[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: How body composition, specifically skeletal muscle mass, compares in Mexican elderly to other ethnic groups has not previously been reported. We tested the hypothesis that older adults from Northwest Mexico (Mex) would have similar total appendicular skeletal muscle (TASM) compared with New York dwelling Caucasians (Cauc) and African-Americans (AA).
Two hundred and eighty nine Mex (135 males and 154 females), 166 AA (36 males and 130 females) and 229 Cauc (64 males and 165 females), aged 60-98 years were assessed. Total and regional fat and lean tissues were measured by whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry where TASM is the sum of arm and leg bone-free and fat-free lean tissue. Differences in TASM were tested by ANCOVA, with age, height, and body mass index (BMI) as covariates.
TASM adjusted for ethnicity, age, height and BMI, were 22.6 +/- 0.2 kg and 17.8 +/- 0.1 kg for males and females, respectively (p < 0.001). Among males with similar age, height, and BMI, Mex had less TASM compared with AA and Cauc (p < 0.001). Total body fat and truncal fat were higher (p < 0.001) and FFM lower (p < 0.001) in Mex compared to both AA and Cauc males after adjusting for age and BMI. Among females, Mex had higher total and truncal fat (p < 0.001) after adjusting for age and BMI, and significantly lower TASM (p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, height, and BMI compared to AA and Cauc females.
Elderly Mex have a different body composition compared with AA and Cauc of a similar BMI and age. Mex have significantly less TASM with greater total and truncal fat. In the long-term, Mex elderly may be at greater risk for sarcopenic obesity compared to other ethnic groups.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging