[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been estimated that approximately 520,000 injury presentations are made to Irish accident and emergency departments each year. Fractures account for 20 % of these injuries. Circular external fixators (frames) have been shown to be a safe and effective method of treatment for long bone fractures where internal fixation is impossible or in-advisable. We present the outcomes of all frames applied at our institution for stabilisation of acute fractures over a 20-year period.
We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively compiled database of all frames applied in our institution and identified all frames which were applied for acute lower limb trauma.
We identified 68 fractures in 63 patients. There were 11 femoral fractures and 57 tibial fractures. All fractures were classified using the AO Classification system, and most fractures were Type C fractures. We used an Ilizarov frame for 53 fractures and a Taylor Spatial Frame for 15 fractures. The mean time in frame was 365 days for a femoral fracture and 230 days for a tibial fracture. There were five tibial non-unions giving an overall union rate of 93 %. Factors associated with non-union included high-energy trauma and cigarette smoking.
The vast majority of lower limb fractures can be treated using 'conventional' methods. Complex fractures which are not amenable to open reduction and internal fixation or cast immobilisation can be treated in a frame with excellent results. The paucity of published reports regarding the use of frames for complex trauma reflects the under-utilisation of the technique.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Irish Journal of Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide, with the advent of a myriad of new treatment options, so is the overall survival of these patients. However, from an orthopaedic perspective, there comes the challenge of treating more patients with a variety of metastatic bone lesions. The consequences of such lesions can be significant to the patient, from pain and abnormal blood results, including hypercalcemia, to pathological fracture. Given the multiple options available, the treatment of bone metastasis should be based on a patient-by patient manner, as is the case with primary bone lesions. It is imperative, given the various lesion types and locations, treatment of bone metastasis should be performed in an individualised manner. We should consider the nature of the lesion, the effect of treatment on the patient and the overall outcome of our decisions. The dissemination of primary lesions to distant sites is a complex pathway involving numerous cytokines within the tumour itself and the surrounding microenvironment. To date, it is not fully understood and we still base a large section of our knowledge on Pagets historic "seed and soil" theory. As we gain further understanding of this pathway it will allow us develop more medical based treatments. The treatment of primary cancers has long been provided in a multi-disciplinary setting to achieve the best patient outcomes. This should also be true for the treatment of bone metastases. Orthopaedic surgeons should be involved in the multidisciplinary treatment of such patients given that there are a variety of both surgical fixation methods and non-operative methods at our disposal.
Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · World Journal of Orthopaedics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arthroplasty in the haemophiliac patient is associated with higher rates of infection and is traditionally performed in a younger age group. Despite this there is little evidence in the literature regarding revision arthroplasty in this cohort of patients. We describe the case of a periprosthetic fracture in a haemophiliac patient requiring revision arthroplasty, who did not consent to receiving blood products due to religious beliefs, with a successful outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Osteomyelitis following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is extremely rare.
Presentation of case:
We present a thirty year old man who presented with pain in his proximal tibia six years after ACL reconstruction. Haematological investigations were normal. He was diagnosed with osteomyelitis of his proximal tibia. He was successfully treated with washout and debridement of his tibial tunnel.
This case highlights the need to exclude osteomyelitis as a late complication of ACL reconstruction in patients with proximal tibial pain. We also report on an unusual pathogen as casue of osteomyelitis.
Osteomyelitis in a tibial tunnel can present as a late complication of ACL reconstruction, even in the presence of normal haematological investigations.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extra-abdominal desmoid lesions, otherwise known as aggressive fibromatosis, are slow-growing benign lesions which may be encountered in clinical practice. Recent controversies exist regarding their optimal treatment. Given their benign nature, is major debulking surgery justified, or is it worth administering chemotherapy for a disease process which unusually defies common teaching and responds to such medications? We present a literature review of this particular pathology discussing the aetiology, clinical presentation, and various current controversies in the treatment options.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paediatric clavicle fractures have traditionally been treated nonoperatively. Recent studies have recommended operative management for displaced midshaft fractures. We conducted a retrospective review of all clavicle fractures in children aged one to sixteen over a two-year period. We classified fractures and evaluated followup and clinical outcome. We identified 190 fractures. There were 135 boys and 55 girls. 65% of fractures were displaced and 35% undisplaced. Mean radiographic and clinical followup was 35 days and 44 days, respectively. Clavicle fractures in children heal with nonoperative management. Radiographs of clavicle fractures in children are unnecessary in the absence of clinical symptoms.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · International Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over 70% of patients with advanced breast cancer will develop bone metastases for which there is no cure. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) and their derivative osteoblasts are subpopulations of cells within the bone marrow environment, postulated as potential interacting targets for disseminating cancer cells because of their ability to secrete a range of chemokines. This study aimed to investigate chemokine secretion throughout MSC differentiation into osteoblasts and their effect on the breast cancer cells. Primary MSCs and osteoblast progenitors were cultured in appropriate conditions to induce differentiation into mature osteoblasts. Chemokines secreted throughout differentiation were detected using ChemiArray and ELISA. Migration of breast cancer cells in response to the bone-derived cells was quantified using Transwell inserts. Breast cancer cells were cocultured with MSCs, retrieved using magnetic beads, and changes in CCL2 expression were analyzed. MSCs secreted a range of factors including IL-6, TIMP-1 and CCL2, the range and level of which changed throughout differentiation. CCL2 secretion by MSCs increased significantly above control cells as they differentiated into mature osteoblasts (p<0.05). The bone-derived cells stimulated migration of breast cancer cells, and this was inhibited (21-50%) in the presence of a CCL2 antibody. CCL2 gene expression in breast cancer cells was upregulated following direct coculture with MSCs. The varying levels of chemokines secreted throughout MSC differentiation may play an important role in supporting tumor cell homing and progression. These results further highlight the distinct effect MSCs have on breast cancer cells and their potential importance in supporting development of metastases.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic cytokine produced physiologically by the uterus. Pathological secretion by tumours promotes growth and metastasis. High circulating VEGF levels potentially have a deleterious effect on breast cancer by promoting disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate circulating VEGF levels in breast cancer patients and assess the effect of menopause or hysterectomy on systemic VEGF.
Patients undergoing primary surgery for breast cancer and controls matched for age, menopausal and hysterectomy status were prospectively recruited. Serum VEGF, FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone and platelet levels were measured. Serum VEGF was corrected for platelet load (sVEGFp) to provide a biologically relevant measurement of circulating VEGF. SVEGFp levels were analyzed with respect to tumor characteristics, menopausal status and hysterectomy status.
Two hundred women were included in the study; 89 breast cancer patients and 111 controls. SVEGFp levels were significantly higher in breast cancer patients compared to controls (p = 0.0001), but were not associated with clinico-pathological tumor characteristics. Systemic VEGF levels reduced significantly in the breast cancer patients following tumor excision (p = 0.018). The highest systemic VEGF levels were observed in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Postmenopausal women who had had a previous hysterectomy had significantly higher VEGF levels than those with an intact postmenopausal uterus (p = 0.001).
This study identifies an intact postmenopausal uterus as a potential means of reducing circulating levels of VEGF which could confer a protective effect against breast cancer metastatic potential.