[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors report a sudden painless blindness in a 42-year-old male with membranous nephropathy of idiopathic origin. He was admitted with a history of decreased urine output and painful abdomen of a 3-day duration in the Department of Nephrology, Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir - a tertiary care centre in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. On evaluation, he was found to have renal vein thrombosis. On day 3 of admission, he suddenly developed progressive painless blindness. Indirect ophthalmoscopic examination showed retinal vein thrombosis. Patient's clinical condition deteriorated due to his underlying condition and he succumbed to his illness. Renal vein thrombosis as a complication of nephrotic syndrome is well known. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of retinal vein thrombosis in the course of nephrotic syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the commonest mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, the stomach and small intestine are the favored sites of occurrence. They rarely occur in the colon, rectum and esophagus. GIST is neoplasm of mesenchymal origin originating from precursors of the interstitial cells of cajal. The symptoms of gastrointestinal stromal tumor depend on the site and size of the tumor, and may include abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding or signs of obstruction; small tumors may, however, be asymptomatic. Majority of the patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor have bloody stools and abdominal pain as the commonest manifestation. We describe a young female with extra luminal colonic gastrointestinal stromal tumor presenting as mass abdomen.
We describe 34-year-old female from north Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir who had presented with history of slowly increasing epigastric lump associated with abdominal discomfort of 4 months duration. She had no features of luminal obstruction. Her contrast enhanced computed tomography abdomen revealed a large extra-colonic mass in relation to transverse colon. The tumor was resected and histology was suggestive of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Extra luminal colonic gastrointestinal stromal tumors are very rare and can present as mass abdomen. Resection is the treatment of choice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study describes a spectrum of renal diseases that can precede the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM). Patients presenting manifestations of renal disease were recorded as individual patients of MM. Fifty patients (male 41; female 9) were included in this study. Diagnosis of MM was confirmed by two or more of the following four features: lytic bone lesions, serum or urine monoclonal peak, Bence Jones proteinuria, and greater than 20% plasma cells in bone marrow. Renal disease was present in 42 of 50 (84%) patients before MM was diagnosed. In only eight of 50 (16%) patients, diagnosis of MM preceded the detection of renal disease. Renal diseases consisted of acute renal failure in 26 patients (52%), chronic renal failure in 15 patients (30%) and nephrotic syndrome in 9 patients (18%). Some of the patients with acute or chronic renal failure also had heavy proteinuria. Percutaneous renal biopsy was done in 17 patients. Renal histopathology showed amyloidosis (n = 10), cast nephropathy (n = 5), nodular glomerulosclerosis (n = 1), and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis with plasma cell infiltration (n = 1). Hypercalcemia (calcium 11-13.8 mg/dL) was the most common precipitating factor for acute renal failure. All 50 patients received combination chemotherapy of melphalan and prednisolone or vincristine, Adriamycin, and dexamethasone. More than half of the total number of patients did not complete chemotherapy because of death or lost to follow-up. Nineteen patients with acute renal failure and eight patients with chronic renal failure were treated with hemodialysis. Fourteen patients (28%) with acute renal failure had recovery of renal function. Twenty-three patients (46%) were lost to follow-up. Seven patients (14%) died from sepsis, uremia, or hyperkalemia. Remission of MM was found in 9 of 21 (42.8%) patients who completed chemotherapy. Thus, acute renal failure is the most common renal disease preceding the diagnosis of MM. Reversal of renal function is achieved with chemotherapy and hemodialysis treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a commonly encountered hematological malignancy with significant renal involvement and often presents as renal failure. The aim of the present study is to analyze clinical spectrum of acute renal failure (ARF) in patients with MM.
We analyzed 26 (males 24; females 2) patients of multiple myeloma who were referred for evaluation of ARF between July 1994 - June 2007. The referral diagnosis did not include MM in majority 23 (88%) of the patients. Multiple myeloma was diagnosed by at least two of the four features; (1) lytic bone lesions, (2) serum or urine monoclonal peak, (3) Bence Jones proteinuria and (4) more than 20% plama cells in marrow aspirate.
Multiple myeloma contributes 1.93% of total ARF cases (26/1342) over a period of thirteen years. Mean age of patients was 59.3 +/- 7.4 years. The clinical manifestations of myeloma included; anemia (100%), Bence Jones proteinuria (80%), "M" peak in serum electrophoresis (69%), lytic bone lesions (62%), "M" peak in urine electrophoresis (54%), body pain (58%), plasma cells more than 20% in bone marrow aspirate (38%). Oliguric ARF was seen in 73% patients. The precipitating factors of ARF identified were; hypercalcemia (31%); infection (23%); volume depletion (19%); and NSAIDs in (15%). Dialysis support was needed in 77% of the patients because of severe renal failure at presentation with mean serum creatinine of 9.05 +/- 2.84 mg%. Seventeen patients completed chemotherapy, seven last to follow up and two patients died. Ten (38.5%) patients had complete recovery of renal function; three patients had partial recovery and off dialysis and four patients remained dialysis dependent. Remission of myeloma was achieved in nine of seventeen patients treated with chemotherapy Renal biopsy finding in nine patients revealed-cast nephropathy in (4), amyloidosis in (3), proliferative glomerulonephritis in (1) and cast nephropathy with chronic interstitial nephritis and plasma cell infiltration in one patient.
