[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Some Japanese smokers imported Japanese cigarette brands from other Asian countries for personal use because of the increase in tobacco tax in 2010, which meant that privately importing the cigarettes was cheaper than purchasing them in Japan. We assumed that the health hazards of locally made cigarettes were different from those of privately imported cigarettes, despite the brands being the same. In this study, we carried out a comparative toxicological analysis of domestic and privately imported cigarettes. Methods: Privately imported cigarettes of five brands and domestic cigarettes of the brand named “MILD SEVEN ORIGINAL” were selected for the study. The level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mainstream smoke was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using fluorescence detection. The mutagenicity of mainstream smoke was assessed using the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA98, and YG1024 with the metabolic activation system (S9mix) by preincubation assay. The levels of heavy metals in cigarette fillers were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results: The level of PAH in the mainstream smoke from the privately imported cigarettes was higher than that in the smoke from the domestic cigarettes. However, the mutagenic activity of the mainstream smoke from the privately imported cigarettes was equivalent to that from the domestic cigarettes. The levels of nickel and cadmium in the fillers of the privately imported cigarettes were higher than those in the domestic cigarettes. Conclusion: The levels of constituents in the fillers and mainstream smoke from the privately imported cigarettes were higher than those in the fillers and mainstream smoke from the domestic cigarettes. The majority of Japanese smokers are unaware of these findings. The guidelines regulating tobacco products recommend that articles 9 and 10 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should be fully implemented in Japan.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) reported that understanding the use and impact of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products is complicated by product diversity. Many different SLT products with different characteristics are used worldwide. ZERO STYLE STIXTM (sold by Japan Tobacco Inc.) is a brand of snuff, a type of smokeless tobacco. Our objective was to determine the constituents of the gas from SLT and analyze the ingredients in tobacco fillers. Methods: ZERO STYLE STIX smokeless tobacco was released in the Japanese market in 2010. Nicotine, menthol, and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the smokeless tobacco fillers were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The gaseous compounds were collected by a smoking machine using two smoking protocols, i.e., the ISO and Health Canada Intense methods. Nicotine and menthol in the gas were determined by GC/MS. Results: Nicotine, menthol, and the total tobacco-specific nitrosamines were detected in the tobacco fillers. The level of menthol in the snuff was more than ten times that of nicotine. The determined levels of the two components of the gas from the snuff were higher when using the Health Canada Intense protocol than when using the ISO protocol. In addition, flavors other than menthol were emitted from the smokeless tobacco. Conclusion: The new type of snuff introduced in the Japanese market in 2010 contained added flavors, and was attractive smokeless tobacco. Flavors in tobacco products need to regulate on the basis of FCTC 9 and 10 in JAPAN.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we investigated the cellular response of normal human fibroblasts to repeated exposure to low-dose radiation. In contrast to acute single radiation, low-dose fractionated radiation (FR) with 0.01 Gy/fraction or 0.05 Gy/fraction for 31 days increased in mitochondrial mass, decreased cellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione and caused persistent accumulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excess ROS promoted oxidative inactivation of protein phosphatase PP2A which in turn led to disruption of normal negative feed-back control of AKT/cyclin D1 signaling in cells treated with long-term FR. The resulting abnormal nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1 causes growth retardation, cellular senescence and genome instability in low-dose irradiated cells. Thus, loss of redox control and subsequently elevated levels of ROS perturb signal transduction as a result of oxidative stress. Our study highlights a specific role of mitochondrial ROS in perturbation of AKT/cyclin D1 cell cycle signaling after low-dose long-term FR. The antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine, TEMPO and mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant Mito-TEMPO provided protection against the harmful cell cycle perturbations induced by low-dose long-term FR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims:
In addition to some electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), new heat-not-burn tobacco products Ploom and iQOS have recently begun to be sold by tobacco companies. These products are differently regulated in Japan, depending on whether the contents are liquid or leaf. Our objective was to estimate percentages of awareness and use of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products among the Japanese population, including minors.
