[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Because cell signaling and cell metabolic pathways are executed through proteins, protein signatures in primary tumors are useful for identifying key nodes in signaling networks whose alteration is associated with malignancy and/or clinical outcomes. This study aimed to determine protein signatures in primary lung cancer tissues.
Methodology/ Principal Findings
We analyzed 126 proteins and/or protein phosphorylation sites in case-matched normal and tumor samples from 101 lung cancer patients with reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) assay. The results showed that 18 molecules were significantly different (p<0.05) by at least 30% between normal and tumor tissues. Most of those molecules play roles in cell proliferation, DNA repair, signal transduction and lipid metabolism, or function as cell surface/matrix proteins. We also validated RPPA results by Western blot and/or immunohistochemical analyses for some of those molecules. Statistical analyses showed that Ku80 levels were significantly higher in tumors of nonsmokers than in those of smokers. Cyclin B1 levels were significantly overexpressed in poorly differentiated tumors while Cox2 levels were significantly overexpressed in neuroendocrinal tumors. A high level of Stat5 is associated with favorable survival outcome for patients treated with surgery.
Our results revealed that some molecules involved in DNA damage/repair, signal transductions, lipid metabolism, and cell proliferation were drastically aberrant in lung cancer tissues, and Stat5 may serve a molecular marker for prognosis of lung cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Krüppel-Like Factor 4 (KLF4) functions as a tumor suppressor in some cancers, but its molecular mechanism is not clear. Our recent study also showed that the expression of KLF4 is dramatically reduced in primary lung cancer tissues. To investigate the possible role of KLF4 in lung cancer, we stably transfected KLF4 into cells from lung cancer cell lines H322 and A549 to determine the cells' invasion ability. Our results showed that ectopic expression of KLF4 extensively suppressed lung cancer cell invasion in Matrigel. This effect was independent of KLF4-mediated p21 up-regulation because ectopic expression of p21 had minimal effect on cell invasion. Our analysis of the expression of 12 genes associated with cell invasion in parental, vector-transfected, and KLF4-transfected cells showed that ectopic expression of KLF4 resulted in extensively repressed expression of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), an extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in tumor development and metastasis. Knockdown of SPARC expression in H322 and A549 cells led to suppression of cell invasion, comparable to that observed in KLF4-transfected cells. Moreover, retrovirus-mediated restoration of SPARC expression in KLF4-transfected cells abrogated KLF4-induced anti-invasion activity. Together, our results indicate that KLF4 inhibits lung cancer cell invasion by suppressing SPARC gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc-finger protein that plays important roles in stem cells and the development of gastric cancers. However, the role of KLF4 in primary lung cancer is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine possible roles of KLF4 in lung cancer.
The KLF4 expression in primary lung cancer tissues and case-matched normal lung tissues were determined by protein and mRNA analyses. The effects of KLF4 on cell proliferation, clonogenic formation, and cell cycle progression were determined in cultured lung cancer cells or bronchial epithelial cells after enforced KLF4 overexpression or small interfering RNA knockdown. The in vivo antitumor activity of KLF4 was evaluated by using stably transfected lung cancer cells and by adenovector-mediated gene delivery. The effect of KLF4 in regulating p21 and cyclin D1 was also evaluated.
KLF4 protein and mRNA levels were dramatically decreased in most primary lung tumors compared with in case-matched normal lung tissues. Enforced expression of KLF4 resulted in marked inhibition of cell growth and clonogenic formation. The tumor-suppressive effect of KLF4 was associated with its role in up-regulating p21 and down-regulating cyclin D1, leading to cell cycle arrest at the G(1)-S checkpoint. Knockdown of KLF4 promoted cell growth in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells. The enforced expression of KLF4 gene to lung cancer cells by ex vivo transfection or adenovector-mediated gene transfer suppressed tumor growth in vivo.
Our results suggest that KLF4 plays an important role in suppressing the growth of lung carcinoma.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) can play critical roles in inhibiting virus replication and inducing apoptosis. To develop new agents that may inhibit viral replication or induce apoptosis in cancer cells via the PKR signaling pathway, we screened a chemical library for compounds that have differential cytotoxic effects on wild-type [mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)/PKR(+/+)] and PKR-knockout [MEF/PKR(-/-)] mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. We identified a synthetic compound, BEPP [1H-benzimidazole1-ethanol,2,3-dihydro-2-imino-a-(phenoxymethyl)-3-(phenylmethyl)-,monohydrochloride], that induces a cytotoxic effect more effectively in MEF/PKR(+/+) cells than in MEF/PKR(-/-) cells. BEPP also relatively effectively inhibited the growth of a human lung cancer cell line overexpressing PKR, compared with other cancer cell lines. In sensitive cells, BEPP induced apoptosis with activation of caspase-3. Treatment with BEPP led to increased phosphorylation of PKR and eIF2alpha, increased expression of BAX, and decreased expression of Bcl-2. BEPP-induced apoptosis was PKR dependent and was blocked by the adenovector expressing the dominant-negative PKR. Furthermore, pretreatment of HeLa cells at a noncytotoxic dose of BEPP effectively inhibited Vaccinia virus replication. Together, our results suggest that BEPP and its analogs may induce PKR-dependent apoptosis and inhibition of viral replication and that they can be a potential anticancer or anti-virus agent.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics