James F Sallis

National University (California), San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (738)2277.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Understanding factors that influence accurate assessment of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) is important to measurement development, epidemiologic studies, and interventions. This study examined agreement between self-reported (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form, IPAQ-LF) and accelerometry-based estimates of PA and SB across six countries, and identified correlates of between-method agreement. Methods: Self-report and objective (accelerometry-based) PA and SB data were collected in 2002-2011 from 3,865 adult participants in eight cities from six countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Spain, UK, and USA). Between-method relative agreement (correlation) and absolute disagreement (mean difference between conceptually- and intensity-matched IPAQ-LF and accelerometry-based PA and SB variables) were estimated. Also, socio-demographic characteristics and PA patterns were examined as correlates of between-method agreement. Results: Observed relative agreement (relationships of IPAQ-LF with accelerometry-based PA and SB variables) was small to moderate (r=0.05-0.37) and was moderated by socio-demographic (age, sex, weight status, education) and behavioral (PA-types) factors. The absolute disagreement was large, with participants self-reporting higher PA intensity and total time in moderate-to-vigorous PA than accelerometry. Also, self-reported sitting time was lower than accelerometry-based sedentary behavior. After adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral factors, the absolute disagreement between pairs of IPAQ-LF and accelerometry-based PA variables remained significantly different across cities/countries. Conclusions: Present findings suggest systematic cultural and/or linguistic and socio-demographic differences in absolute agreement between the IPAQ-LF and accelerometry-based PA and SB variables. These results have implications for the interpretation of international PA and SB data and correlates/determinants studies. They call for further efforts to improve such measures.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicine and science in sports and exercise
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that communities can be designed to support physical activity, but it is important to understand whether neighborhood features related to health are also considered satisfactory by residents. The study aimed to determine if there is an association between perceived and objective neighborhood environment variables and neighborhood satisfaction. Adults (N = 1,726) were recruited from neighborhoods in two regions of the United States selected to vary on walkability and income. Perceived neighborhood environment was assessed using a validated scale, objective measures were constructed using geographic information system (GIS), and satisfaction was assessed using a 17-item survey. Participants reported greater satisfaction when they perceived their neighborhood as having greater pedestrian/traffic safety, crime safety, attractive aesthetics, access to destinations, diversity of destinations, park access, and lower residential density. Objective measures were not significant. The discrepant findings between perceived and objective environmental measures indicate that neighborhood satisfaction is a complex construct.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Environment and Behavior
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Environment and Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: The public health benefit of school physical education (PE) depends in large part on physical activity (PA) provided during class. According to the literature, PE has a valuable role in public health, and PA levels during PE classes depend on a wide range of factors. The main objective of this study, based on ecological models of behaviour, was to analyse what personal, psychosocial and environmental factors were associated with moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during PE lessons. The sample consisted of 189 adolescents (60.8% girls; M = 16.3 years, SD = 0.7) from nine high schools. PA was assessed by accelerometer. Differences in PA behaviour between the study groups were evaluated using the analysis of variance. Mixed-model regression analysis, adjusted for clustering within schools, evaluated the relation of each independent variable with MVPA. Results indicated that MVPA represented 21.5% of the total time of the session (11.8 minutes, SD = 5.3). Boys performed more MVPA than girls (13.6 versus 10.7 minutes), specifically during sessions in which fitness activities (cardiorespiratory endurance and strength), net games and sports were performed. The highest levels of MVPA occurred among students with high physical self-efficacy perception, when lessons were held outdoors, in schools with high socio-economic status, and during lessons with cardiorespiratory fitness activities and invasion games and sports. Gender, number of students per session and PE content were significantly related to MVPA according to regression analysis. Present findings show that PA levels during the PE sessions depend on several personal, psychosocial and environmental factors.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · European Physical Education Review
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To compare adolescents' physical activity at home, near home, at school, near school, and at other locations. Methods: Adolescents (N = 549) were ages 12 to 16 years (49.9% girls, 31.3% nonwhite or Hispanic) from 447 census block groups in 2 US regions. Accelerometers and Global Positioning System devices assessed minutes of and proportion of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in each of the 5 locations. Mixed-effects regression compared MVPA across locations and demographic factors. Results: Forty-two percent of adolescents' overall MVPA occurred at school, 18.7% at home, 18.3% in other (nonhome, nonschool) locations, and 20.6% near home or school. Youth had 10 more minutes (30% more) of overall MVPA on school days than on nonschool days. However, the percentage of location time spent in MVPA was lowest at school (4.8% on school days) and highest near home and near school (9.5%-10.4%). Girls had 2.6 to 5.5 fewer minutes per day of MVPA than boys in all locations except near school. Conclusions: Although a majority of adolescents' physical activity occurred at school, the low proportion of active time relative to the large amount of time spent at school suggests potential for increasing school-based activity. Increasing time spent in the neighborhood appears promising for increasing overall physical activity, because a high proportion of neighborhood time was active. Increasing youth physical activity to support metabolic health requires strategies for increasing use of physical activity-supportive locations (eg, neighborhoods) and environmental and program improvements in unsupportive locations (eg, schools, homes).
