[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Superantigens activate T-cells by linking the T-cell receptor to MHC class II on antigen-presenting cells, and novel reactivity can be introduced by fusing the superantigen to a targeting molecule. Thus, an antibody-targeted superantigen, which activates T cells to destroy tumour cells, might be used as cancer therapy. A suitable target is the 5T4 oncofetal antigen, which is expressed on many carcinomas. We constructed a fusion protein from a Fab of a monoclonal antibody recognizing the 5T4 antigen, and an engineered superantigen. The recombinant product 5T4FabV13-SEA(D227A)bound the 5T4 antigen expressed on the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line Calu-1 with a Kd of 1.2 nM while the substitution of Asp227 to Ala in the superantigen moiety reduced binding activity to MHC class II. 5T4FabV13-SEA(D227A)tumour reactivity was demonstrated in 7/7 NSCLC samples by immunohistochemistry, while normal tissue reactivity was low to moderate. 5T4FabV13-SEA(D227A)induced significant T-cell-dependent in vitro killing of sensitive 5T4 bearing Calu-1 cells, with maximum lysis at 10(-10)M, while the capacity to lyse MHC class II expressing cells was approximately 1000 times less effective. Immunotherapy of 5T4FabV13-SEA(D227A)against human NSCLC was investigated in SCID mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Mice carrying intreperitoneally growing Calu-1 cells showed significant reduction in tumour mass and number after intravenous therapy with 5T4FabV13-SEA(D227A). Thus, 5T4FabV13-SEA(D227A)has highly attractive properties for therapy of human NSCLC.
Full-text available · Article · Aug 2001 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The X-ray structure of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) has been determined at 1.69 A resolution. In this paper we present two structures of zinc-free SEH (apoSEH) and one zinc-loaded form of SEH (ZnSEH). SEH exhibits the conventional superantigen (SAg) fold with two characteristic domains. In ZnSEH one zinc ion per SEH molecule is bound to the C-terminal beta-sheet in the region implicated for major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) binding in SEA, SED and SEE. Surprisingly, the zinc ion has only two ligating amino acid residues His206 and Asp208. The other ligands to the zinc ion are two water molecules. An extensive packing interaction between two symmetry-related molecules in the crystal, 834 A(2)/molecule, forms a cavity that buries the zinc ions of the molecules. This dimer-like interaction is found in two crystal forms. Nevertheless, zinc-dependent dimerisation is not observed in solution, as seen in the case of SED. A unique feature of SEH as compared to other staphylococcal enterotoxins is a large negatively charged surface close to the Zn(2+) site. The interaction of SEH with MHC class II is the strongest known among the staphylococcal enterotoxins. However, SEH seems to lack a SEB-like MHC class II binding site, since the side-chain properties of structurally equivalent amino acid residues in SEH and those in SEB-binding MHC class II differ dramatically. There is also a structural flexibility between the domains of SEH. The domains of two apoSEH structures are related by a 5 degrees rotation leading to at most 3 A difference in C(alpha) positions. Since the T-cell receptor probably interacts with both domains, SEH by this rotation may modulate its binding to different TcR Vbeta-chains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The superantigens staphylococcal enterotoxin A and E (SEA and SEE) can activate a large number of T-cells. SEA and SEE have
approximately 80% sequence identity but show some differences in their biological function. Here, the two superantigens and
analogues were characterized biophysically. SEE was shown to have a substantially higher thermal stability than SEA. Both
SEA and SEE were thermally stabilized by 0.1 mm Zn2+ compared with Zn2+-reduced conditions achieved using 1 mmEDTA or specific replacements that affect Zn2+coordination. The higher stability of SEE was only partly caused by the T-cell receptor (TCR) binding regions, whereas regions
in the vicinity of the major histocompatibility complex class II binding sites affected the stability to a greater extent.
SEE exhibited a biphasic denaturation between pH 5.0–6.5, influenced by residues in the TCR binding regions. Interestingly,
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, isoelectric focusing, and circular dichroism analysis indicated that conformational changes
had occurred in the SEA/E chimerical constructs relative to SEA and SEE. Thus, it is proposed that the Zn2+binding site is very important for the stability and potency of SEA and SEE, whereas residues in the TCR binding site have
a substantial influence on the molecular conformation to control specificity and function.
