[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During anemia erythropoiesis is bolstered by several factors including KIT ligand, oncostatin-M, glucocorticoids, and erythropoietin.
Less is understood concerning factors that limit this process. Experiments performed using dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated
kinase-3 (DYRK3) knock-out and transgenic mice reveal that erythropoiesis is attenuated selectively during anemia. DYRK3 is restricted to erythroid progenitor cells and testes. DYRK3-/- mice exhibited essentially normal hematological profiles at steady state and reproduced normally. In response to hemolytic
anemia, however, reticulocyte production increased severalfold due to DYRK3 deficiency. During 5-fluorouracil-induced anemia,
both reticulocyte and red cell formation in DYRK3-/- mice were elevated. In short term transplant experiments, DYRK3-/- progenitors also supported enhanced erythroblast formation, and erythropoietic advantages due to DYRK3-deficiency also were
observed in 5-fluorouracil-treated mice expressing a compromised erythropoietin receptor EPOR-HM allele. As analyzed ex vivo, DYRK3-/- erythroblasts exhibited enhanced CD71posTer119pos cell formation and 3HdT incorporation. Transgenic pA2gata1-DYRK3 mice, in contrast, produced fewer reticulocytes during hemolytic anemia, and
pA2gata1-DYRK3 progenitors were compromised in late pro-erythroblast formation ex vivo. Finally, as studied in erythroid K562 cells, DYRK3 proved to effectively inhibit NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells)
transcriptional response pathways and to co-immunoprecipitate with NFATc3. Findings indicate that DYRK3 attenuates (and possibly
apportions) red cell production selectively during anemia.
Preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urotensin-II (U-II) is among the most potent mammalian vasoconstrictors identified and may play a role in the aetiology of essential hypertension. Currently, only one mouse U-II receptor (UT) gene has been cloned. It is postulated that this protein is solely responsible for mediating U-II-induced vasoconstriction.
This hypothesis has been investigated in the present study, which assessed basal haemodynamics and vascular reactivity to hU-II in wild-type (UT(+/+)) and UT receptor knockout (UT(−/−)) mice.
Basal left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes/pressures, stroke volumes, mean arterial blood pressures, heart rates, cardiac outputs and ejection fractions in UT(+/+) mice and in UT(−/−) mice were similar.
Relative to UT(+/+) mouse isolated thoracic aorta, where hU-II was a potent spasmogen (pEC50=8.26±0.08) that evoked relatively little vasoconstriction (17±2% 60 mM KCl), vessels isolated from UT(−/−) mice did not respond to hU-II. However, in contrast, the superior mesenteric artery isolated from both the genotypes did not contract in the presence of hU-II. Reactivity to unrelated vasoconstrictors (phenylephrine, endothelin-1, KCl) and endothelium-dependent/independent vasodilator agents (carbachol, sodium nitroprusside) was similar in the aorta and superior mesenteric arteries isolated from both the genotypes.
The present study is the first to directly link hU-II-induced vasoconstriction with the UT receptor. Deletion of the UT receptor gene results in loss of hU-II contractile action with no ‘nonspecific’ alterations in vascular reactivity. However, as might be predicted based on the limited contractile efficacy recorded in vitro, the contribution that hU-II and its receptor make to basal systemic haemodynamics appears to be negligible in this species.
British Journal of Pharmacology (2003) 139, 464–472. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705254
Full-text · Article · Jun 2003 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity is up regulated in the heart subjected to ischemic insult. Whether increased MMP-9 activity contributes to acute myocardial injury after ischemia-reperfusion remains unknown. To investigate the role of MMP-9 in myocardial infarction, we utilized a MMP-9 knockout mouse.
Standard homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells was used to generate a mouse lacking MMP-9. The left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 30 min followed by 24 h reperfusion, and the ischemic and infarct sizes were determined. Targeted deletion of MMP-9 protected the heart from no-flow ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial injury. The myocardial infarct size was reduced by 17.5% in MMP-9 heterozygotes (+/-) (P<0.01) and 35.4% in MMP-9 knockout (-/-) mice (P<0.01) versus the wild-type (+/+) mice, respectively. Analysis of MMP activity in myocardial extracts by zymography demonstrated that ischemia-reperfusion-induced expression of proMMP-9 and active MMP-9 was reduced by 77.8% (P<0.01) and 69.1% (P<0.001), respectively, in (+/-) mice compared to (+/+) mice, and was absent in (-/-) animals. The expression of TIMP-1, an endogenous inhibitor of MMP-9, was elevated 4.7-fold (P<0.05) and 21.4-fold (P<0.05) in the (+/-) and (-/-) mice, respectively, compared to (+/+) mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that neutrophils were the primary cellular source of MMP-9, and less neutrophils were detected in the ischemic region of the heart following ischemia-reperfusion in (-/-) mice compared to (+/+) mice. Measurement of myeloperoxidase activity, a marker enzyme of neutrophils, demonstrated a 44% reduction in neutrophils infiltrated into the ischemic myocardium in the (-/-) mice compared to the (+/+) mice (P<0.05).
These results suggest that MMP-9 plays an important role in ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial infarction and MMP-9 could be a target for prevention or treatment of acute ischemic myocardial injury.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2002 · Cardiovascular Research