Design and setting:
An internet survey (randomly sampled research agency panelists) of a nationally-representative sample in Japan PARTICIPANTS: 8,240 respondents aged 15-69 years in 2015 (4,084 men and 4,156 women).
Adjusted percentages of awareness and use of e-cigarettes (nicotine or non-nicotine e-cigarettes) and heat-not-burn products among total participants; product types and percentages ever used among e-cigarettes ever-users.
48% (95% confidence interval:47-49) of respondents in Japan were aware of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products, 6.6% (6.1-7.1) had ever used, 1.3% (1.0-1.5) had used in the last 30 days, and 1.3% (1.1-1.6) had experience of >50 sessions. 72% (95% confidence interval: 69-76) of ever users used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, while 33% (30-37) of them used nicotine e-cigarettes, which has the majority share worldwide. 7.8% (5.5-10.0) and 8.4% (6.1-10.7) of them used new devices Ploom and iQOS, respectively, with a relatively higher percentage among the younger population.
Approximately half the respondents in a Japanese Internet survey were aware of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products, 6.6% had ever used. More than 70% of ever-users used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, the sale of which is not legally prohibited, even to minors, in Japan, and 33% of them used nicotine e-cigarettes. 3.5% of never smoking men and 1.3% of never smoking women had ever used e-cigarettes. Corresponding figures for use in the last 30 days were 0.6% and 0.3%, predominantly non-nicotine e-cigarettes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a new analytical method for the determination of nicotine, tar, volatile organic compounds and carbonyls in main-stream cigarette smoke using a sorbent cartridge packed with Carboxen 572 (CX-572) and a Cambridge filter pad (CFP) followed by the two-phase/one-pot elution method. A CX-572 cartridge is installed between the intake of the CFP and the pump of the smoking machine. Gaseous compounds collected with the CX-572 cartridge and total particulate matter (TPM) collected with the CFP are coeluted simultaneously in the same vial and then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatograph-thermal conductivity detector (GC/TCD). Carbonyl compounds are determined by adding derivatizing reagent (2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, DNPH) to the eluate followed by HPLC analysis. VOCs and nicotine are determined by GC/MS, and water is determined by GC/TCD. The same sample eluate solution is used for HPLC, GC/MS and GC/TCD analyses. As a result of measuring main-stream cigarette smoke generated from reference cigarettes, almost all carbonyl compounds and VOCs except formaldehyde were passed through a CFP and trapped in a CX-572 cartridge. 100% of nicotine, tar and TPM were trapped in a CFP. 50% of water and 53% of formaldehyde were trapped in a CFP. The one-pot data is almost equal to the sums of CFP (particulate matter) and CX-572 (gaseous compounds) data. The two-phase/one-pot elution method can simultaneously measure nicotine, tar, volatile organic compounds and carbonyl compounds in cigarette smoke with simple operation and small amounts of reagents.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Chromatography A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires member countries to implement measures aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products. FCTC article 11 describes the important forms of health communication and packaging regulations. And this article recommends on large pictorial health warnings and encourages more effective forms of disclosure on constituents and emissions. Furthermore, article 11 recognizes the importance of the package as a promotional vehicle for tobacco companies and requires the removal of potentially misleading packaging information, including the terms "light" and "mild." The Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted guidelines for implementation of article 11 on "Packaging and labelling of Tobacco Products". Some countries, such as Canada, the U.S.A., Australia, EU countries etc. positively promoted tobacco control by implementing countermeasures such as the graphic health warning labels and plain packages. These countermeasures showed the significant effects of decreasing smoking rate and preventing smoking initiation in young people. Furthermore, these warning labels were effective for the literally challenged. However, the Japanese government has not implemented these countermeasures, and only limited texts are shown on Japanese tobacco packaging. Therefore, Japan should emulate approaches taken by other countries, and promote the tobacco control policy in accordance with FCTC.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Japan, ultralow-nicotine cigarette brands with ventilation holes on the cigarette filters have been widely marketed to smokers. The use of these cigarette brands leads to compensation smoking. Menthol cigarette brands that have a cooling and numbing effect are also sold. In 2013, smokeless tobacco products similar to the Swedish snus, which is banned for sale in the European Union except in Sweden, were released in Japanese markets. These tobacco products have "toxicity," have a "ventilation filter," are "attractive," and promote "dependence." Tobacco smoke and smokeless tobacco are classified into "Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The purpose of Articles 9 and 10 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is to regulate the contents of tobacco products as well as to regulate tobacco product disclosures. The implementation of some other articles has gradually advanced in Japan. However, that of Articles 9 and 10 is late. Japanese governmental authorities are being urged to immediately implement Articles 9 and 10.