Full-text available · Article · Feb 2000 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) has been described as a superantigen by sequence homology with the SEA subfamily and briefly characterized for its in vivo activity. In this study, we demonstrate that SEH is a potent T cell mitogen and inducer of T cell cytotoxicity that possesses unique MHC class II-binding properties. The apparent affinity of SEH for MHC class II molecules is the highest affinity ever measured for a staphylococcal enterotoxin (Bmax1/2 approximately 0.5 nM for MHC class II expressed on Raji cells). An excess of SEA or SEAF47A, which has reduced binding to the MHC class II alpha-chain, is able to compete for binding of SEH to MHC class II, indicating an overlap in the binding sites at the MHC class II beta-chain. The binding of SEH to MHC class II is like SEA, SED, and SEE dependent on the presence of zinc ions. However, SEH, in contrast to SEA, binds to the alanine-substituted DR1 molecule, betaH81A, believed to have impaired zinc-bridging capacity. Furthermore, alanine substitution of residues D167, D203, and D208 in SEH decreases the affinity for MHC class II as well as its in vitro potency. Together, this indicates an MHC class II binding site on SEH with a different topology as compared with SEA. These unique binding properties will be beneficial for SEH to overcome MHC class II isotype variability and polymorphism as well as to allow an effective presentation on APCs also at low MHC class II surface expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Estracyt (EMP) has been used for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer for many years. Recently, new data from combination studies have given rise to new interest in this old drug. Explanations for the synergy found in the clinic are many, but one major factor may be the previous indication that the drug accumulates in the prostate tumor. We have, therefore, examined the level of the four metabolites, estromustine (EoM), estramustine (EaM), estrone, and estradiol in the tumor and serum of 14 patients with T2 and T3 prostate cancer receiving a single i.v. dose of 600 mg of EMP, about 12 h before radical prostatectomy. Because it has been suggested that the uptake into the prostate tumor is due to binding to the estramustine binding protein (EMBP), we have in addition measured the level of EMBP in the prostate tumor tissue. The main serum and tissue metabolite in all patients was EoM followed by EaM, estrone, and estradiol. The levels for EoM ranged from 63.8-162.8 ng/ml in the serum and from 64.8-1209 ng/ml in the prostate tumor, resulting in a mean ratio for serum to tumor of 1:5. The levels for EaM ranged from 8.3-51.4 ng/ml in the serum and 73.9-563.4 ng/ml in the tumor, giving a mean ratio for serum to tumor of 1:13. The levels of EMBP were higher in T3 tumors than in T2 tumors, 54.1 and 40.7 ng/g tissue, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the levels of EaM (r = 0.60) and the levels of EMBP in the tumor. These data demonstrate that 12 h after a single i.v. dose of 600 mg of EMP the levels of the cytotoxic metabolites EoM and EaM are substantially higher in the tumor than in the serum of the same patient and that a correlation exists between the levels of EaM in the tumor and the levels of EMBP. Thus, this supports the hypothesis that the EMBP is responsible for the retention of EoM and EaM in the prostate tumor.
Full-text available · Article · Oct 1998 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose: Treatment of blood malignancies has improved during the last years and as a consequence, demand of platelet transfusions has increased. A prolongation of the present shelf-time of five days would give a better flexibility to meet this increased demand. However, both platelet cell metabolism, function and detection of bacterial contamination in platelet concentrates must be secured. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare platelet cell metabolism using microcalorimetry, during storage in non-acetate platelet additive solution ((PAS) Baxter) and the newly developed acetate containing platelet additive solution T-Sol solution (Baxter). Two different bag volumes were used. Methods: A pool of eight buffy coats was divided into two equal volumes and two concentrates were prepared with PAS and T-Sol, respectively. Ten pairs were prepared. All platelet concentrates were filtered using filter LRP 6SE (Pall). Five pairs were stored in 1000 ml bags (Baxter PL 732) and five pairs in 1300 ml bags (Baxter PL 2410). The concentrates were stored for eight days. Calorimetry, O2-consumption, lactate and pH were analysed on day one, seven and eight. Results: Value of microcalorimetry (fw/cell) was regarded as 100 % at starting point on day 1. There was a drop on day eight to a mean value of 74 % and 57 % in PAS and T-Sol, respectively, using the 1000 ml bag. The difference was not statistically significant. In concentrates stored in 1300 ml bags, value of microcalorimetry dropped on day eight to 65 % and 81 % (P=0.04) in PAS and T-Sol, respectively. The results for O2-consumption, pH and lactate measurment were parallel to the calorimetric results. Conclusion: The present results show that microcalorimetry is a suitable method for monitoring cell metabolism in stored platelets. The best preserved platelet cell metabolism was seen in platelets stored in T-Sol using the 1300 ml bag.