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · PEDIATRICS
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    ABSTRACT: To reverse the global epidemic of physical inactivity that is responsible for more than 5 million deaths per year, many groups recommend creating "activity-friendly environments."Such environments may have other benefits, beyond facilitating physical activity, but these potential co-benefits have not been well described. The purpose of the present paper is to explore a wide range of literature and conduct an initial summary of evidence on co-benefits of activity-friendly environments. An extensive but non- systematic review of scientific and "gray" literature was conducted. Five physical activity settings were defined: parks/open space/trails, urban design, transportation, schools, and workplaces/buildings. Several evidence-based activity-friendly features were identified for each setting. Six potential outcomes/co-benefits were searched: physical health, mental health, social benefits, safety/injury prevention, environmental sustainability, and economics. A total of 418 higher-quality findings were summarized. The overall summary indicated 22 of 30 setting by outcome combinations showed "strong" evidence of co-benefits. Each setting had strong evidence of at least three co-benefits, with only one occurrence of a net negative effect. All settings showed the potential to contribute to environmental sustainability and economic benefits. Specific environmental features with the strongest evidence of multiple co-benefits were park proximity, mixed land use, trees/greenery, accessibility and street connectivity, building design, and workplace physical activity policies/programs. The exploration revealed substantial evidence that designing community environments that make physical activity attractive and convenient is likely to produce additional important benefits. The extent of the evidence justifies systematic reviews and additional research to fill gaps.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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    ABSTRACT: Public transit users are expected to have higher levels of active transportation (AT, walking and bicycling) because they often need to walk to and from transit. Surveys in Baltimore and Seattle (n = 1,622) revealed that transit users performed more AT than nonusers, especially when dependent on transit. Health benefits and impacts of their limited travel options are discussed. Choice transit riders, who use transit and have a car, and dependent transit riders, who are limited to transit use, are compared for differences in AT and leisure physical activity time (LPA). Less LPA is explored as a consequence of the additional AT.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Planning Education and Research
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Excess sedentary time predicts negative health outcomes independent of physical activity. The present investigation examined informal caregiving duties and transportation-related factors as potential correlates of sedentary behavior in older adults. Method: Average daily sedentary time was measured via accelerometer in adults ages 66 years and older (N = 861). Caregiving variables included dog ownership and informal family caregiving status. Transportation variables included driver status, walking distance to public transit, and reported presence of pedestrians and bicyclists in one's neighborhood. Results: In multivariate models, owning a dog and being a driver were associated with less sedentary time (p ≤ .01). Educational status and geographic region modified the association between dog ownership and sedentary time, and age modified the association between driver status and sedentary time. Discussion: This study identified that older adult dog owners and drivers were less sedentary. Both factors may create opportunities for older adults to get out of their homes.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Aging and Health
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To assess the association of dog walking with adolescents' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and BMI, and identify correlates of dog walking. Methods/design: Participants were 12-17 year-olds (n=925) from the Baltimore, MD and Seattle, WA regions. Differences in accelerometer-assessed minutes/day of MVPA and self-reported BMI (percentile) were compared among adolescents (1) without a dog (n=441) and those with a dog who (2) did (≥1days/week, n=300) or (3) did not (n=184) walk it. Correlates of (1) dog walking (any vs. none) among adolescents with dogs (n=484), and (2) days/week of dog walking among dog walkers (n=300) were investigated. Potential correlates included: demographic, psychosocial, home environment, perceived neighborhood environment, and objective neighborhood environment factors. Results: 52% of adolescents lived in a household with a dog, and 62% of those reported dog walking ≥1day/week. Dog walkers had 4-5 more minutes/day of MVPA than non-dog-walkers and non-dog-owners. BMI was not associated with dog walking or ownership. Among households with dogs, adolescents who lived in objectively walkable neighborhoods were 12% more likely to walk their dog than those in less walkable neighborhoods. Among dog walkers, having a multi-family home, college-educated parent, lower perceived traffic safety, higher street connectivity and less mixed use were related to more days/week of dog walking. Conclusions: Dog walkers had 7-8% more minutes/day of MVPA than non-dog walkers, and correlates of dog walking were found at multiple levels of influence. Results suggest multilevel interventions that include both environmental and psychosocial components to increase dog walking should be evaluated.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The study's purpose was to examine age, gender, and education as potential moderators of the associations of perceived neighborhood environment variables with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were from 7273 adults from 16 sites (11 countries) that were part of a coordinated multi-country cross-sectional study. Age moderated the associations of perceived crime safety, and perceiving no major physical barriers to walking, with MVPA: positive associations were only found in older adults. Perceived land use mix-access was linearly (positive) associated with MVPA in men, and curvilinearly in women. Perceived crime safety was related to MVPA only in women. No moderating relationships were found for education. Overall the associations of adults' perceptions of environmental attributes with MVPA were largely independent of the socio-demographic factors examined. These findings are encouraging, suggesting that efforts to optimize the perceived built and social environment may act in a socially-equitable manner to facilitate MVPA.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Health & Place
