[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bloody nipple discharge is a clue in the detection of ductal carcinoma of the breast that do not display a mass. Since sensitivity of discharge cytology is not sufficiently high and mammary ductendoscopy (MS) contributes to the diagnosis of intraductal lesions. We set out to determine whether the intraductal approach is effective for detection of ductal carcinoma. We performed 445 MS procedure in 323 patients who had nipple discharge but no overt mass. The diagnostic accuracy rates of discharge cytology and intraductal breast biopsy (IDBB) were studied in detecting malignancy. The therapeutic value of IDBB for intraductal papillomas was studied in 73 patients. Out of 323 patients, 80 had breast cancer and 155 had intraductal papilloma. MS detected intraductal tumors in 47 cases (58.8%). IDBB was performed in 35 of these 47 cases. The sensitivity was 37.1% by touch cytology, 68.6% by IDBB, and 82.8% by directed ductal lavage cytology. Of the 73 intraductal papilloma patients who were followed for more than 3 years, the therapeutic effectiveness of IDBB was recognized in 57 (78.1%). Directed ductal lavage cytology was the most sensitive method in detecting malignancy. MS and IDBB were benefit in the treatment of intraductal papilloma.
No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the different profiles of serum lipids resulting from the administration of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Postmenopausal primary breast cancer patients (n = 197) with node-negative, hormone receptor-positive who were treated at our department or in other related medical institutions from April 1997 through March 2001 were given adjuvant therapy. The adjuvant therapy included 1 year's administration of tamoxifen (TAM) 20 mg or toremifene (TOR) 40 mg. The profiles of serum lipids such as total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglyceride (TG) were observed. After 1 year administration TC had significantly decreased (p < 0.001) both in the TAM group and the TOR group, but no significant difference was found between these groups (p = 0.249). HDL had significantly decreased in the TAM group (p < 0.001), while it had significantly increased in the TOR group (p < 0.001), and a significant difference was found between the groups (p < 0.001). TG had significantly increased in the TAM group (p < 0.001) but significantly decreased in the TOR group (p < 0.001). The medication was switched in those who still had abnormal lipid metabolism and given to them for another year. After 1 year from the crossover TC and HDL had increased to the levels of before administration (p < 0.001) and TG had decreased in those (n = 57) whose medication was switched from TAM to TOR. While TC had decreased and TG had increased in those (n = 23) whose medication was switched from TOR to TAM (p < 0.001). The above findings have suggested that TOR provides better profiles of lipid metabolism than TAM.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative assessment of the anticancer drug sensitivity of tumors plays an important role in the selection of therapy. If evaluation of the 5-FU sensitivity of microtissue specimens obtained by techniques such as core needle biopsy could be performed, the addition of fluorouracil to adriamycin and cyclophosphamide may further enhance response rates. In order to evaluate a simple sensitivity test for the anti-tumor agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), we examined whether an assay of a small sample could measure mRNA to predict the activities of thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). In addition, gene abnormalities on chromosomes 1 and 18 corresponding to DPD, TS and the relationships between the gene abnormalities and the amount of mRNA and activity were examined.
TS and DPD activity were measured using the fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate ligand binding assay and radio enzymatic assay, respectively, while mRNA levels were assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Chromosome 1 and 18 aberrations were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with centromere probes.
TS mRNA and TS activity showed a positive correlation (r=0.518, p=0.0017). TS activity and TS mRNA were significantly higher in the nuclear grade 3 group than in the other groups (p=0.04, p=0.0072, respectively). TS activity and mRNA in tumor tissue tended to decrease in the progesterone receptor positive groups (p=0.059, p=0.066, respectively). There was no correlation between DPD mRNA and DPD activity in tumor tissue (r=0.139, p=0.4423). DPD mRNA was measured as 282.88+/-170.68 copies/cell in tumor tissue and 635.88+/-310.04 copies/cell in normal tissue, and was thus significantly higher in normal tissue (p<0.001).
TS mRNA showed a positive correlation with TS activity, suggesting that this method of using small amounts of tissue can replace anti-cancer drug sensitivity tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Mammary ductoscopy (mammoscopy) is an ideal diagnostic method for intraductal lesions. The usefulness of mammoscopy for intraductal lesions was evaluated.
Mammoscopy was performed in 315 cases with nipple discharge. The mammoscopic findings of 46 breast cancer cases (47 lesions) and 109 intraductal papilloma cases (119 lesions) were compared with pathological findings.
Carcinoma was recognized by mammoscopy in 38 of 47 lesions (80.9%). Intraductal masses were detected by mammoscopy in 115 of 119 intraductal papilloma lesions. The shape of the mass was classified as hemispheric, papillary, or flat protrusion. The hemispheric and papillary shapes were most common in cases of intraductal papilloma and the flat protrusion type was most common in cases of carcinoma. The amount of material collected by intraductal biopsy under mammoscopic observation was smaller in carcinoma than in intraductal papilloma because the carcinoma lesions were usually located in peripheral ductlobular units and had weak tissue cohesion compared with that of intraductal papilloma. Of 133 intraductal biopsies performed for 69 intraductal papillomas, 17 biopsies yielded material insufficient for diagnosis in. The effectiveness of treatment by intraductal biopsy was recognized in 38 of 46 intraductal papillomas in which clinical follow-up continued for more than two years (82.6%). The therapeutic results of biopsy were poor in cases of multiple intraductal masses in multiple duct-lobular units.
Mammoscopy contributes not only the diagnosis in cases of nipple discharge, but is also of benefit in the treatment of intraductal papilloma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TS, DPD, uridine phosphorylase and thymidine phosphorylase are enzymes involved in the metabolism of the anticancer drug pyrimidine fluoride. In this study, levels of these enzymes were measured in 47 women with primary breast cancer. These enzyme levels were then compared to levels determined from breast cancer patients who received either preoperative chemotherapy or nothing, in order to determine whether they might predict clinical outcome. The TS inhibition rate was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy (20.4 +/- 13.3%) than in the untreated group (11.4 +/- 9.8%). No other significant differences in activity were noted between the treated and untreated groups for any of the other enzymes studied. The activity of each enzyme at the tumor site and the tumor/normal (T/N) ratio were also compared between patients with and without recurrence. The TS inhibition rate at the tumor site was lower in recurring cases than in non-recurring cases, and the T/N ratio tended to be higher for DPD in patients with recurrences. These findings indicate that the TS inhibition rate and DPD activity may be useful predictors for early recurrence of breast cancer following surgery.
No preview · Article · Jul 2000 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy