D. Elbeze

Cea Leti, Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France

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Publications (42)60.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Observations of lower hybrid (LH) radio frequency heating effects on toroidal plasma rotation in L-mode Tore Supra plasmas are reported. A database of more than 50 plasma discharges has been analysed. Core rotation is found to increment in co- or counter-current direction depending on the plasma current (I p). At low plasma current, the induced rotation is up to +15 km s−1 in the co-current direction, the rotation profile being affected over the whole plasma minor radius. At higher plasma current, an opposite trend is observed, the core plasma rotation incrementing up to −15 km s−1 in the counter-current direction, the profile being affected up to r/a I p ∼ 0.95 MA. In both low and high I p cases, rotation increments are found to increase with the injected power. Several mechanisms in competition which can induce co- or counter-current rotation in Tore Supra LHCD plasmas are investigated and typical order of magnitude are discussed. How those effects evolve with plasma parameters and how they compete are important issues addressed in this paper. Rotation increment increase with I p at fixed LH power is consistent with a dominant standard momentum confinement mechanism related to I p increase. The co-current change in rotation is consistent with a fast electron ripple loss mechanism, while thermal ripple induced neoclassical friction and absorbed LH wave momentum from resonant electrons are expected to influence the rotation in the counter-current direction. Finally, the numerical simulations show that the radial turbulent momentum transport does impact the rotation behaviour inducing increment in co- or counter-current directions, depending on the plasma current amplitude.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: Integrating several important technological elements required for long pulse operation in magnetic fusion devices, the Tore Supra tokamak routinely addresses the physics and technology issues related to this endeavor and, as a result, contributes essential information on critical issues for ITER. During the last experimental campaign, components of the radiofrequency system including an ITER relevant launcher (passive active multijunction (PAM)) and continuous wave/3.7 GHz klystrons, have been extensively qualified, and then used to develop steady state scenarios in which the lower hybrid (LH), ion cyclotron (IC) and electron cyclotron (EC) systems have been combined in fully stationary shots (duration similar to 150 s, injected power up to similar to 8MW, injected/extracted energy up to similar to 1 GJ). Injection of LH power in the 5.0-6.0MW range has extended the domain of accessible plasma parameters to higher densities and non-inductive currents. These discharges exhibit steady electron internal transport barriers (ITBs). We report here on various issues relevant to the steady state operation of future devices, ranging from operational aspects and limitations related to the achievement of long pulses in a fully actively cooled fusion device (e. g. overheating due to fast particle losses), to more fundamental plasma physics topics. The latter include a beneficial influence of IC resonance heating on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability in these discharges, which has been studied in detail. Another interesting observation is the appearance of oscillations of the central temperature with typical periods of the order of one to several seconds, caused by a nonlinear interplay between LH deposition, MHD activity and bootstrap current in the presence of an ITB.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Nuclear Fusion

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2013
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Oct 2012
  • Y Nam · W Lee · G S Yun · H K Park · D Elbeze · J L Segui · R Sabot · J P Chenevoix
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    ABSTRACT: A 2D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging system for Tore Supra is under design for studying the MHD physics of the magnetically confined plasma such as sawteeth, tearing modes, and turbulent fluctuations. Complex beam path due to the tight access in Tore Supra led to the design of reflective optics made of 6 or more large cylindrical∕flat mirrors. The total path length of the ECE beam is about 11 m, including almost 4 m inside the vacuum vessel. The imaging property of the optics has been estimated using the Gaussian beam simulation and ray transfer analysis. The possible setups for the optical alignment of the diagnostic and the operation scenarios with single- or dual-array measurement system are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · The Review of scientific instruments
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    ABSTRACT: This work presents a comparative study of the experimental observation of MHD instabilities identified as electron fishbone-like modes that appear in plasmas with lower hybrid current drive in FTU and Tore Supra tokamaks. Initially, the mode-induced electronic temperature oscillations measured by electron cyclotron emission were used to study the evolutions of the frequency and position of these modes. In FTU, where fishbones with and without bursting behaviour are observed, it was found that the evolutions of the mode position and frequency follow opposite trend in the two regimes. In Tore Supra, where abrupt changes between modes with different mode structures are often observed, it was found that the mode position evolves continuously and the wavenumbers follow an inverse cascade starting from an m/n = 4/4 mode and finishing in an 1/1 mode. In a second step, the energy of resonant electrons was estimated from the resonant condition of the precession drift frequency. It was found that in Tore Supra the resonant condition does not change during the frequency jumps. The relevance of the correction due to the pitch angle of the resonant electrons and the possible role of the energetic passing particles in the drive of these modes are discussed from the results obtained in both machines.