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe both conditions of a two-group randomized trial, one that promotes physical activity and one that promotes cancer screening, among churchgoing Latinas. The trial involves promotoras (community health workers) targeting multiple levels of the Ecological Model. This trial builds on formative and pilot research findings. Design: Sixteen churches were randomly assigned to either the physical activity intervention or cancer screening comparison condition (approximately 27 women per church). In both conditions, promotoras from each church intervened at the individual- (e.g., beliefs), interpersonal- (e.g., social support), and environmental- (e.g., park features and access to health care) levels to affect change on target behaviors. Measurements: The study's primary outcome is min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and 12 and 24months following implementation of intervention activities. We enrolled 436 Latinas (aged 18-65 years) who engaged in less than 250min/wk of MVPA at baseline as assessed by accelerometer, attended church at least four times per month, lived near their church, and did not have a health condition that could prevent them from participating in physical activity. Participants were asked to complete measures assessing physical activity and cancer screening as well as their correlates at 12- and 24-months. Summary: Findings from the current study will address gaps in research by showing the long term effectiveness of multi-level faith-based interventions promoting physical activity and cancer screening among Latino communities.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Contemporary clinical trials
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    ABSTRACT: Macro level built environment factors (eg, street connectivity, walkability) are correlated with physical activity. Less studied but more modifiable microscale elements of the environment (eg, crosswalks) may also affect physical activity, but short audit measures of microscale elements are needed to promote wider use. This study evaluated the relation of a 15-item neighborhood environment audit tool with a full version of the tool to assess neighborhood design on physical activity in 4 age groups. From the 120-item Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) measure of street design, sidewalks, and street crossings, we developed the 15-item version (MAPS-Mini) on the basis of associations with physical activity and attribute modifiability. As a sample of a likely walking route, MAPS-Mini was conducted on a 0.25-mile route from participant residences toward the nearest nonresidential destination for children (n = 758), adolescents (n = 897), younger adults (n = 1,655), and older adults (n = 367). Active transportation and leisure physical activity were measured with age-appropriate surveys, and accelerometers provided objective physical activity measures. Mixed-model regressions were conducted for each MAPS item and a total environment score, adjusted for demographics, participant clustering, and macrolevel walkability. Total scores of MAPS-Mini and the 120-item MAPS correlated at r = .85. Total microscale environment scores were significantly related to active transportation in all age groups. Items related to active transport in 3 age groups were presence of sidewalks, curb cuts, street lights, benches, and buffer between street and sidewalk. The total score was related to leisure physical activity and accelerometer measures only in children. The MAPS-Mini environment measure is short enough to be practical for use by community groups and planning agencies and is a valid substitute for the full version that is 8 times longer.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Preventing chronic disease

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relation of classroom physical activity breaks to students' physical activity and classroom behavior. Six elementary-school districts in California implemented classroom physical activity interventions in 2013-2014. Students' (N=1322) accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school and teachers' (N=397) reports of implementation and classroom behavior were assessed in 24 schools at two time points (both post-intervention). Mixed-effects models accounted for nested data. Minutes/day of activity breaks was positively associated with students' MVPA (βs=.07-.14; ps=.012-.016). Students in classrooms with activity breaks were more likely to obtain 30 minutes/day of MVPA during school (OR=1.75; p=.002). Implementation was negatively associated with students having a lack of effort in class (β=-.17; p=.042), and student MVPA was negatively associated with students being off task or inattentive in the classroom (β=-.17; p=.042). Students provided with 3-4 physical activity opportunities (classroom breaks, recess, PE, dedicated PE teacher) had ≈5 more minutes/day of school MVPA than students with no opportunities (B=1.53 minutes/opportunity; p=.002). Implementing classroom physical activity breaks can improve student physical activity during school and behavior in the classroom. Comprehensive school physical activity programs that include classroom-based activity are likely needed to meet the 30 minute/day school physical activity guideline. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Preventive Medicine
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    Marc Adams · Jim Chapman · James Sallis · Larry Frank
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    DESCRIPTION: GIS templates for built environment and physical activity research. Also available at: http://www.ipenproject.org/methods_gis.html