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gaseous chemical compounds such as carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOC), acid gases, basic gases, and ozone were measured in indoor and outdoor air of 40 houses throughout Sapporo city in the winter (January to March, 2012 and 2013) and summer (July to September, 2012) using four kinds of diffusive samplers. Almost all compounds in indoor air were present at higher levels in the summer than in the winter. The indoor concentrations of acetaldehyde and p-dichlorobenzene exceeded the Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan guideline in three and two houses, respectively. The mean concentrations of formaldehyde were 27 μg m−3 in the summer and 17 μg m−3 in the winter, and showed that the summer concentration was 1.6-fold higher than that in the winter. Nitrogen dioxide was present in extremely high concentrations in the winter, and it was suggested that the sources of nitrogen dioxide in indoor air are kerosene heaters, unvented gas stoves and heaters. Formic acid was generated by combustion because the nitrogen dioxide concentration in indoor air was well correlated with the formic acid concentration (correlation coefficient = 0.947). In outdoor air, the negative correlation between nitrogen dioxide and ozone was observed during the winter. It was suggested that the reaction of nitric oxide and ozone may influence the formation of nitrogen dioxide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The tobacco tax in Japan was increased in October, 2010. Subsequently, the quantity of sales of domestic cigarette products decreased temporarily. However, smokers could import cigarettes directly through the internet. Because of the high value of the yen and the low price of foreign cigarettes, an individual could import cigarettes easily; however, the contents and emissions from privately imported cigarettes have not been investigated yet. In this study, we carried out a comparative analysis of domestic and privately imported cigarettes.
Privately imported cigarettes from five brands and domestic cigarettes from the brand "Mild Seven" were selected for the study. For the fillers of the cigarettes, the levels of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) were determined by methods that are usually used for cigarette products. For the mainstream smoke, the levels of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and TSNAs were also determined by the methods used for cigarettes.
The average nicotine and TSNA levels in the fillers of the domestic cigarettes were 15.1 ± 0.19 mg/g and 1,920 ± 85.1 ng/g, respectively. The amounts of nicotine and tar in the mainstream smoke from the privately imported cigarettes were lower than those from the domestic cigarettes. However, the levels of TSNAs in the mainstream smoke from the privately imported cigarettes were higher than those from the domestic cigarettes.
The amounts of TSNAs in the fillers of and mainstream smoke from the privately imported cigarettes were higher than those from the domestic cigarettes. Japanese smokers should be careful about consuming privately imported cigarettes because there is a variation in the amount of hazardous constituents in these cigarettes, even when they are from the same brand.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a new analytical method for measuring VOCs in air by using a headspace method. In this method, 2-hydroxypyridine (HP) and tetrabutylphosphonium bromide (TBPB) are used as an eluate for the desorption of VOCs. VOCs in air are collected with a passive sampler containing activated carbon. Activated-carbon particles adsorbing VOCs and the mixed solvent of HP and TBPB are introduced into a 22 mL vial. This vial is sealed with a septum seal cap, and is then heated by a headspace sampler. VOCs collected in the activated carbon are desorbed by the mixed solvent. TBPB enhances the desorption efficiency because it is an ionic liquid, and shows a salting-out effect. The vapor-liquid phase equilibrium of VOCs is observed in the head-space vial, and VOCs in the gas-phase is introduced to GC/MS. The optimized analytical conditions, such as the mixed-solvent ratio, the amount of mixed solvent, the heating temperature and the heating time were investigated in this study. Moreover, the headspace methods were compared with the traditional solvent-desorption method. The sensitivities by the headspace method were about 20-40 fold higher than those by solvent desorption, except for tetrachloromethane and styrene. In addition, there were no solvent peaks in the chromatogram because HP and TBPB have very high boiling points.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To determine constituents of fillers and mainstream smoke from Neo Cedar.
