William T. A. Harrison

University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom

Are you William T. A. Harrison?

Claim your profile

Publications (774)1121.21 Total impact

  • Source
    Damianos G. Paschalidis · William T. A. Harrison
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The gel-mediated syntheses and crystal structures of [ N ′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene-κ N )benzohydrazide-κ 2 N ′, O ]tris(thiocyanato-κ N )praseodymium(III) monohydrate, [Pr(NCS) 3 (C 13 H 11 N 3 O) 2 ]·H 2 O, (I), and aqua(nitrato-κ 2 O , O ′)[ N ′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene-κ N )benzohydrazide-κ 2 N ′, O ](thiocyanato-κ N )neodymium(III) nitrate 2.33-hydrate, [Nd(NCS)(NO 3 )(C 13 H 11 N 3 O) 2 (H 2 O)]NO 3 ·2.33H 2 O, (II), are reported. The Pr 3+ ion in (I) is coordinated by two N , N , O -tridentate N ′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)benzohydrazide (pbh) ligands and three N -bonded thiocyanate ions to generate an irregular PrN 7 O 2 coordination polyhedron. The Nd 3+ ion in (II) is coordinated by two N , N , O -tridentate pbh ligands, an N -bonded thiocyanate ion, a bidentate nitrate ion and a water molecule to generate a distorted NdN 5 O 5 bicapped square antiprism. The crystal structures of (I) and (II) feature numerous hydrogen bonds, which lead to the formation of three-dimensional networks in each case.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2016
  • Source

    Preview · Article · Jan 2016
  • Source
    Paul Barnes · John M. D. Storey · William T. A. Harrison
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the title compound, C 14 H 15 BrINO 2 , the conformation of the C—O—CH 2 —CH 3 grouping is anti [torsion angle = 173.8 (6)°] and the bond-angle sum at the N atom bridging the two rings is 360°. An unusual intramolecular bifurcated N—H...(O,I) hydrogen bond helps to establish the molecular conformation, in which the I atom and the C=O grouping are syn . In the crystal, inversion dimers created by pairs of short intermolecular C—I...O interactions [C—I = 2.080 (7) Å; I...O = 3.211 (5) Å; C—I...O = 152.4 (2)°] occur.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016
  • Muhammad Kaleem Khosa · Paul T. Wood · Simon M. Humphrey · William T. A. Harrison
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Compounds containing copper(I) are of interest for their role in biological processes. The nature of short (< ∼3.2 Å) Cu...Cu contacts within these compounds has been debated, being either described as weakly attractive (bonding) `cuprophilic' interactions, or simply as short metal–metal distances constrained by ligand geometry or largely ionic in nature. The title three-dimensional Cu + -containing coordination polymer, [Cu 3 (C 7 H 7 N 2 O 2 )Cl 2 ] n , was formed from the in situ reduction of CuCl 2 in the presence of 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid and KOH under hydrothermal conditions. Its complex crystal structure contains ten distinct Cu I atoms, two of which lie on crystallographic inversion centres. The copper coordination geometries include near-linear CuOCl and CuN 2 , T-shaped CuOCl 2 and distorted tetrahedral CuOCl 3 groups. Each Cu I atom is also associated with two adjacent metal atoms, with Cu...Cu distances varying from 2.7350 (14) to 3.2142 (13) Å; if all these are regarded as `cuprophilic' interactions, then infinite [\overline{1}01] zigzag chains of Cu I atoms occur in the crystal. The structure is consolidated by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Acta crystallographica. Section C
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
  • Source
    Zhe An · Jing Gao · William T. A. Harrison
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The syntheses and crystal structures of 0.25-aqua(benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato-κ 2 O , O ′)bis(sparfloxacin-κ 2 O , O ′)manganese(II) dihydrate, [Mn(C 8 H 4 O 4 )(C 19 H 22 F 2 N 4 O 3 ) 2 (H 2 O) 0.25 ]·2H 2 O or [Mn(bdc)(Hspar) 2 (H 2 O) 0.25 ]·2H 2 O, (I), and bis(sparfloxacin-κ 2 O , O ′)copper(II) benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate dihydrate, [Cu(C 19 H 22 F 2 N 4 O 3 ) 2 ](C 8 H 4 O 4 )·2H 2 O or [Cu(Hspar) 2 ](bdc)·2H 2 O, (II), are reported (Hspar = sparfloxacin and bdc = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate). The Mn 2+ ion in (I) is coordinated by two O , O ′-bidentate Hspar neutral molecules (which exist as zwitterions) and