Paul Skrzypczyk

University of Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (39)135.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, several hacking attacks have broken the security of quantum cryptography implementations by exploiting the presence of losses and the ability of the eavesdropper to tune detection efficiencies. We present a simple attack of this form that applies to any protocol in which the key is constructed from the results of untrusted measurements performed on particles coming from an insecure source or channel. Because of its generality, the attack applies to a large class of protocols, from standard prepare-and-measure to device-independent schemes. Our attack gives bounds on the critical detection efficiencies necessary for secure quantum key distribution, which show that the implementation of most partly device-independent solutions is, from the point of view of detection efficiency, almost as demanding as fully device-independent ones. We also show how our attack implies the existence of a form of bound randomness, namely nonlocal correlations in which a nonsignalling eavesdropper can find out a posteriori the result of any implemented measurement.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: We consider a generalisation of thermodynamics that deals with multiple conserved quantities at the level of individual quantum systems. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike in standard thermodynamics, where the second law places a constraint on how much of the conserved quantity (energy) that can be extracted, here, on the contrary, there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity that can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them which are allowed. We present explicit protocols which allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a numerical method for constructing local-hidden-state (LHS) models - and consequently local- hidden-variable (LHV) models - for multiqubit states based on semidefinite programming. This method can be applied to arbitrary states and general (POVM) measurements and can also be adapted to generate random states with LHS models. As applications we present new families of states with LHS models, including Bell-diagonal states, noisy GHZ and noisy W states, and generate a list of over 400000 new entangled two-qubit states with LHS model for projective measurements and 1400 for POVM measurements.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of postquantum nonlocality, i.e., the existence of nonlocal correlations that are stronger than any quantum correlations but nevertheless consistent with the no-signaling principle, has deepened our understanding of the foundations of quantum theory. In this work, we investigate whether the phenomenon of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, a different form of quantum nonlocality, can also be generalized beyond quantum theory. While postquantum steering does not exist in the bipartite case, we prove its existence in the case of three observers. Importantly, we show that postquantum steering is a genuinely new phenomenon, fundamentally different from postquantum nonlocality. Our results provide new insight into the nonlocal correlations of multipartite quantum systems.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Physical Review Letters
  • Paul Skrzypczyk · Daniel Cavalcanti
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    ABSTRACT: We show how to construct loss-tolerant linear steering inequalities using a generic set of von Neumann measurements that are violated by $d$-dimensional states, and that rely only upon a simple property of the set of measurements used (the maximal overlap between measurement directions). Using these inequalities we show that the critical detection efficiency above which $n$ von Neumann measurements can demonstrate steering is $1/n$. We show furthermore that using our construction and high dimensional states allows for steering demonstrations which are also highly robust to depolarising noise and produce unbounded violations in the presence of loss. Finally, our results provide an explicit means to certify the non-joint measurability of any set of inefficient von Neuman measurements.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Physical Review A
  • Paul Skrzypczyk
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    ABSTRACT: Auxiliary quantum systems which can be borrowed to help facilitate thermodynamic processes but must be returned almost undisturbed - i.e. catalysts - are very powerful objects in quantum thermodynamics. In fact, they appear almost too powerful, since they allow for any state transformation to be carried out while being disturbed by an arbitrarily small amount. In their recent paper Ng et al (2015 New J. Phys. 17 085004) show how to tame catalysts in quantum thermodynamics by placing additional physical constraints on them, in terms of dimension and energy. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · New Journal of Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The future of quantum communication relies on quantum networks composed by observers sharing multipartite quantum states. The certification of multipartite entanglement will be crucial to the usefulness of these networks. In many real situations it is natural to assume that some observers are more trusted than others in the sense that they have more knowledge of their measurement apparatuses. Here we propose a general method to certify all kinds of multipartite entanglement in this asymmetric scenario and experimentally demonstrate it in an optical experiment. Our results, which can be seen as a definition of genuine multipartite quantum steering, give a method to detect entanglement in a scenario in between the standard entanglement and fully device-independent scenarios, and provide a basis for semi-device-independent cryptographic applications in quantum networks.