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: It is known that estramustine (EM) accumulates in cells at the G2/M-phase and causes metaphase arrest of various cell types. The inhibitory effect is mediated by interaction with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and/or tubulin. Estramustine-binding protein (EMBP) is a secretory protein which has been found in a number of different tumor cells and has been shown to faciliate the uptake of EM into cells. In this study the efficacy of EM in arresting cells at metaphase was studied, using four different human cell lines; the prostatic cancer cell line DU 145, the breast cancer cell line MDA 231, the colon cancer cell line Colon 320, and the urinary bladder cancer cell line RT4. The cells were incubated with EM at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml for 24 hours. The data reveal an increase in metaphase arrests in the DU 145 and in Colon 320 cell lines. Both of these cell lines were found to contain high amounts of EMBP using a dot-blot assay. The other two cell lines, MDA 231 and RT4 had undetectable intracellular amounts of the protein and exhibited a low increase in metaphase arrests. The cell lines were analysed regarding S-phase fraction with flow-cytometry (FCM) to exclude the growth rate of the cells as a limiting factor. The results from the FCM confirmed the cytogenic analysis, that is a higher percentage of cells were in the G2/M phase in both the DU 145 and Colon 320 cell line compared to MDA 231 and RT4. EM causes mitotic arrest in those cell lines that contain detectable amounts of EMBP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The concentration of estramustine (EaM) in serum and tumor tissue of 19 patients with prostatic carcinoma was determined after single i.v. injection of estramustine phosphate (300 or 600 mg) administered 12 to 15.5 hours prior to radical prostatectomy. The concentration (mean +/- SD) was 21.9 +/- 10.3 ng/ml in serum and 234 +/- 168 ng/g in the tumor tissue. In patients treated with 300 mg the tumor tissue: serum ratio was decreased (12.0 +/- 1 for 600 mg and 5.4 +/- 1 for 300 mg, respectively). EMBP was detected in 18/19 (95 %) of the specimens, levels were positively correlated both with the tumor: serum ratio (r=0.48) and the absolute tumor concentration (r=0.62). Specific binding of EaM was obtained in 18/19 (95%) of the specimens. The study is the first to show that the cytotoxically active metabolite estramustine is concentrated in prostatic tissue after single dose i.v. injection and that there might be a dose-dependent effect on the concentration. The concept of an estramustine-binding protein that causes the selective binding and uptake of EaM in prostatic tissue is further supported by our results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In this study we have investigated total fiver RNA and the expression of mRNA in the rat fiver in vivo after a slow stimulation of interleukin-1. A total dose of 4 mug interleukin-1beta was administered via a subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipump over a period of 7 days. Plasma concentrations of alpha(2)-macroglobulin manifested a rapid increase, reaching a peak on day 2, while alpha(1)-inhibitor-3 manifested a marked initial decrease to 50% of the baseline level, followed by a tendency to increase again. For measurement of total RNA and specific mRNAs from the fiver, rats were sacrificed at different times during the experimental period. Total RNA peaked at 6 h, the level being approximately 60% higher than baseline value. Specific mRNA from the liver for alpha(2)-macroglobulin and alpha(1)-inhibitor-3 were quantified using laser densitometry on slot blots. The amounts measured during the experimental period agreed with the pattern of corresponding plasma protein levels. From barely detectable amounts at baseline, alpha(2)-macroglobulin mRNA peaked on day 1, and then declined. Levels of alpha(1)-inhibitor-3 mRNA manifested an initial increase at 3 h, but then declined and remained low until day 5 when there was a tendency towards an increase. It was concluded that the levels of plasma concentrations of alpha(2)-macroglobulin and alpha(1)-inhibitor-3 are mainly regulated at the protein synthesis level, and that long-term interleukin-1beta release could not override the initial acute phase protein counteracting mechanism triggered.