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Nuclear Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: Tore Supra ECE diagnostic has been recently upgraded to study MHD modes driven by energetic particles up to 400 kHz. To improve the measurement sensitivity, the ECE signals of the 32 channels radiometer were amplified just below the saturation limit and sources of noise were investigated in order to keep it as low as possible. With such an improvement, fast particle driven modes with frequencies up to 200 kHz were detected. A 4-channel correlation ECE system using YIG filters with tuneable frequency was also installed. It allows fine radial scans of MHD modes and correlation length measurements. For the two kinds of YIG filter in use, the minimum frequency separation between two ECE channels that could be achieved was established measuring the correlation coefficient between the respective radiation noises. Finally, by modelling the ECE radiometer taking into account the antenna radiation pattern and the vertical position of the ECE beam relative to the plasma centre we improved the data analysis tools, thus giving a better determination of the phase radial structure of ECE oscillations. The poloidal structure of MHD modes can then be identified from ECE data and, for off axis ECE lines of sight, the direction of the plasma rotation can also be determined. This method allows identifying the occurrence of an inverse cascade of electron fishbone modes ranging from m/n=4/4 to 1/1 (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively) which appears in lower hybrid current drive plasmas.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · The European Physical Journal Conferences
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    ABSTRACT: Experiments to study inward heat transport phenomena have been performed in the Tore Supra tokamak with off-axis electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). Both power balance and perturbation transport analysis have been done for low-frequency (1 Hz) ECRH modulation experiments. Heat diffusivity and heat pinch have been separately determined by fitting the experimental data of the amplitude and phase of the Fourier transform of the modulated temperature with a linear transport model including convection term. Comparison with the critical gradient model has shown that the heat pinch previously obtained could include a pseudo-pinch due to the non-linearity of the diffusivity and an additional non-diffusive heat pinch. The pinch effect is reduced for higher densities.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Nuclear Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: Tore Supra routinely addresses the physics and technology of very long-duration plasma discharges, thus bringing precious information on critical issues of long pulse operation of ITER. A new ITER relevant lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) launcher has allowed coupling to the plasma a power level of 2.7 MW for 78 s, corresponding to a power density close to the design value foreseen for an ITER LHCD system. In accordance with the expectations, long distance (10 cm) power coupling has been obtained. Successive stationary states of the plasma current profile have been controlled in real-time featuring (i) control of sawteeth with varying plasma parameters, (ii) obtaining and sustaining a 'hot core' plasma regime, (iii) recovery from a voluntarily triggered deleterious magnetohydrodynamic regime. The scrape-off layer (SOL) parameters and power deposition have been documented during L-mode ramp-up phase, a crucial point for ITER before the X-point formation. Disruption mitigation studies have been conducted with massive gas injection, evidencing the difference between He and Ar and the possible role of the q = 2 surface in limiting the gas penetration. ICRF assisted wall conditioning in the presence of magnetic field has been investigated, culminating in the demonstration that this conditioning scheme allows one to recover normal operation after disruptions. The effect of the magnetic field ripple on the intrinsic plasma rotation has been studied, showing the competition between turbulent transport processes and ripple toroidal friction. During dedicated dimensionless experiments, the effect of varying the collisionality on turbulence wavenumber spectra has been documented, giving new insight into the turbulence mechanism. Turbulence measurements have also allowed quantitatively comparing experimental results with predictions by 5D gyrokinetic codes: numerical results simultaneously match the magnitude of effective heat diffusivity, rms values of density fluctuations and wavenumber spectra. A clear correlation between electron temperature gradient and impurity transport in the very core of the plasma has been observed, strongly suggesting the existence of a threshold above which transport is dominated by turbulent electron modes. Dynamics of edge turbulent fluctuations has been studied by correlating data from fast imaging cameras and Langmuir probes, yielding a coherent picture of transport processes involved in the SOL.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Nuclear Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: In the Tore Supra tokamak, magnetohydrodynamic instabilities can be destabilized by energetic particles produced by radio-frequency heating systems. This paper reports on experimental observations of two types of energetic particle driven internal modes: the electron fishbone and the beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAEs). The evolutions of these modes in frequency and radial position during core relaxation cycles were determined by their induced electronic temperature and density fluctuations. Electron fishbones were observed in the so-called oscillation regime, while BAEs' observations were performed in the sawtooth regime. The results show that the frequency and radial position of these two instabilities vary substantially during the core relaxation cycles. It indicates that an accurate description of these evolutions must consider the equilibrium profile alterations during the core oscillations.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2011
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2010
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    ABSTRACT: Realizing high-power long-duration discharges puts specific constraints on diagnostics: Their front parts have to withstand important thermal loads, eventually requiring active cooling of critical parts, and drifts in measurements have to be avoided in order to supply reliable measurement during the whole discharge duration. Furthermore, the importance of diagnostics for missions other than physics understanding, such as machine operation or safety control, increases. The diagnostics system of Tore Supra consists of roughly 30 diagnostics, covering a large range of plasma parameters from the core to the edge. They have been designed for long-duration plasma discharges, which can last up to 1000 s. Their inner components have been dimensioned to endure continuous high-radiation fluxes, and most of them have been conceived to give a fair measurement all along the discharges.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Fusion Science and Technology
