[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regions on 1p with recurrent deletions in presenting myeloma patients were examined with the purpose of defining the deletions and assessing their survival impact.
Gene mapping, gene expression, FISH, and mutation analyses were conducted on patient samples from the MRC Myeloma IX trial and correlated with clinical outcome data.
1p32.3 was deleted in 11% of cases, and deletion was strongly associated with impaired overall survival (OS) in patients treated with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). In patients treated less intensively, del(1)(p32.3) was not associated with adverse progression-free survival (PFS) or OS. The target of homozygous deletions was CDKN2C, however its role in the adverse outcome of cases with hemizygous deletion was less certain. 1p22.1-21.2 was the most frequently deleted region and contained the candidate genes MTF2 and TMED5. No mutations were identified in these genes. 1p12 was deleted in 19% of cases, and deletion was associated with impaired OS in univariate analysis. The target of homozygous deletion was FAM46C, which was mutated in 3.4% of cases. When cases with FAM46C deletion or mutation were considered together, they were strongly associated with impaired OS in the intensive treatment setting.
Deletion of 1p32.3 and 1p12 was associated with impaired OS in myeloma patients receiving ASCT. FAM46C was identified as a gene with potential pathogenic and prognostic significance based on the occurrence of recurrent homozygous deletions and mutations.
Preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemizygous deletion of 17p (del(17p)) has been identified as a variable associated with poor prognosis in myeloma, although its impact in the context of thalidomide therapy is not well described. The clinical outcome of 85 myeloma patients with del(17p) treated in a clinical trial incorporating both conventional and thalidomide-based induction therapies was examined. The clinical impact of deletion, low expression, and mutation of TP53 was also determined. Patients with del(17p) did not have inferior response rates compared to patients without del(17p), but, despite this, del(17p) was associated with impaired overall survival (OS) (median OS 26.6 vs. 48.5 months, P < 0.001). Within the del(17p) group, thalidomide induction therapy was associated with improved response rates compared to conventional therapy, but there was no impact on OS. Thalidomide maintenance was associated with impaired OS, although our analysis suggests that this effect may have been due to confounding variables. A minimally deleted region on 17p13.1 involving 17 genes was identified, of which only TP53 and SAT2 were underexpressed. TP53 was mutated in <1% in patients without del(17p) and in 27% of patients with del(17p). The higher TP53 mutation rate in samples with del(17p) suggests a role for TP53 in these clinical outcomes. In conclusion, del(17p) defined a patient group associated with short survival in myeloma, and although thalidomide induction therapy was associated with improved response rates, it did not impact OS, suggesting that alternative therapeutic strategies are required for this group.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Genes Chromosomes and Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several cancer types have differences in incidence and clinical outcome dependent on gender, but these are not well described in myeloma. The aim of this study was to characterize gender disparities in myeloma.
We investigated the association of gender with the prevalence of tumor genetic lesions and the clinical outcome of 1,960 patients enrolled in the phase III clinical trial MRC Myeloma IX. Genetic lesions were characterized by FISH.
Disparities were found in the prevalence of primary genetic lesions with immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) translocations being more common in women (50% of female patients vs. 38% of male patients, P < 0.001) and hyperdiploidy being more common in men (50% female vs. 62% male, P < 0.001). There were also differences in secondary genetic events with del(13q) (52% female vs. 41% male, P < 0.001) and +1q (43% female vs. 36% male, P = 0.042) being found more frequently in female myeloma patients. Female gender was associated with inferior overall survival (median: 44.8 months female vs. 49.9 months male, P = 0.020).
We found gender-dependent differences in the prevalence of the primary genetic events of myeloma, with IGH translocations being more common in women and hyperdiploidy more common in men. This genetic background may impact subsequent genetic events such as +1q and del(13q), which were both more frequent in women. The higher prevalence of lesions associated with poor prognosis in the female myeloma population, such as t(4;14), t(14;16) and +1q, may adversely affect clinical outcome.
These differences suggest that gender influences the primary genetic events of myeloma.
Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large series of plasma cell dyscrasias (n=2207) was examined for translocations which deregulate the MAF genes, t(14;20)(q32;q12) and t(14;16)(q32;q23), and their disease behavior was compared to a group characterized by the t(4;14)(p16;q32) where CCND2 is also up-regulated. The t(14;20) showed low prevalence in myeloma (27/1830, 1.5%) and smoldering myeloma (1/148, <1%) with a higher incidence in MGUS (9/193, 5% P=0.005). Strong associations with del(13) (76%), non-hyperdiploidy (83%) and gain of 1q (58%) were seen but no association with an IgA M-protein or absence of bone disease was noted. All three translocations were associated with poor outcome in myeloma, but strikingly all t(14;20) MGUS/smoldering myeloma cases (n=10) had stable, low level disease. In contrast, the 10 t(14;16) and 25 t(4;14) MGUS/smoldering myeloma cases were associated with both evolving and non-evolving disease. None of the associated genetic abnormalities helped to predict for progression from MGUS or smoldering myeloma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deletions of chromosome 1 have been described in 7% to 40% of cases of myeloma with inconsistent clinical consequences. CDKN2C at 1p32.3 has been identified in myeloma cell lines as the potential target of the deletion. We tested the clinical impact of 1p deletion and used high-resolution techniques to define the role of CDKN2C in primary patient material.
We analyzed 515 cases of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and newly diagnosed multiple myeloma using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for deletions of CDKN2C. In 78 myeloma cases, we carried out Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism mapping and U133 Plus 2.0 expression arrays. In addition, we did mutation, methylation, and Western blotting analysis.
By FISH we identified deletion of 1p32.3 (CDKN2C) in 3 of 66 MGUS (4.5%), 4 of 39 SMM (10.3%), and 55 of 369 multiple myeloma cases (15%). We examined the impact of copy number change at CDKN2C on overall survival (OS), and found that the cases with either hemizygous or homozygous deletion of CDKN2C had a worse OS compared with cases that were intact at this region (22 months versus 38 months; P = 0.003). Using gene mapping we identified three homozygous deletions at 1p32.3, containing CDKN2C, all of which lacked expression of CDKN2C. Cases with homozygous deletions of CDKN2C were the most proliferative myelomas, defined by an expression-based proliferation index, consistent with its biological function as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor.
Our results suggest that deletions of CDKN2C are important in the progression and clinical outcome of myeloma.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Clinical Cancer Research