Publications (2)4.51 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the compaction and sintering behavior of fine alumina powders of different particle sizes and the effect of matrix particle size on biaxial strength and fracture toughness of infused matrices were investigated. Three different alumina powders, In-Ceram alumina, A16SG, and RC172 were selected, representing a range of particle size and shape. RC172 and A16SG were dry-pressed. In-Ceram alumina was slip-cast following manufacturer's recommendations. Dry-pressed ceramic blocks were sectioned into disks with a thickness of 1.5-mm. Uninfused disks were sintered at four temperatures between 1250 degrees C and 1400 degrees C. For glass or resin infused specimens, alumina disks were sintered at 1250 degrees C for 2 h and separated into two groups for glass infusion and resin (UDMA/TEGDMA) infusion. Disks were tested for biaxial flexural strength with a universal testing machine (Instron) at 0.5-mm/min crosshead speeds. One-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests revealed that alumina disks with different smaller particle sizes have significantly higher biaxial strength (p < 0.05). The strength of the alumina matrix was greatly increased by glass and resin infusion. The biaxial strength of resin-infused alumina increased as particle size decreased, whereas strength of glass-infused alumina was constant.
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ABSTRACT: Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic material has been reported to possess exceptionally high flexural strength; however, the strength of Y-TZP ceramics can be affected by surface treatments performed by dental laboratory technicians and by intraoral conditions. This study investigated the influence of low-temperature-degradation (LTD) treatment, airborne-particle abrasion, and polishing on the flexural strength and structural stability of a Y-TZP ceramic material. By sectioning zirconia ceramic blocks (Vita In-Ceram YZ blocks) into 25 x 4 x 2-mm bars, 310 specimens were fabricated and divided into 9 groups: Group C, as-sintered (control); group B24h, boiled in water for 24 hours; group B7d, boiled in water for 7 days; group H6h, stored in humidified air at 250 degrees C for 6 hours; group H24h, stored in humidified air at 250 degrees C for 24 hours; group H7d, stored in humidified air at 250 degrees C for 7 days; group P, polished; group A, airborne-particle abraded; and group AB, airborne-particle abraded and boiled for 7 days. The flexural strengths (MPa) of all specimens were determined by using a 3-point bending test. The variability was analyzed by using Weibull statistics. Pairwise differences among the 9 groups were evaluated by using confidence intervals (95%) for scale and shape parameters. From every block used, 8 specimens were obtained and every specimen was marked according to the location of its origin from the original block. Surfaces of the specimens were evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at various magnifications. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to identify possible tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformations. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to obtain information on the chemical composition. Aging or "finishing" treatments had no significant negative effects on flexural strengths. Mean flexural strengths ranged from 796.7 to 950.2 MPa. Group A exhibited the highest mean flexural strength (950.2 MPa). Weibull modulus values ranged between 5.6 and 9.3. Tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation was detected for a specimen boiled for 24 hours. More tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation was detected for specimens boiled for 7 days and stored in humidified air at 250 degrees C for 7 days. The SEM examination of fractured surfaces revealed sintering defects, and EDS analysis showed less yttria concentration on Y-TZP specimens that were boiled for 7 days. Within the limitations of this study, the results suggested that the LTD procedures and the polishing treatment used did not reduce the flexural strengths of zirconia bars. Airborne-particle abrasion increased the flexural strength of specimens. Although polishing, airborne-particle abrasion, and various low-temperature degradation (LTD) treatments did not significantly degrade the strength of the Y-TZP ceramic material, LTD resulted in loss of yttria. Over time, gradual dissolution of yttria could decrease the tetragonal-phase stability and long-term clinical serviceability of this dental ceramic material.
Boston UniversityBoston, Massachusetts, United States