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    ABSTRACT: The main results of the Tore Supra experimental programme in the years 2007–2008 are reported. They document significant progress achieved in the domain of steady-state tokamak research, as well as in more general issues relevant for ITER and for fusion physics research. Three areas are covered: ITER relevant technology developments and tests in a real machine environment, tokamak operational issues for high power and long pulses, and fusion plasma physics. Results presented in this paper include test and validation of a new, load-resilient concept of ion cycotron resonance heating antenna and of an inspection robot operated under ultra-high vacuum and high temperature conditions; an extensive experimental campaign (5 h of plasma) aiming at deuterium inventory and carbon migration studies; real-time control of sawteeth by electron cyclotron current drive in the presence of fast ion tails; ECRH-assisted plasma start-up studies; dimensionless scalings of transport and turbulence; transport experiments using active perturbation methods; resistive and fast-particle driven MHD studies. The potential role of Tore Supra in the worldwide fusion programme before the start of ITER operation is also discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Nuclear Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: Modes oscillating at the acoustic frequency and identified as beta Alfvén eigenmodes (BAEs) have been observed in Tore-Supra under ion cyclotron resonant heating. In this paper, the linear excitation threshold of these modes, thought to be driven by suprathermal ions, is calculated and compared with Tore-Supra observations. Similar studies of the linear excitation threshold of energetic particles driven modes were carried out previously for toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes or fishbones. In the case of BAEs, the main point is to understand whether the energetic particle drive is able to exceed ion Landau damping, which is expected to be important in the acoustic frequency range. For this, the BAE dispersion relation is computed and simplified in order to derive a tractable excitation criterion suitable for comparison with experiments. The observation of BAEs in Tore-Supra is found to be in agreement with the calculated criterion and confirms the possibility to trigger these modes in the presence of ion Landau damping. Moreover, the conducted analysis clearly puts forward the role of the global tunable parameters which play a role in the BAE excitation (the magnetic field, the density etc), as well as the role of some plasma profiles. In particular, the outcome of a modification of the shear or of the heating localization is found to be non-negligible and it is discussed in the paper.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: Energetic particles driven modes are one of the concerns for burning plasmas. On Tore-Supra, fast ions and electrons are generated by the RF heating systems and fast particles driven modes are detected with ECE and reflectometry diagnostics. In ICRH heated plasmas, modes are observed in the acoustic frequency range 30–70 kHz. The observed frequency agrees with the frequency predicted for both geodesic acoustic modes and beta Alfvén eigenmodes (BAE), but their structure and their excitation by fast ions advocate for an identification as BAE. Experimental analysis displays the existence of an excitation threshold depending on various parameters such as the ICRH power, the minority fraction and the density, in agreement with the theoretical prediction resulting from a balance between the fast ion drive and Landau damping by thermal ions. In lower hybrid current drive plasmas, electron fishbones have been detected below 20 kHz. Evolution of the fishbone modes with LH power was studied. Precession fishbones are observed at moderate power to be replaced by a mode at diamagnetic frequency at higher power. Precession fishbone frequency exhibits periodical jumps (0.1 s). These jumps are linked to spontaneous transitions between modes at different wavenumbers and a redistribution of the fast electrons in resonance with these modes. The number of excited modes and their wave number change with the LH power.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Nuclear Fusion
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    ABSTRACT: MHD instabilities driven by fast electrons identified as fishbonelike modes have been detected on Tore Supra during lower hybrid current drive discharges. Direct experimental evidence is reported of a novel feature: the regular redistribution of suprathermal electrons toward external tokamak regions which are correlated to periodic mode frequency jumps. Sharp drops of the electron temperature time trace are factually linked to the cyclical deterioration of the fast electron confinement.
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · Physical Review Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Temperature fluctuation diagnostics are being used to detect and study the fast particle instabilities, which could destabilize Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in tokamak plasmas. As the thermal noise is higher than the temperature fluctuation amplitude, correlation of two adjacent Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) channels is needed to recover the electron temperature fluctuations using long time integration. On Tore-Supra, we are developing a multi-channel ECE correlation diagnostic to observe MHD modes at 4 plasma positions with a radial resolution of about 2 centimeters and the poloidal resolution of about 4 cm (1/e folding width). A 1-channel prototype using 2 bandpass YIG filters has experimentally identified MHD instabilities related to fast particles dynamics. This first channel is currently being upgraded to reduce crosstalk and a second channel will be operational in 2008. The probing frequencies can be changed during the discharges, with 1s dead time between two modifications. Programmable attenuators are used to optimize the signal dynamic according to the frequency sensitivity. At nominal condition (B = 3.8 T), the diagnostic accessibility covers the outer plasma part up to a normalized radius r/a = 0.2 on the inner side. Two more channels will be implemented in 2009 and will allow us to measure the radial profile of MHD modes, or to study their inner/outer side asymmetry.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2009