Neo Cedar is a second-class over-the-counter (OTC) drug and similar to cigarettes in a number of ways. In particular, the design and usage are very similar to those of cigarettes. For the fillers of the drug, the levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), and heavy metals, and mutagenicity were determined using the methods for cigarette products. For the mainstream smoke, the levels of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide (CO), TSNA, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and carbonyl compounds were also determined using the methods for cigarettes. The mainstream smoke from the drug were collected with a smoking machine using two smoking protocols (ISO and Health Canada Intense methods).
The nicotine and total TSNA levels in the fillers of the drug averaged 2.86 mg/g and 185 ng/g, respectively. The nine species of heavy metals were also detected in the fillers of the drug. The levels of nicotine, tar, CO, TSNA, PAH, and carbonyl compounds of mainstream smoke from the drug were higher when determined using the HCI regime than when using the ISO regime. The mutagenicity of the mainstream smoke determined using the HCI regime was also higher than that determined using the ISO regime.
In this study, all constituents of Neo Cedar were determined by methods for cigarette products. The drug had a ventilation hole on its filter. Thus, its constituents are different from those determined by the smoking protocols. Neo Cedar users should be careful of higher exposure to the hazardous gases owing to smoking patterns.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke from Japanese cigarettes were measured using solid-sorbent collection, followed by GC/MS and HPLC. As a result, it was shown that the major carbonyl compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke were acetaldehyde (48–56%) and acetone (20–24%); the major VOCs in mainstream cigarette smoke were isoprene (40–57%) and toluene (9–12%), respectively. A tobacco-like product, such as Neo Cedar, is the second kind pharmaceutical product; however, it generated many kinds of carcinogen, such as benzene and furans. Moreover, the total carbonyl compounds generated from Neo Cedar was 1.1–2.0- fold higher than those from commercially available cigarettes. During the collection of mainstream cigarette smoke, generation of VOCs and carbonyl compounds was varied by the condition of the smoking machine. On every puff collection, the collected amount by the 1st puff was different from that of the 2nd puff; therefore, it was suggested that the filter structure of the cigarette influenced the chemical compounds in the mainstream cigarette smoke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbonyl compounds in E-cigarette smoke mist were measured using coupled silica cartridges impregnated with hydroquinone and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. A total of 363 E-cigarettes (13 brands) were examined. Four of the 13 E-cigarette brands did not generate any carbonyl compounds, while the other nine E-cigarette brands generated various carbonyl compounds. However, the carbonyl concentrations of the E-cigarette products did not show typical distributions, and the mean values were largely different from the median values. It was elucidated that E-cigarettes incidentally generate high concentrations of carbonyl compounds.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Analytical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a simple method for the simultaneous determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls in the mainstream cigarette smoke using a sorbent cartridge at ambient temperature without the traditional cryogenic impinger. A sorbent cartridge is installed between intake filter and the pump of the smoking machine. Collection of cigarette mainstream smoke is performed according to the Canadian Intense regime or the ISO regime. As adsorbent, Carboxen 572 (CX-572) is the most suitable for collection of VOCs and carbonyls in the mainstream cigarette smoke. Elution of VOCs and carbonyls from CX-572 is performed by the two-step elution with carbon disulfide and methanol. VOCs are eluted by first elution with carbon disulfide and carbonyls are eluted by second elution with methanol. For VOCs, a portion of eluate is analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For carbonyls, a portion of eluate is derivatized with enriched 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Measurement values by CX-572 cartridge method are very close to those obtained by traditional impinger method except for 2-butanone. Impinger methods use 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution containing 50% water and 2-butanone-DNPhydrazone may be hydrolyzed with water. In the CX-572 method, the hydrolysis of 2-butanone is prevented because the eluate solution contains no water. CX-572 method can measure cigarette smoke resulting from not only one whole cigarette but also from one puff volume because of its high sensitivity and simple operation.