, coronary artery anomalies are common and have different clinical importance from individuals with structurally normal hearts. Visibility of the coronary arteries by CT has markedly improved due to high temporal resolution and ECG-synchronized data acquisition. In this article we describe current multislice CT techniques for coronary artery imaging and illustrate coronary artery anomalies and clinically important coronary artery anatomy from the point of view of congenital heart disease.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Pediatric Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plastic bronchitis is a rare cause of acute obstructive respiratory failure in children. Life-threatening events are much more frequent in patients with repaired cyanotic congenital heart disease, and most frequent following a Fontan operation. Commonly, the diagnosis is not made until bronchial casts are expectorated. Detailed CT findings in plastic bronchitis have not been described.
To describe the CT findings in plastic bronchitis in children after a Fontan operation.
Three children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation were evaluated by chest CT. Bronchial casts were spontaneously expectorated and/or extracted by bronchoscopy. Airway and lung abnormalities seen on CT were analyzed in the three children.
CT demonstrated bronchial casts in the central airways with associated atelectasis and consolidation in all children. The affected airways were completely or partially obstructed by the bronchial casts without associated bronchiectasis. The airway and lung abnormalities rapidly improved after removal of the bronchial casts.
CT can identify airway and lung abnormalities in children with plastic bronchitis after a Fontan operation. In addition, CT can be used to guide bronchoscopy and to monitor treatment responses, and thereby may improve clinical outcomes.
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Pediatric Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between the ascending and descending aorta. Because almost all patients with IAA become critically ill during the neonatal period, they should undergo urgent corrective surgery. This clinical urgency necessitates a fast and accurate noninvasive diagnostic method. Although echocardiography remains the primary imaging tool for this purpose, it is not always sufficient for planning surgical correction of IAA, principally due to a limited acoustic window and the inexperience of imagers. In this context, multislice CT angiography is regarded as an appropriate imaging technique complementary to echocardiography because it is fast, accurate, and objective for the diagnosis of IAA. In this article we describe what cardiac radiologists should know about IAA in their clinical practice, including clinicopathological features, CT features with contemporary surgical methods and postoperative complications, and differentiation from coarctation of the aorta and aortic arch atresia.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Pediatric Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the usefulness of time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using diluted contrast agent (CA) in patients who had undergone a Fontan operation or bidirectional cavopulmonary connection (BCPC).
Time-resolved 3D MRA (10 dynamic data sets, two seconds per dynamic data set) using parallel imaging and keyhole data sampling was performed on 15 patients (median age=10 years, range=1-20 years) who had undergone a Fontan operation (N=11) or BCPC (N=4). Diluted gadolinium (Gd) contrast agent (CA) was intravenously injected into the arm and/or leg veins. The flow dynamics and morphology of pulmonary circulation, and lung perfusion were assessed.
Preferential or balanced pulmonary blood flow from each systemic vein was visualized on time-resolved 3D MRA in all patients. In addition, occlusion/stenosis of the central thoracic vein (N=4) and pulmonary artery (N=6), systemic venous (N=5) and arterial (N=6) collaterals, and lung perfusion defect (N=4) were identified. Persistent hepatic venous plexus, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, and axillary arteriovenous fistula were delineated in three patients, respectively.
Time-resolved 3D MRA with diluted CA is useful for evaluating patients who have undergone a Fontan operation or BCPC because it can reveal the flow dynamics and morphology of pulmonary circulation, and lung perfusion status.
No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the incidence of coronary artery aneurysms has diminished in patients with Kawasaki disease, coronary artery involvement is still regarded as a major complication of the disease, significantly affecting morbidity and mortality. Recent technical advances in coronary CT angiography (CTA) and MR angiography (MRA) have led to the possibility of using these two imaging methods as minimally invasive alternatives to the more invasive diagnostic catheter angiography in evaluating coronary artery abnormalities, such as aneurysm, stenosis, and occlusion. In this article, we describe imaging techniques and findings of coronary CTA and MRA in Kawasaki disease.
Preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Pediatric Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is little information on the ability of non-ECG-gated cardiac CT to demonstrate the coronary arteries of children.
To evaluate the visibility of the origin and proximal course of coronary arteries on non-ECG-gated cardiac CT, in which the coronary artery was not of primary diagnostic concern, in children with congenital heart disease.