an O , O ′-bidentate bdc dianion to generate a distorted MnO 6 trigonal prism. A very long bond [2.580 (12) Å] from the Mn 2+ ion to a 0.25-occupied water molecule projects through a square face of the prism. In (II), the Cu 2+ ion lies on a crystallographic inversion centre and a CuO 4 square-planar geometry arises from its coordination by two O , O ′-bidentate Hspar molecules. The bdc dianion acts as a counter-ion to the cationic complex and does not bond to the metal ion. The Hspar ligands in both (I) and (II) feature intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which close S (6) rings. In the crystals of both (I) and (II), the components are linked by N—H...O, O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating three-dimensional networks.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016
  • Source
    Alan M Jones · John M D Storey · William T A Harrison
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The crystal structures of three cyclopenta[ c ]furans with various substituents at the 4-, 5- and 6-positions of the ring system are reported, namely, (±)-(3a R ,4 S ,5 S ,6a S )-4-methyl-5-phenylhexahydro-1 H -cyclopenta[ c ]furan-4,5-diol, C 14 H 18 O 3 , (I), (±)-(3a R ,4 S ,5 S ,6a S )-4-benzyloxy-4-methyl-5-phenylhexahydro-1 H -cyclopenta[ c ]furan-5-ol, C 21 H 24 O 3 , (II), and (±)-(1a R ,1b S ,4a R ,5 S ,5a R )-5-benzyloxy-5-methyl-5a-phenylhexahydro-2 H -oxireno[2′,3′:3,4]cyclopenta[1,2- c ]furan, C 21 H 22 O 3 , (III). The dominant interaction in (I) and (II) is an O—H...O hydrogen bond across the bicyclic 5,5-ring system between the non-functionalized hydroxy group and the tetrahydrofuran O atom, which appears to influence the envelope conformations of the fused five-membered rings, whereas in (III), the rings have different conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O interaction appears to influence the degree of tilt of the phenyl ring attached to the 5-position and is different in (I) compared to (II) and (III).
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Acta Crystallographica Section E Structure Reports Online
  • M. K. Khosa · P. T. Wood · S. M. Humphrey · W. T. A. Harrison
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The syntheses and crystal structures of the layered coordination polymers M(C8H8NO2)2 [M = Mn (1), Co (2), Ni (3) and Zn (4)] are described. These isostructural compounds contain centrosymmetric trans-MN2O4 octahedra as parts of infinite sheets; the ligand bonds to three adjacent metal ions in μ3-N,O,O′ mode from both its carboxylate O atoms and its amine N atom. In each case, weak intra-sheet N–H⋯O and C–H⋯O hydrogen bonds may help to consolidate the structure. Crystal data: 1, C16H16MnN2O4, M r = 355.25, monoclinic, P21/c (No. 14), a = 10.6534(2) Å, b = 4.3990(1) Å, c = 15.5733(5) Å, β = 95.1827(10)°, V = 726.85(3) Å3, Z = 2, R(F) = 0.026, wR(F 2) = 0.067. 2, C16H16CoN2O4, M r = 359.24, monoclinic, P21/c (No. 14), a = 10.6131(10) Å, b = 4.3374(4) Å, c = 15.3556(17) Å, β = 95.473(4)°, V = 703.65(12) Å3, Z = 2, R(F) = 0.041, wR(F 2) = 0.091. 3, C16H16N2NiO4, M r = 359.02, monoclinic, P21/c (No. 14), a = 10.6374(4) Å, b = 4.2964(2) Å, c = 15.2827(8) Å, β = 95.9744(14)°, V = 694.66(6) Å3, Z = 2, R(F) = 0.028, wR(F 2) = 0.070. 4, C16H16N2O4Zn, M r = 365.68, monoclinic, P21/c (No. 14), a = 10.6385(5) Å, b = 4.2967(3) Å, c = 15.2844(8) Å, β = 95.941(3)°, V = 694.89(7) Å3, Z = 2, R(F) = 0.038, wR(F 2) = 0.107.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Structural Chemistry
  • M. John Plater · Ben M. De Silva · Mark R.St J. Foreman · William T.A. Harrison
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The crystal structures of three compounds formed from the crystallisation of different copper(II) salts (nitrate, acetate and sulphate) with the new ligand 1,3-bis[2-(4-pyridyl)ethyl]-benzene, C20H20N2 (L) are reported. The anion is incorporated into each structure, but it plays a completely different role in each case: [Cu2L4(NO3)(H2O)2]·3(NO3) (1) contains discrete 'paddlewheel' bimetallic clusters incorporating a nitrate ion at their centres. [Cu2L(Ac)3(OH)]n (2) contains unusual tetra-metallic clusters in which the acetate ions display three different coordination modes: the L ligands link the clusters into (100) sheets. [CuL2(SO4)]n·2n(H2O) (3) contains looped [0 1 0] chains in which both the L ligands and sulphate ions bridge adjacent metal ions. Crystal data: 1, C80H84Cu2N12O14, Mr = 1564.67, tetragonal, space group I4/m, a = 15.2358 (4) Å, c = 16.5372 (6) Å, V = 3838.8 (2) Å3, Z = 2, R(F) = 0.054, wR(F2) = 0.142. 2, C26H30Cu2N2O7, Mr = 609.60, monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 15.9076 (6) Å, b = 11.8299 (4) Å, c = 14.4234 (4) Å, β = 107.646 (1)°, V = 2586.56 (15) Å3, Z = 4, R(F) = 0.043, wR(F2) = 0.109. 3, C40H44CuN4O6S, Mr = 772.39, triclinic, space group p1¯, a = 10.513 (2) Å, b = 12.925 (4) Å, c = 14.769 (4) Å, α = 91.126 (11)°, β = 109.749 (9)°, γ = 100.658 (9)°, V = 1848.9 (8) Å3, Z = 2, R(F) = 0.108, wR(F2) = 0.274.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Polyhedron
