- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-type calcium channels are important in burst firing and expressed in brain regions implicated in schizophrenia. Therefore, we examined the effects of novel selective T-type calcium channel antagonists in preclinical assays predictive of antipsychotic-like activity. TTA-A2 blocked the psychostimulant effects of amphetamine and MK-801 and decreased conditioned avoidance responding. These effects appeared mechanism based, rather than compound specific, as two structurally dissimilar T-type antagonists also reduced amphetamine-induced psychomotor activity. Importantly, the ability to reduce amphetamine's effects was maintained following 20 days pre-treatment with TTA-A2. To explore the neural substrates mediating the observed behavioral effects, we examined the influence of TTA-A2 on amphetamine-induced c-fos expression as well as basal and stimulant-evoked dopamine and glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens. TTA-A2 decreased amphetamine-induced c-fos expression as well as MK-801-induced, but not basal, glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens. Basal, amphetamine- and MK-801-induced dopamine efflux was altered. These findings suggest that T-type calcium channel antagonism could represent a novel mechanism for treating schizophrenia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale It was recently reported that administration of the metabotropic glutamate 2 and 3 (mGlu2/3) receptor agonist prodrug LY2140023 to schizophrenic patients decreased positive symptoms. However, at the single, potentially suboptimal, dose that was tested, LY2140023 trended towards being inferior to olanzapine on several indices of efficacy within the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Objectives In this study, we examined whether the antipsychotic potential of mGlu2/3 receptor agonism can be enhanced with 5-HT2A receptor antagonism. Materials and methods Specifically, we characterized the effects of coadministering submaximally effective doses of the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 (0.2 mg/kg) and the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 (1 mg/kg) on amphetamine-induced and MK-801-induced psychomotor activity in rats, an assay sensitive to antipsychotics. We also determined the effects of coadministering these two compounds on MK-801-induced dopamine and norepinephrine efflux in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Results At the submaximally effective doses tested, the effects of M100907 and LY379268 on amphetamine-induced and MK-801-induced psychomotor activity were significantly greater when given together than when given separately. Furthermore, coadministration of these doses of M100907 and LY379268 reduced MK-801-induced dopamine efflux in the NAc. This effect on dopamine release was not observed with the administration of either compound alone, even at higher doses that attenuated MK-801-induced psychomotor activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that a single compound having both mGlu2/3 receptor agonist and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist activity, or coadministration of two compounds selective for these receptors, could be superior in terms of efficacy and/or reduced side-effect liability relative to an mGlu2/3 receptor agonist alone.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple studies indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction underlies some of the deficits associated with schizophrenia. One approach for improving NMDA receptor function is to enhance occupancy of the glycine modulatory site on the NMDA receptor by increasing the availability of the endogenous coagonists D-serine. Here, we characterized a novel D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitor, compound 8 [4H-thieno [3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxylic acid] and compared it with D-serine. Compound 8 is a moderately potent inhibitor of human (IC(50), 145 nM) and rat (IC(50), 114 nM) DAAO in vitro. In rats, compound 8 (200 mg/kg) decreased kidney DAAO activity by approximately 96% and brain DAAO activity by approximately 80%. This marked decrease in DAAO activity resulted in a significant (p < 0.001) elevation in both plasma (220% of control) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; 175% of control) D-serine concentration. However, compound 8 failed to significantly influence amphetamine-induced psychomotor activity, nucleus accumbens dopamine release, or an MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate)-induced deficit in novel object recognition in rats. In contrast, high doses of D-serine attenuated both amphetamine-induced psychomotor activity and dopamine release and also improved performance in novel object recognition. Behaviorally efficacious doses of D-serine (1280 mg/kg) increased CSF levels of D-serine 40-fold above that achieved by the maximal dose of compound 8. These findings demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of DAAO significantly increases D-serine concentration in the periphery and central nervous system. However, acute inhibition of DAAO appears not to be sufficient to increase D-serine to concentrations required to produce antipsychotic and cognitive enhancing effects similar to those observed after administration of high doses of exogenous D-serine.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Title The Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of a Novel D-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitor 4H-thieno [3,2-b] pyrrole-5-carboxylic acid (Compound 8) and D-serine.