Full-text available · Article · Feb 1996 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Bacterial superantigens (SAgs) are potent activators of T lymphocytes and play a pathophysiological role in Gram-positive septic shock and food poisoning. To characterize potential MHC class II binding sites of the bacterial SAg staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) A, we performed alanine substitution mutagenesis throughout the C-terminus and at selected sites in the N-terminal domain. Four amino acids in the C-terminus were shown to be involved in MHC class II binding. Three of these amino acids, H225, D227 and H187, had a major influence on MHC class II binding and appeared to be involved in coordination of a Zn2+ ion. Alanine substitution of H225 and D227 resulted in a 1000-fold reduction in MHC class II affinity. Mutation at F47, which is equivalent to the F44 previously shown to be central in the MHC class II binding site of the SAg, SEB, resulted in a 10-fold reduction in MHC class II affinity. The combination of these mutations in the N- and C-terminal sites resulted in a profound loss of activity. The perturbation of MHC class II binding in the various mutants was accompanied by a corresponding loss of ability to induce MHC class II-dependent T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. All of the SEA mutants were expressed as Fab-SEA fusion proteins and found to retain an intact T cell receptor (TCR) epitope, as determined in a mAb targeted MHC class II-independent T cell cytotoxicity assay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Estramustine-binding protein (EMBP) is a M(r) 46,000 heterodimeric protein originally isolated from prostatic tissue. It has a demonstrated high affinity for, and selective binding of, estramustine, which is a derivative of 17 beta-estradiol and nornitrogen mustard with antimitotic activity. In this study, we have analysed the expression of an EMBP-like protein in astrocytoma specimens. Immunohistochemistry revealed a pronounced reactivity for EMBP in astrocytoma grades III-IV as well as in metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma used as positive control. In astrocytoma grades I-II, the expression was weak. The EMBP-like protein was quantified by radioimmunoassay in astrocytoma tumor tissue with higher concentrations in malignant astrocytoma, grades III-IV, compared to grades I-II tumors. Western immunoblotting of immunoaffinity purified EMBP-like protein under nonreducing conditions revealed an immunoreactivity corresponding to M(r) 138,000 and 200,000, indicating a different structure of EMBP in astrocytoma compared to prostatic tissue. Specific binding and the presence of saturable binding sites for 3H-labeled estramustine were demonstrated in astrocytoma tissues expressing EMBP-like protein. Scatchard plot analysis showed a Kd at approximately 30 nM, which suggests a binding affinity for estramustine in the same range as previously reported for EMBP in the prostate. Moreover, the number of estramustine binding sites/g tumor as calculated from the Scatchard plots was well correlated with the EMBP levels determined in the radioimmunoassay. In conclusion, an EMBP-like protein is expressed in astrocytoma. This protein may be responsible for the specific binding of estramustine in the tumor tissue. Whether this specific binding of estramustine is of importance for the cytotoxic effect in glioma cells remains to be evaluated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The bacterial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is an extremely potent activator of T lymphocytes when presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. To develop a tumor-specific superantigen for cancer therapy, we have made a recombinant fusion protein of SEA and the Fab region of the C215 monoclonal antibody specific for human colon carcinoma cells. SEA as part of a fusion protein showed a > 10-fold reduction in MHC class II binding compared to native SEA, and accordingly, the affinity of the FabC215-SEA fusion protein for the C215 tumor antigen was approximately 100-fold stronger than to MHC class II molecules. The FabC215-SEA fusion protein efficiently targeted T cells to lyse C215+ MHC class II- human colon carcinoma cells, which demonstrates functional substitution of the MHC class II-dependent presentation of SEA with tumor specificity. Treatment of mice carrying B16 melanoma cells expressing a transfected C215 antigen resulted in 85-99% inhibition of tumor growth and allowed long-term survival of animals. The therapeutic effect was dependent on antigen-specific targeting of the FabC215-SEA fusion protein, since native SEA and an antigen-irrelevant FabC242-SEA fusion protein did not influence tumor growth. The results suggest that Fab-SEA fusion proteins convey superantigenicity on tumor cells, which evokes T cells to suppress tumor growth.