  • S. Hussain · I. U. Khan · W. T. A. Harrison · M. N. Tahir
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The synthesis, crystal structures, and characterization (IR, TGA/DSC) of [Nd(C5H6O4)(H2O)4]•Cl (1) and [Pr(C5H6O4)(C5H7O4)(H2O)]•H2O (2) are described. Compound 1 is a one-dimensional coordination polymer containing double chains incorporating pairs of edge-sharing NdO9 polyhedra linked by glutarate dianions. A network of O–H…O and O–H…Cl hydrogen bonds helps to consolidate the structure. Compound 2 is a three-dimensional coordination polymer incorporating chains of edge-sharing PrO10 polyhedra. Its glutarate ion adopts an extended conformation, whereas its hydrogen glutarate ion takes on a twisted conformation. O–H…O hydrogen bonds are seen in the crystal structure, which features small channels occupied by water molecules. Crystal data: 1, C5H14ClNdO8, M r = 381.85, monoclinic, P21/c (No. 14), a = 8.9763(6) Å, b = 15.9277(11) Å, c = 8.8690(6) Å, β = 112.090(2)°, V = 1174.94(14) Å3, Z = 4, R(F) = 0.016, wR(F 2) = 0.037. 2, C10H17O10Pr, M r = 438.15, orthorhombic, Pbca (No. 61), a = 16.3030(7) Å, b = 8.6714(4) Å, c = 19.3899(8) Å, V = 2741.1(2) Å3, Z = 8, R(F) = 0.020, wR(F 2) = 0.050.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Structural Chemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxazolidin-2-ones are widely used as protective groups for 1,2-amino alcohols and chiral derivatives are employed as chiral auxiliaries. The crystal structures of four differently substituted oxazolidinecarbohydrazides, namely N'-[(E)-benzylidene]-N-methyl-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidine-4-carbohydrazide, C12H12N3O3, (I), N'-[(E)-2-chlorobenzylidene]-N-methyl-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidine-4-carbohydrazide, C12H12ClN3O3, (II), (4S)-N'-[(E)-4-chlorobenzylidene]-N-methyl-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidine-4-carbohydrazide, C12H12ClN3O3, (III), and (4S)-N'-[(E)-2,6-dichlorobenzylidene]-N,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidine-4-carbohydrazide, C13H13Cl2N3O3, (IV), show that an unexpected mild-condition racemization from the chiral starting materials has occurred in (I) and (II). In the extended structures, the centrosymmetric phases, which each crystallize with two molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit, form A+B dimers linked by pairs of N-H...O hydrogen bonds, albeit with different O-atom acceptors. One dimer is composed of one molecule with an S configuration for its stereogenic centre and the other with an R configuration, and possesses approximate local inversion symmetry. The other dimer consists of either R,R or S,S pairs and possesses approximate local twofold symmetry. In the chiral structure, N-H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(5) chains, with adjacent molecules related by a 21 screw axis. A wide variety of weak interactions, including C-H...O, C-H...Cl, C-H...π and π-π stacking interactions, occur in these structures, but there is little conformity between them.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Acta crystallographica. Section C
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The crystal structures of three methyl­ated hydrazine carbamate derivatives prepared by multi-step syntheses from L-serine are presented, namely benzyl N-{(E)-1-[2-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-1-methylhydrazinyl]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopro­pan-2-yl}carbamate, C20H20N4O4, tert-butyl N-{(E)-1-[2-(4-cyanobenzylidene)-1-methylhydrazinyl]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl}carbamate, C17H22N4O4, and tert-butyl N-[(E)-1-(2-benzylidene-1-methylhydrazinyl)-3-hydroxy-1-oxopro­pan-2-yl]carbamate, C16H23N3O4. One of them shows that an unexpected racemization has occurred during the mild-condition methyl­ation reaction. In each crystal structure, the mol­ecules are linked into chains by O-HO hydrogen bonds, but with significant differences between them.