From December 2002 to March 2004, 126 cardiac CT examinations from 104 children (median age 11 months; age range 1 day to 15 years) were evaluated. All patients had ventriculo-arterial concordance and no malformations of the great arteries; those with coronary artery anomalies were excluded. Contrast-enhanced 16-slice spiral CT was performed without ECG-gating and multiplanar images for coronary arteries were obtained. The visibility of coronary artery origins was graded on a three-point scale, while nine segments of the arteries were graded on a four-point scale. CT images in which it was possible to trace the coronary arteries were considered diagnostic. The visibility of each whole coronary artery and the origins and proximal four segments of coronary arteries were calculated. The visibility of coronary arteries was also correlated with patient age.
The percentage of CT images of diagnostic quality was 49.3% for the whole coronary artery and 81.7% for the origins and proximal four segments. There was a significant positive correlation between the visibility of coronary arteries and age.
Non-ECG-gated cardiac CT, in which the coronary artery is not of primary diagnostic concern, is frequently able to visualize the origin and proximal course of coronary arteries and may be helpful in detecting coronary artery anomalies in children with congenital heart disease.
No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Pediatric Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of multi-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) has increased the clinical use of cardiac CT imaging in patients with congenital heart disease. Multi-slice CT has the advantages of fast scan speed; high spatial resolution, enabling the acquisition of isotropic volume data; and simultaneous evaluation of airways and lung parenchyma, thus increasing the ability to answer most clinical questions about structural abnormalities in patients with congenital heart disease. When coupled with electrocardiography-gating, multi-slice spiral CT can be used in functional evaluations, including ventricular wall motion, ventricular ejection fraction, and motion of cardiac valves, as well as enabling the performance of high-quality coronary CT angiography. In this article, we review imaging techniques of multi-slice spiral CT and imaging findings in pediatric and adult patients with various congenital heart diseases.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1) To understand the clinical importance of coronary artery involvement in patient with Kawasaki disease. 2) To understand current CT and MR imaging techniques used for the evaluation of the coronary artery in patients with Kawasaki disease. 3) To understand imaging strategies to maximize the diagnostic accuracy.
Coronary artery involvement is the most serous complication in patients with Kawasaki disease and its evaluation is essential for risk stratification and therapeutic management. Therefore, noninvasive serial assessment of the coronary artery is mandatory. ECG-gated multi-slice CT and navigator-gated MR angiography can be used to evaluate coronary artery aneurysms, stenoses, and occlusions although both methods are still limited in the evaluation of distal branches, low-grade stenoses, and flow hemodynamics. In this exhibit, we illustrate current CT and MR imaging techniques used for the evaluation of the coronary artery in patients with Kawasaki disease, imaging strategies, and representative examples of CT and MR angiography.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Horseshoe lung is a rare congenital pulmonary anomaly of childhood that can be accompanied with other anomalies. The diagnosis has historically been accomplished with invasive catheter angiography and bronchography rather than CT. Two infants with horseshoe lung were recently diagnosed with CT. We report the imaging findings in these two patients with emphasis on angiographic and bronchographic demonstration of key abnormalities of horseshoe lung using multidetector-row spiral CT.
No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Pediatric Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Alterations in ventricular loading conditions lead to changes in action potential duration via mechanoelectrical feedback. A decrease in load immediately leads to the prolongation of repolarization. QT interval and QT dispersion were measured in order to determine the long-term effect of changes in ventricular systolic load on the ventricular repolarization. Method:Corrected QT interval and QT dispersion were mea- sured in 26 patients before and 3-6 months after valvuloplasty for pulmonary stenosis. In order to determine the effect of ventricular load on ventricular repolarization, patients were divided in 2 groups;Group 1 was those patients with a decrease in the right ventricular systolic pressure greater than 30 mmHg and Group 2 was those patients with a less than 30 mmHg decrease. Results:Corrected QT interval (412.6±14.5 msec vs 426.4±16.8 msec, p
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia with a QRS pattern of right bundle branch block and left axis deviation that is sensitive to verapamil is electrophysiologically distinct arrhythmia entity but descriptions in pediatric ages are infrequent. This study attempted to describe the clinical presentation and dignostic clues from the surface ECG in children with idiopathic left venteicular tachycardia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chaotic atrial rhythm (CAR) is characterized by the presence of three or more P-wave morphologic features on the surface electrogram, absence of a dominant atrial pacemaker, and variable P-P, R-R, and P-R intervals with an atrial rate of over 100 beats/min. CAR is infrequently seen in pediatric ages and its clinical course, management and underlying mechanism are uncertain. We report our recent experience with 11 infants with CAR and describe their clinical characteristics and reponse to treatment.