Full-text available · Article · Sep 1994 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In this work we have studied the acute phase protein response and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vivo in the rat after a slow interleukin-1beta stimulation. A total dose of 1 mug, 2 mug, 4 mug and 0 mug (controls with only vehicle) of interleukin-1beta was released from osmotic minipumps over a period of 7 days. The pumps were implanted subcutaneously. A cystic formation was formed around the pumps that contained interleukin-1beta whereas no tissue reaction was seen around pumps containing only vehicle. Besides flbroblasts the cyst wall contained numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes which were positively stained for cathespin G. alpha(2)-macroglobulin, alpha(1)-inhtbitor-3, alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor, albumin and C3 were measured by electroimmunoassay and all showed plasma concentration patterns that were dose-dependent to the amount of interleuktn-1beta released. Fibrinogen in plasma was elevated in the control group but showed decreased plasma values with higher doses of interleukin-1beta released. All animals showed increased plasma levels of cathespin G but the lowest levels for cathespin G were seen for the highest interleukin-1beta dose released. It was clearly seen that a slow continuous release of interleukin-1beta in vivo caused an inflammatory reaction. Plasma levels for the proteins analysed all showed a similar pattern, namely an initial increase or decrease of plasma concentration followed by a tendency to normalization of plasma values. It was concluded that a long-term interleukin-1beta release could not sustain the acute phase protein response elicited by the initial interleukin-1beta release.
Full-text available · Article · Feb 1994 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The monoclonal antibody C215 (IgG2a) was obtained by the immunization of BALB/c mice with the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line COLO 205 and used in the targeting of colorectal carcinomas. The partial characterization and purification of the C215 target molecule from solubilized COLO 205 membranes indicated that it is an integral membrane glycoprotein of the non-mucin type. The denatured antigen appeared as a major 40-kDa form in Western blots after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and migrated as a monomeric 36-kDa species after the reductive cleavage of intramolecular disulfide bridges. Using a five-step procedure, the antigen was purified 4,300-fold from COLO 205 tumors raised in nude mice to a homogeneity of 95% when assessed by capillary electrophoresis. Removal of N-linked carbohydrate by peptide:N-glycosidase treatment did not affect the visualization of the purified antigen in immunoblots but resulted in a faster migration in the SDS gels. The amino acid sequence was partially determined. Seventeen contiguous NH2-terminal amino acids were identified and coincided exactly with residues 82-98 of the GA733-2 protein cloned by Szala et al. (Szala, S., Froehlich, M., Scollon, M., Kasai, Y., Steplewske, Z., Koprowski, H., and Linnenback, A. J. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 3542-3546). Therefore, the predicted amino acid sequence of this protein was used to prepare overlapping synthetic peptides that cover the entire extracellular domain in order to identify the C215 epitope. A likely epitope, close to the NH2 terminus and corresponding to the first distinct hydrophilic stretch after the putative signal sequence, was identified in a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, GA733-2 cDNA was used for the cloning of the C215 protein from COLO 205 cells and the subsequent transfection to K36.16 mouse T cell leukemia cells. The transfected cells were C215 reactive in fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, and a 42 kDa band was visualized in Western blots under both non-reducing and reducing conditions. Our findings indicate a close relationship between the C215 antigen and other members of the GA-733 family, some of which are currently being used as targets in clinical trials with monoclonal antibodies. The mammalian expression system described here will enable further studies into the biological role of this protein and the construction of animal models in order to develop optimal therapeutic strategies.
Article · Dec 1993 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Björk P, Luts A, Sundler F, Ohlsson K. Turnover and distribution of cathepsin G in the rat. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1993; 53: 539-546.
The turnover of ¹²⁵I labelled rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cathepsin G with retained enzymatic activity was followed 180min after an intravenous injection. The plasma half-life of injected radioactivity was approximately 4.5 min. In the plasma sample 15min after injection the main part of the radioactivity in a gel filtration eluted at the same volume as 3-iodo-tyrosin (3-IT). After 15 min the liver contained about one third of the injected radioactivity. Radioactivity in all organs declined in the course of time. In the pancreas autoradiography showed labelling at the localization of enzyme granules as soon as 15 min after the intravenous injection of radiolabelled substance. All these results suggest a rapid uptake and degradation of cathepsin G in the liver.
The distribution of cathepsin G in tissues analysed in the normal rat were localized to the spleen, lymph nodes, and lung. PMNs were immunohistochemi-cally stained, while in the lung indefinable epithelial cells were stained.
When rat PMN cathepsin G was added to normal rat plasma, we could identify 36% bound to α1 macroglobulin (α1 M) and 19% bound to α-inhibitor 3 (α1I3) as judged from analysis of gel filtration chromatography and electroimmunoassy (EIA) with autoradiography.