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A series of thiazole, pyridine and benzylidene derivatives derived from thiophene scaffold have been synthesized. The antitumor evaluation of the newly synthesized products against four cancer cell lines, namely breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (HepG2), colon carcinoma (HCT-116) and prostate carcinoma (PC3), indicated that the thiazole derivative 11b showed remarkable activity against all cell lines with LC50 values of 18.3, 2.5, 7.5 and 7.6 µM, respectively. Cytotoxicity toward normal cell lines was also investigated and indicated that compound 21c displayed remarkable potency against PC3 with LC50 values of 7.1 µM and showed weak inhibition of normal cell lines at (GI %) of 41.2 % and thus could be considered as an important lead compound for potential application in anticancer chemotherapy. Brine shrimp lethality assay of the most active compounds was carried out to detect possible cytotoxicity effects and indicated that highly active compound, 21c, is not harmful. The X-ray crystallographic analysis of compounds 3 and 11b was obtained thus establishing with certainty the proposed structures in this work. The synthesized compounds were also screened for their free radical scavenging activity. Hydrazino–thiazole derivatives 15 and 16 showed remarkable antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 60.9 and 61.9 μg ml−1, respectively.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Medicinal Chemistry Research
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The crystal structures of four indole derivatives with various substituents at the 2-, 3- and 5-positions of the ring system are described, namely, ethyl 3-(5-chloro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-phenyl­propano­ate, C25H22ClNO2, (I), 2-bromo-3-(2-nitro-1-phenyl­eth­yl)-1H-indole, C16H13BrN2O2, (II), 5-meth­oxy-3-(2-nitro-1-phenyl­eth­yl)-2-phenyl-1H-indole, C23H20N2O3, (III), and 5-chloro-3-(2-nitro-1-phenyl­eth­yl)-2-phenyl-1H-indole, C22H17ClN2O2, (IV). The dominant inter­molecular inter­action in each case is an N-HO hydrogen bond, which generates either chains or inversion dimers. Weak C-HO, C-H and - inter­actions occur in these structures but there is no consistent pattern amongst them. Two of these compounds act as modest enhancers of CB1 cannabanoid signalling and two are inactive.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
  • M. John Plater · William T. A. Harrison
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The synthesis of mellite from mellitic acid, KOH and Al2(SO4)3•18H2O is demonstrated and discussed as a potential geomimetic process for the formation of the mineral mellite in brown coal. The single crystal structures and IR spectra of the mineral mellite and of synthetic mellite are identical.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Chemical Research
  • S.S. Batool · S. Ahmad · I.U. Khan · Ejaz · W.T.A. Harrison
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new mixed-ligand copper(II) complex of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and benzoate ligands having the general formula [Cu(phen)(C6H5CO2)2] is prepared and its crystal structure is determined by X-ray crystallography. The complex exists in the monomeric form; the coordination environment around the copper(II) ion is square planar, with the pair of monodentate benzoate ligands being in a cis disposition. In the crystal, the molecules are linked into [001] chains by weak C-H ⋯O interactions; no aromatic π-π stacking occurs.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Structural Chemistry
  • M. John Plater · Ben M. De Silva · Mark R. St J. Foreman · William T.A. Harrison
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The syntheses and structures of the coordination polymers [Cd(ppeb)2(H2O)2]n·(NO3)2n (1), [Cd(ppeb)2(ClO4)2]n (2), [Cd(opeb)2(NO3)2]n (3) and [Cd(opeb)2(H2O)2]n·(ClO4)2n (4), where ppeb and opeb represent the 1,4- and 1,2-isomers of bis[2-(3-pyridyl)ethyl]-benzene, C20H20N2, respectively, are described. Each structure contains trans-CdO2N4 octahedra. In 1 and 2, they are bridged by pairs of ligands to generate looped chains, whereas in 3 and 4 the ligands link the metal nodes into squashed 44 polymeric sheets. In 1 and 4, O-H…O hydrogen bonds from the coordinated water molecules to the uncoordinated anions help to consolidate the structures.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Coordination Chemistry