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Chromatography A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The storage stabilities of four kinds of diffusive sampling devices, (DSD-DNPH for carbonyls, DSD-OZONE for ozone, DSD-TEA for acid gases and DSD-NH3 for basic gases), were evaluated. Based on the resulting storage stability, chemical substances found both indoor and outdoor air were measured by using DSD-samplers. Almost all DSD-samplers, except for nitrogen dioxide (DSD-TEA), showed degradation in less than 7.2 % for four weeks at room temperature. The storage stability of nitrogen dioxide collected in the DSD-TEA showed degradation in 9 % for four weeks at room temperature. It is suggested that nitrite was oxidized to nitrate during the storage term at room temperature. In measurements of acid gases using DSD-TEA, when the analysis is not performed within two weeks, the samplers should be stored in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C. In applications to real air samples, it was observed that almost all chemical substances, except for nitrogen dioxide, were higher in the summer than in the winter. The mean nitrogen dioxide concentration was significantly higher at 15 times in the winter than in the summer. It was suggested that the primary sources indoors are combustion processes, such as unvented combustion appliances, e.g. gas stoves.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research examined gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) measurements for nicotine and 4-ethenylpyridine, which are passive smoking markers of environmental tobacco smoke. Since the object ingredient was a polar compound, a comparison examination was performed using both a non-polar column (DB-5) and a mid-polar column (DB-17) for analysis. Of the two columns, as a result of comparing the peak shape, sensitivity, and linearity, it was found that DB-17 is suitable for measuring nicotine and 4-ethenylpyridine, which is a substitute compound of 3-ethenylpyridine. When the nicotine concentration determined by the GC/MS method was compared with that of the GC/FID method, which was the regulating method, the concentration as determined by the GC/MS method was about 30 % lower than that of the GC/FID method. It was suggested that measurements by GC/FID include other organic components. When tobacco smoke (the gaseous and particle components of mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke) was measured using this GC/MS condition, nicotine was detected in all samples, except for the gaseous component of the mainstream smoke, and 3-ethenylpyridine was only detected in the gaseous component of sidestream smoke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To measure the nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) contents in whole tobacco from a variety of Japanese domestic cigarette brands and to determine mutagencity.
The test cigarettes were the top ten best selling cigarette brands in Japan in 2006. The nicotine content in whole tobacco was measured by a modified version of the CORESTA Recommended method. The level of TSNA was measured by a modified version of the Health Canada method. Mutagenicity was assessed using the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA98 and YG1024 with the metabolic activation system (S9mix) by preincubation assays.
The nicotine content in the test cigarettes averaged 15.7±1.2 mg/g, and was in the range between 13.7 and 17.2 mg/g. The level of TSNA averaged 1,750 ng/g, and was in the range between 931 and 2,490 ng/g. Mutagenicity was pseudopositive in several samples of the YG1024 tester strain with and without S9mix.
The cigarettes brands were categorized into four groups (Ultra-low, Low, Medium, and High) based on the nominal nicotine yield figures printed on the cigarette packets. The nicotine content in whole tobacco of the High group was the highest. However, the level of TSNA of the high group was the lowest. The analyses of hazardous chemical compounds in whole tobacco can contribute to the reduction and regulation of the toxicity of tobacco products.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)