Article · Nov 1993 · Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We have developed a monoclonal antibody (mAb) based therapy intended for the treatment of solid tumors utilizing both main arms of the immune system by incorporating the colon carcinoma recognizing mAb C215 and the T cell activating bacterial staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in a single hybrid molecule. The recombinant tumor specific superantigen C215-SEA retained excellent antigen binding properties while the binding to MHC class II was markedly reduced and should allow targeting of a large fraction of T cells to tumors in vivo. C215-SEA mediated T cell killing of C215 expressing tumor cells irrespective of their expression of MHC class II antigens and induced levels of IFN-gamma and TNF in mononuclear cells sufficient to completely suppress the growth of colon carcinoma cells in vitro. In initial studies of anti-tumor effects, C215Fab-SEA was found to markedly inhibit the growth of colon carcinoma cells transplanted to Scid mice adoptively transferred with human mononuclear cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Estramustine is one of the main metabolites of estramustine phosphate (EstracytR), a drug used in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer. In the present study the hormone independent human prostatic carcinoma cell line DU 145 implanted subcutaneously in nude mice (NMRI) was used to investigate the mode of action of estramustine in vivo. Metaphase arrest was found in mice treated with estramustine intraperitoneally, 200 and 400 micrograms daily for 2 weeks, 5 days a week. A significant dose dependent decrease in the number of anaphase figures was found. A 7 to 8 fold increase in the number of abnormal metaphases, i.e., highly contracted and unaligned chromosomes, was found. Uptake and retention of 3H-estramustine was found in tumour tissue. No increase in the mitotic index or the number of abnormal metaphases was found in animals treated with polyestradiol phosphate (EstradurinR). This is the first time evidence has been presented demonstrating the anti-mitotic effect of estramustine in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Dog polymorphonuclear leukocyte cathepsin G was isolated from a granule extract using a two-step procedure including affinity chromatography on a Trasylol-Sepharose gel and ion-exchange chromatography on a CM 52 column. 22 of the first 24 N-terminal amino acids were determined and showed 83% and 71% identity to those of human and rat cathepsin G, respectively. Total amino-acid composition demonstrated the basic nature of the protein. In an SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis the protein showed an Mr of 29,400 compared to the Mr of 26,800 calculated from the total amino-acid composition. The enzyme was shown to form complexes with alpha 1 alpha 2-macroglobulin and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor. A specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the determination of cathepsin G/alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor complex in dog plasma and tissue fluids. The mean concentration of cathepsin G in normal dog plasma was determined to be 38 micrograms/l, measured as cathepsin G/alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor complex. When active dog cathepsin G was added to normal dog plasma in vitro, approximately 56% could be measured by the assay. Slow intravenous infusion of a lethal dose of endotoxin in dogs was followed by a marked drop in white blood cell count and thrombocytes and a simultaneous rapid increase in plasma cathepsin G concentration, reaching a maximum level of 150 micrograms/l. Bile-induced experimental pancreatitis in dogs was accompanied by successive increase in cathepsin G levels in plasma as well as in peritoneal exudates, reaching a maximum level of about 300 micrograms/l in plasma and 18 mg/l in the exudates during the late stages of disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The expression of the estramustine/estromustine-binding protein (EMBP) in human mammary cancer and malignant melanoma was examined by immunochemical methods and compared with that in endometrial and ovarian cancers. By RIA measurements, EMBP was detected in 6/17 mammary cancers (range 11.3-2,660 ng/g tissue) and 2/3 malignant melanomas (618 and 1,240 ng/g), whereas endometrial (n = 6) and ovarian (n = 3) cancers exhibited non-detectable levels. In breast cancer, EMBP-expressing tumours were all estrogen receptor-negative, suggesting an inverse correlation between EMBP and hormone responsiveness of the tumour. Biochemical characterization revealed properties of EMBP in mammary tumours and melanomas almost identical to those for EMBP purified from rat ventral prostate: i.e. surface-charge distribution by Mono Q/FPLC ion-exchange chromatography, a molecular weight of 50,000 by gel filtration, and a subunit composition by Western blot analysis under denaturing conditions. Finally, the EMBP immunoreactivity was confined to the cytoplasm of malignant cells in breast cancer and melanoma sections by immunohistochemical examination. This is the first study that demonstrates EMBP in mammary cancer and malignant melanoma. Our findings suggest that a mechanism for selective uptake of cytotoxic estramustine and estromustine is prevailing in these malignancies and that monitoring of EMBP in biopsy samples will be of value in defining patients who may benefit from Estracyt treatment.