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Novel palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of 5,5-diethylbarbiturate (barb) with 2-phenylpyridine (Hppy), 2,2’-bipyridine (bpy) and 2,2’-dipyridylamine (dpya) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, NMR and ESI-MS. Single-crystal diffraction measurements show that complex 1 consists of binuclear [Pd2(μ-barb-κN,O)2(ppy-κN,C)2] moieties, while complexes 3–5 are mononuclear, [M(barb-κN)2(L-κN,N’)] (L = bpy or dpya). 6 has a composition of [Pt(dpya- κN,N’)2][Ag(barb-κN)2]2·4H2O and 2 was assumed to have a structure of [Pt(barb)(Hppy-κN)(ppy- κN,C)]·3H2O. The complexes were found to exhibit significant DNA binding affinity by a non-covalent binding mode, in accordance with molecular docking studies. In addition, complexes 1 and 2 displayed strong binding with supercoiled pUC19 plasmid DNA. Cellular uptake studies were performed to assess the subcellular localization of the selected complexes. A moderate radical scavenging activity of 1 and 2 was confirmed by DPPH and ABTS tests. Complexes 1, 2, and 5 showed selectivity against HT-29 (colon) cell line.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Dalton Transactions
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Novel palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of 5,5-diethylbarbiturate (barb) with 2-phenylpyridine (Hppy), 2,2’-bipyridine (bpy) and 2,2’-dipyridylamine (dpya) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, NMR and ESI-MS. Single-crystal diffraction measurements show that complex 1 consists of binuclear [Pd2(μ-barb-κN,O)2(ppy-κN,C)2] moieties, while complexes 3–5 are mononuclear, [M(barb-κN)2(L-κN,N’)] (L = bpy or dpya). 6 has a composition of [Pt(dpya- κN,N’)2][Ag(barb-κN)2]2·4H2O and 2 was assumed to have a structure of [Pt(barb)(Hppy-κN)(ppy- κN,C)]·3H2O. The complexes were found to exhibit significant DNA binding affinity by a non-covalent binding mode, in accordance with molecular docking studies. In addition, complexes 1 and 2 displayed strong binding with supercoiled pUC19 plasmid DNA. Cellular uptake studies were performed to assess the subcellular localization of the selected complexes. A moderate radical scavenging activity of 1 and 2 was confirmed by DPPH and ABTS tests. Complexes 1, 2, and 5 showed selectivity against HT-29 (colon) cell line.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Dalton Transactions
  • M. John Plater · William T.A. Harrison
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 2,4-Difluoronitrobenzene is reacted with either one or two amines selected from aniline, ammonia, butylamine and benzylamine. All products are characterised spectroscopically and by single-crystal structure determinations. When formed as a minor component alongside 4-dimethylamino-2-(phenylamino)nitrobenzene, 2,4-bis(phenylamino)nitrobenzene crystallises as a hydrogen-bonded hexamer, or paddle-wheel motif, encompassing one-dimensional channels, but as a dense framework when pure. 2,4-Bis(butylamino)nitrobenzene crystallises with the same hexamer motif but with offset sheets.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Chemical Research

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,121.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000-2016
    • University of Aberdeen
      • Department of Chemistry
      Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1993-2010
    • University of Houston
      • Department of Chemistry
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1988-2010
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      • • Materials Research Laboratory
      Santa Barbara, California, United States
    • University of Oxford
      • Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996-2005
    • University of Western Australia
      • School of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2004
    • Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi
      • Faculty of Arts and Sciences
      Djanik, Samsun, Turkey
  • 1995
    • AT&T Labs
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 1989
    • University of Leeds
      Leeds, England, United Kingdom
    • Osaka University
      • Department of Multimedia Engineering
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan