[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An outbreak of nonspecific febrile illnesses occurred among U.S. Army troops in September 2007 at a remote, newly established, rural-situated patrol base, south of Baghdad, Iraq. Soldiers displayed an acute flu-like syndrome with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgia. A total of 14 cases was identified and treated presumptively as query fever. Subsequent convalescent serum specimens confirmed 13 (92.9%) positive for sandfly Sicilian virus and 3 (21.4%) positive for Coxiella burnetii, with two positive for both. One sandfly Sicilian virus case tested positive for Brucella spp. This outbreak emphasizes the potential for multiple simultaneous disease exposures to endemic diseases in nonindigenous military personnel at remote military locations in Iraq. Recommendations include increased theater disease surveillance, medical training, and vector control.