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is a manifestation of quantum correlations exhibited by quantum systems, that allows for entanglement certification when one of the subsystems is not characterized. Detecting steerability of quantum states is essential to assess their suitability for quantum information protocols with partially trusted devices. We provide a hierarchy of sufficient conditions for the steerability of bipartite quantum states of any dimension, including continuous variable states. Previously known steering criteria are recovered as special cases of our approach. The proposed method allows us to derive optimal steering witnesses for arbitrary families of quantum states, and provides a systematic framework to analytically derive non-linear steering criteria. We discuss relevant examples and, in particular, provide an optimal steering witness for a lossy single-photon Bell state; the witness can be implemented just by linear optics and homodyne detection, and detects steering with a higher loss tolerance than any other known method. Our approach is readily applicable to multipartite steering detection and to the characterization of joint measurability.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Physical Review Letters
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of post-quantum nonlocality, i.e. the existence of nonlocal correlations stronger than any quantum correlations but nevertheless consistent with the no-signaling principle, has deepened our understanding of the foundations quantum theory. In this work, we investigate whether the phenomenon of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, a different form of quantum nonlocality, can also be generalized beyond quantum theory. While post-quantum steering does not exist in the bipartite case, we prove its existence in the case of three observers. Importantly, we show that post-quantum steering is a genuinely new phenomenon, fundamentally different from post-quantum nonlocality. Our results provide new insight into the nonlocal correlations of multipartite quantum systems.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    Elsa Passaro · Daniel Cavalcanti · Paul Skrzypczyk · Antonio Acín
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    ABSTRACT: Quantum mechanics predicts the existence of intrinsically random processes. Contrary to classical randomness, this lack of predictability can not be attributed to ignorance or lack of control. Here we propose a method to quantify the amount of randomness that can be extracted in two scenarios: (i) the quantum steering scenario, where two parties measure a bipartite system in an unknown state but one of them does not trust his measurement apparatus, and (ii) the prepare-and-measure scenario, where additionally the quantum state is known. We use our methods to compute the maximal amount of local randomness that can be certified by measuring systems subject to noise and losses and show that randomness can be certified from a single measurement if and only if the detectors used in the test have detection efficiency higher than 50%.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · New Journal of Physics
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, several hacking attacks have broken the security of quantum cryptography implementations by exploiting the presence of losses and the ability of the eavesdropper to tune detection efficiencies. We present a simple attack of this form that applies to any protocol in which the key is constructed from the results of untrusted measurements performed on particles coming from an insecure source or channel. Because of its generality, the attack applies to a large class of protocols, from standard prepare-and-measure to device-independent schemes. The derived critical detection efficiencies for security imply that the implementation of most partly device independent solutions is, from the point of view of detection efficiency, almost as demanding as fully device-independent ones. We also show how our attack implies the existence of a form of bound randomness, namely non-local correlations in which a non-signalling eavesdropper can find out a posteriori the result of any implemented measurement.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    Ralph Silva · Paul Skrzypczyk · Nicolas Brunner
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    ABSTRACT: Small quantum absorption refrigerators have recently attracted renewed attention. Here we present a missing design of a two-qubit fridge, the main feature of which is that one of the two machine qubits is itself maintained at a temperature colder than the cold bath. This is achieved by 'reversing' the couplings to the baths compared to previous designs, where only a transition is maintained cold. We characterize the working regime and the efficiency of the fridge. We demonstrate the soundness of the model by deriving and solving a master equation. Finally, we discuss the performance of the fridge, in particular the heat current extracted from the cold bath. We show that our model performs comparably to the standard three-level quantum fridge, and thus appears appealing for possible implementations of nano thermal machines.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Physical Review E
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    ABSTRACT: Passive states are defined as those states that do not allow for work extraction in a cyclic (unitary) process. Within the set of passive states, thermal states are the most stable ones: they maximize the entropy for a given energy, and similarly they minimize the energy for a given entropy. In this article we find the passive states lying in the other extreme, i.e., those that maximize the energy for a given entropy, which we show also minimize the entropy when the energy is fixed. These extremal properties make these states useful to obtain fundamental bounds for the thermodynamics of finite dimensional quantum systems, which we show in several scenarios.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Physical Review E
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    Paul Skrzypczyk · Daniel Cavalcanti