    Full-text · Research · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Characterizing neighborhood environments in relation to physical activity is complex. Latent profiles of parents' perceptions of neighborhood characteristics were examined in relation to accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among 678 children (ages 6-12) in two US regions. Neighborhood environment profiles derived from walkability, transit access, aesthetics, crime and traffic safety, pedestrian infrastructure, and recreation/park access were created for each region. The San Diego County profile lowest on walkability and recreation/park access was associated with an average of 13 fewer min/day of children's out-of-school MVPA compared to profiles higher on walkability and recreation/park access. Seattle/King County profiles did not differ on children's MVPA. Neighborhood environment profiles were associated with children's MVPA in one region, but results were inconsistent across regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Health & Place
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features for physical activity (PA) are understudied. This study explored whether patterns of GIS-derived BE features explained objective and self-reported PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI. Methods: Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N1⁄42,199, aged 20–65 years, 48.2% female, 26% ethnic minority) were sampled in 2001–2005 from Seattle / King County WA and Baltimore MD / Washington DC regions. Their addresses were geocoded to compute net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit, and public park and private recreation facility densities using a 1-km network buffer. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these variables. Multilevel regression models compared profiles on accelerometer- measured moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2013–2014. Results: Seattle region LPAs yielded four profiles, including low walkability/transit/recreation (L-L-L); mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M); moderately high walkability/transit/ recreation (MH-MH-MH); and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-HH). All measures were higher in the HHH than the LLL profile (difference of 17.1 minutes/day for MVPA, 146.5 minutes/week for walking for transportation, 58.2 minutes/week for leisure-time PA, and 2.2 BMI points; all po0.05). Baltimore region LPAs yielded four profiles, including L-L-L; M-M-M; high land use mix, transit, and recreation (HLU-HT-HRA); and high intersection density, high retail floor area ratio (HID-HRFAR). HLU-HT-HRA and L-L-L differed by 12.3 MVPA minutes/day; HID-HRFAR and L-L-L differed by 157.4 minutes/week for walking for trans- portation (all ps<0.05). Conclusions: Patterns of environmental features explain greater differences in adults’ PA than the four-component walkability index.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Prevalence of walking and cycling for transport is low, varying greatly across countries. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions related to walking and cycling for transport in different countries. Therefore it is challenging to prioritize appropriate built environment interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the strength and shape of the relationship between adults' neighborhood perceptions and walking and cycling for transport across diverse environments. As part of the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult project, self-report data were taken from 13,745 adults (18 - 65 years) living in physically and socially diverse neighborhoods in 17 cities across 12 countries. Neighborhood perceptions were measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, and walking and cycling for transport were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form. Generalized additive mixed models were used to model walking or cycling for transport during the last seven days with neighborhood perceptions. Interactions by city were explored. Walking for transport outcomes were significantly associated with perceived residential density, land use mix access, street connectivity, aesthetics, and safety. Any cycling for transport was significantly related to perceived land use mix access, street connectivity, infrastructure, aesthetics, safety, and perceived distance to destinations. Between-city differences existed for some attributes in relation to walking or cycling for transport. Many perceived environmental attributes supported both cycling and walking; however highly walkable environments may not support cycling for transport. People appear to walk for transport despite safety concerns. These findings can guide the implementation of global health strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Environmental Health Perspectives

Publication Stats

58k Citations
2,277.23 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • National University (California)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1999-2015
    • Université du Québec à Montréal
      • Department of Psychology
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Wake Forest University
      • Department of Health and Exercise Science
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 1985-2015
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Family and Preventive Medicine
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 1970-2013
    • San Diego State University
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Political Science
      San Diego, California, United States
    • University of Wollongong
      City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2012
    • American University Washington D.C.
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2009
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Public Health
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2008
    • George Mason University
      페어팩스, Virginia, United States
    • Naval Health Research Center
      • Department of Warfighter Performance
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2005
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Exercise and Sport Science
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2003
    • Deakin University
      • Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research
      Geelong, Victoria, Australia
    • Ghent University
      • Department of Movement and Sports Sciences
      Gent, VLG, Belgium
  • 2002
    • University of New South Wales
      • School of Public Health and Community Medicine
      Kensington, New South Wales, Australia
    • University of South Carolina
      • Department of Exercise Science
      Columbia, SC, United States
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
  • 2001
    • University of San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1996
    • Tulane University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 1994
    • Cooper Aerobics Center
      Dallas, Texas, United States