Acute reversible renal failure is a common complication in MM, multiple myeloma should be considered as cause a cause of unexplained ARF in middle aged and elderly patients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All patients admitted with pregnancy related acute renal failure (PRAKI) from June 2005 to May 2007 were studied with respect to etiology, clinical features, and outcome of PRAKI. Of 569 cases of acute kidney injury (AKI), 40 (7.02%) cases were related to gestational problems; the age of the patients ranged from 15 to 45 years. Septic abortion was the most common cause of PRAKI, accounting for 20 (50%) cases of which 15 (75%) cases occurred in the first and five (25%) in the second trimester. Other causes were antepartum hemorrhage: six cases (15%), toxemia of pregnancy: six cases (15%), acute gastroenteritis: three cases (7.5%), postpartum hemorrhage: two cases (5%), acute pyelonephritis: two cases (5%), and postpartum, acute kidney injury: one case (2.5%). Dialysis was needed in 60% of the cases and mortality was observed in 20% of the cases. PRAKI continues to be a major concern in our society, causing a high maternal mortality. Septic abortion which has virtually disappeared from developed countries, continues to be a major cause of PRAKI in our society. Hence, there is a need to halt the practice of illegal abortions and improve antenatal care.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Indian Journal of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An unusual case of peritonitis in a 61-year-old patient is reported where culture for bacteria and fungi were negative. Acanthamoeba was isolated and the patient was treated with Ceftazidine, Cefazolin, Levofloxacin, Fluconazole and Rifampicin with regular haemodialytic support. The patient was completely cured of the infection and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) fluid became clear after 2 weeks of treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of Acanthamoeba infections are difficult due to the rarity of the infections, lack of familiarity of most clinicians with disease syndromes, and limitations of therapeutics options. Even an experienced microbiologist can easily mistake the amoebae in ascitic fluid for peritoneal macrophages or lymphocytes.
Preview · Article · Feb 2008 · The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is common in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), and its prevalence before the initiation of dialysis is poorly characterized in these patients in developing countries. There is a paucity of data on the quantification of malnutrition and inflammation in undialyzed patients of CRF from India. This study analyzed the prevalence and causes of malnutrition in patients with CRF before the initiation of dialysis treatment.
In the present study, assessments of nutritional and inflammatory status were carried out in patients with CRF. Serum albumin, body mass index (BMI), triceps skin fold thickness (TST), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), and subjective global assessment (SGA) scoring were used for assessment of nutritional parameters. Serum C-reactive protein and serum ferritin level were used to assess the inflammatory state of the patient.
Two hundred and three (146 male, 57 female) patients with CRF were included in the study from August 2004 to April 2006. Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition was 65% (131/203). The age of malnourished patients (93 male, 38 female) ranged from 11-82, with mean age of 52 +/- 12.68 years. The mean serum total protein and albumin were also significantly lower in patients with malnutrition in comparison to non malnourished cases (5.50 +/- 0.40 gm/dL vs. 5.74 +/- 0.38 gm/dL; p < 0.05, and 3.18 +/- 0.58 gm/dL vs. 3.68 +/- 0.55 gm/dL; p < 0.05). The C-reactive protein and serum ferritin were significantly elevated in the malnourished group as compared to non-malnourished patients (63% vs. 33%; p < 0.05, and 301.2 +/- 127.1 mg/dL vs. 212.7 +/- 124.9 mg/dL; p < 0.05).
Thus, malnutrition was common in patients with CRF before the commencement of dialysis. These data indicate that an emphasis should be placed on the assessment and prevention or correction of malnutrition in patients with CRF because of its documented adverse effect on the outcome on maintenance dialysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal cortical necrosis (RCN) accounts for 2% of all cases of acute renal failure (ARF) in adults and 15-20% of ARF during the third trimester of pregnancy in developed nations. However, RCN incidence is higher in developing countries ranging from 6-7% of all cases of acute renal failure. The present study describes changing trends in the clinical spectrum of RCN in patients with ARF in Eastern India.
Patients with ARF suspected to have RCN on clinical grounds underwent percutaneous renal biopsy. Patients showing cortical necrosis on histology were included in the present study. Diffuse and patchy cortical necrosis was classified based on standard histological criteria. The patients with cortical necrosis were studied over a period of 22 years; from July 1984 to December 2005. The results of our observation were compared with respect to etiology, incidence, prognosis and outcome of renal cortical necrosis in two study periods; namely, 1984-1994 and 1995-2005.
The incidence of RCN was 3.12% of all cases of ARF of diverse etiology. RCN was observed in 57 patients; obstetric 32 (56.2%); non-obstetric 25 (43.8%). Diffuse cortical necrosis was the dominant lesion in 41 (71.9%) patients and the remaining 16 (28%) patients had patchy cortical necrosis. The overall incidence of RCN in obstetric ARF was 15.2%; the incidence being higher (11.9%) in the post-abortal group in comparison to 3.3% in late pregnancy. RCN had occurred complicating abruptio placentae, puerperal sepsis and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in late pregnancy, while septic abortion was the sole cause of RCN in early pregnancy. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) was the major (31.5%) cause of RCN in the non-obstetric group and miscellaneous factors were responsible in seven (12.3%) patients. Partial recovery of renal function was observed in 11 (19.2%), and 16 (28%) patients had progressed to ESRD. The incidence of RCN decreased from 6.7% in 1984-1994 to 1.6% in 1995-2005 of total ARF cases. RCN following obstetrical complication decreased significantly; 4.7% in the 1990s to 0.5% of the total ARF cases, in the 2000s. The mortality decreased to 19% in 1995-2005 from the initial high mortality of 72% in 1984-1994. The renal prognosis improved as a result of the decreased mortality of patients.
We observed a decreasing trend in the incidence of RCN in patients with ARF in recent years, which is associated with increased patient survival and better renal prognosis. This improvement was mainly due to declining incidence and severity of RCN in obstetrical ARF.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A renal allograft recipient was treated for genitourinary tuberculosis with reinstitution of Rifampicin after a medication free interval of 8 months, earlier he was treated for tubercular pleural effusion. After eight days of treatment patient developed severe hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure necessitating dialysis. Biopsy taken from graft showed features of acute tubular necrosis.