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    ABSTRACT: We show how to construct loss-tolerant linear steering inequalities using a generic set of von Neumann measurements that are violated by $d$-dimensional states, and that rely only upon a simple property of the set of measurements used (the maximal overlap between measurement directions). Using these inequalities we show that the critical detection efficiency above which $n$ von Neumann measurements can demonstrate steering is $1/n$. We show furthermore that using our construction and high dimensional states allows for steering demonstrations which are also highly robust to depolarising noise. Finally, our results provide an explicit means to certify the non-joint measurability of any set of inefficient von Neuman measurements.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The future of quantum communication relies on quantum networks composed by observers sharing multipartite quantum states. The certification of multipartite entanglement will be crucial to the usefulness of these networks. In many real situations it is natural to assume that some observers are more trusted than others in the sense that they have more knowledge of their measurement apparatuses. Here we propose a general method to certify all kinds of multipartite entanglement in this scenario and experimentally demonstrate it in an optical experiment. Our work fills a gap in the characterization of quantum correlations and provides a basis for semi-device-independent cryptographic applications in quantum networks.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014
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    Paul Skrzypczyk · Ralph Silva · Nicolas Brunner
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    ABSTRACT: We give a simple and intuitive proof that the only states which are completely passive, i.e. those states from which work cannot be extracted even with infinitely many copies, are Gibbs states at positive temperatures. The proof makes use of the idea of virtual temperatures, i.e. the association of temperatures to transitions. We show that (i) passive states are those where every transition is at a positive temperature, and (ii) completely passive states are those where every transition is at the same positive temperature.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Physical Review E
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    ABSTRACT: Genuine randomness can be certified from Bell tests without any detailed assumptions on the working of the devices with which the test is implemented. An important class of experiments for implementing such tests is optical setups based on polarisation measurements of entangled photons distributed from a spontaneous parametric down conversion source. Here we compute the maximal amount of randomness which can be certified in such setups under realistic conditions. We provide relevant yet unexpected numerical values for the physical parameters and achieve four times more randomness than previous methods.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · New Journal of Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The concept of bilocality was introduced to study the correlations which arise in an entanglement swapping scenario, where one has two sources which can naturally taken to be independent. This additional constraint leads to stricter requirements than simply imposing locality, in the form of bilocality inequalities. In this work we consider a natural generalisation of the bilocality scenario, namely the star-network consisting of a single central party surrounded by $n$ edge parties, each of which shares an independent source with the centre. We derive new inequalities which are satisfied by all local correlations in this scenario, for the cases when the central party performs (i) two dichotomic measurements (ii) a single Bell state measurement. We demonstrate quantum violations of these inequalities and study both the robustness to noise and to losses.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Physical Review A
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the problem of extracting work from isolated quantum systems composed of $n$ subsystems. In this scenario the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each subsystem, and a global contribution originating from correlations between subsystems. Here we focus on the latter and consider quantum systems which are locally thermal, thus from which work can only be extracted from correlations. We derive bounds on the extractable work for general quantum states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum systems, this gain vanishes for a large number of subsystems.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Physical Review X
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    Paul Skrzypczyk · Anthony J Short · Sandu Popescu
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    ABSTRACT: Thermodynamics is traditionally concerned with systems comprised of a large number of particles. Here we present a framework for extending thermodynamics to individual quantum systems, including explicitly a thermal bath and work-storage device (essentially a 'weight' that can be raised or lowered). We prove that the second law of thermodynamics holds in our framework, and gives a simple protocol to extract the optimal amount of work from the system, equal to its change in free energy. Our results apply to any quantum system in an arbitrary initial state, in particular including non-equilibrium situations. The optimal protocol is essentially reversible, similar to classical Carnot cycles, and indeed, we show that it can be used to construct a quantum Carnot engine.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Nature Communications

Publication Stats

514 Citations
135.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2016
    • University of Bristol
      • School of Mathematics
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 2014-2015
    • ICFO Institute of Photonic Sciences
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2012
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom