[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) have rarely been reported as an extrahepatic manifestation of acute hepatitis A (AHA). We report herein a case of AHA complicated by both PRCA and AIHA. A 49-year-old female with a diagnosis of AHA presented with severe anemia (hemoglobin level, 6.9 g/dL) during her clinical course. A diagnostic workup revealed AIHA and PRCA as the cause of the anemia. The patient was treated with an initial transfusion and corticosteroid therapy. Her anemia and liver function test were completely recovered by 9 months after the initial presentation. We review the clinical features and therapeutic strategies for this rare case of extrahepatic manifestation of AHA.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Clinical and molecular hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic peribiliary cysts (HPCs) are characterized by cystic dilatations of the peribiliary glands located throughout the branches of the biliary systems. Specifically, they are mainly located along the hepatic hilum and major portal tracts. The natural history and prognosis of HPCs are uncertain. In fact, almost all HPCs have been discovered incidentally during radiological examination or autopsy, and they are considered to be clinically harmless. Recently, several cases of HPCs associated with obstructive jaundice or liver failure were reported in patients with pre-existing liver disease in several studies. However, until now there have been no reports of such a case in Korea. Herein, we report a case of HPCs that show a disease course with a poor prognosis. These HPCs developed in a 47-year-old man with progressive alcoholic liver cirrhosis.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether the risk factors associated with complicated diverticulitis in Asian and Western countries are the same. We evaluated the risk factors associated with severe diverticulitis (SD) in Korea and compared the clinical characteristics of diverticulitis according to location.
A retrospective review of 190 patients hospitalized with acute diverticulitis from January 2005 to June 2010 was conducted. SD was defined as one of the following: perforation, abscess, obstruction, sepsis, or peritonitis that required an urgent operation.
Twenty-four patients (12.6%) were diagnosed with SD. SD was significantly associated with older age, a fever over 38℃, changes in bowel habits and a high visceral adipose tissue (VAT)/total adipose tissue (TAT) ratio. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors for developing SD were an age of 40 years or more (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; p=0.032), male gender (OR, 4.0; p=0.021) and left-sided diverticulitis (OR, 6.2; p=0.017). Right-sided diverticulitis (n=175, 92.1%) was significantly associated with younger ages, fewer changes in bowel habits, fewer comorbidities and non-SD.
This study suggests that the risk factors for developing SD in Korea, where right-sided diverticulitis is predominant, are the male gender, an age of more than 40 years old, and left-sided diverticulitis. Given that there are different risk factors for developing SD in Western countries, different strategies for the treatment of diverticulitis in the Korean population seem to be needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphocytic ascites with low serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) are observed mainly in tuberculous peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and pancreatic disease. However, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) induced generalized peritonitis causing diffuse ascites has been rarely described. We report a 26-year old female patient, who was diagnosed as generalized peritonitis with diffuse ascites due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Gynecologic examination did not show the clue of PID and in the analysis of ascites, low SAAG, predominant lymphocyte count and high level of adenosine deaminase were noted. Although the best impression was tuberculous peritonitis on the base of these findings, the laparoscopic finding was consistent with PID and the PCR for C. trachomatis infection in cervical swab was positive. This case suggests that C. trachomatis peritonitis should be considered as a rare cause of low SAAG and lymphocytic ascites in sexually active women and should be intensively evaluated including laparoscopic examination.
Preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperplastic polyps (HPs) are the most common cause of all benign epithelial gastric polyps, constituting 30 to 93%. Although gastric HPs are usually considered as benign lesions compared with adenoma, neoplastic transformation has been known to occur rarely. We aimed to identify the clinical factors of gastric HPs predicting for neoplastic transformation.
Between January 2002 to August 2010, a total of 274 gastric HPs, which had been removed by endoscopic polypectomy or surgical resection from 210 patients, were analyzed retrospectively.
Neoplastic transformation was found in 15 cases (5.5%) of 274 HPs including 10 cases of low grade dysplasia (3.7%), 2 cases of high grade dysplasia (0.7%) and 3 cases of adenocarcinoma (1.1%). Neoplastic transformations were significantly associated with >1 cm in size (n=10 [66.7%] vs. n=91 [35.1%], p=0.024), with pedunculated shape (n=9 [60.0%] vs. n=62 [23.9%], p=0.002), with previous history of gastrectomy (n=3 [20.0%] vs. n=3 [1.2%], p=0.002) and with synchronous neoplastic lesions occurring elsewhere in the gastric mucosa (n=5 [33.3%] vs. n=31 [12.0%], p=0.021). However, no significant difference was found between HPs with and without neoplastic transformation in terms of age, sex, number of polyps detected per patient, location, macroscopic appearance such as erosion, hyperemia.
Neoplastic transformation of gastric HPs had significant relationships with 1 cm in size, pedunculated shape, postgastectomy state, and synchronous neoplastic lesion. Therefore, endoscopic polypectomy should be considered in these HPs to avoid the risk of missing HPs with neoplastic potential.
Preview · Article · Oct 2011 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After the start of anti-tuberculous treatment, paradoxical worsening of tuberculous lesions has been described. However, abdominal tuberculosis as paradoxical response is relatively rare. This report describes the 26-year-old female who suffered from peritoneal tuberculosis while treating tuberculous pleurisy with anti-tuberculous medications. It was considered as paradoxical response, rather than treatment failure or else. She was successfully managed with continuing initial anti-tuberculous medications. When a patient on anti-tuberculous medications is presented with abdominal symptoms, the possibility of paradoxical response should be considered to avoid unnecessary tests and treatments, which may result in more suffering of the patient. Herein, we report a case of peritoneal tuberculosis as paradoxical response while treating tuberculous pleurisy.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a rare but serious condition that is histopathologically characterized by activation of macrophage or histiocytes with hemophagocytosis in bone marrow and reticuloendothelial systems. Clinically it presents with high fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, liver dysfunction, and hyperferritinemia. Hepatitis A virus is a very rare cause of secondary HPS. We report a case of a 22-year-old woman infected by hepatitis A virus who was consequently complicated with HPS. She presented typical clinical features of acute hepatitis A, and showed clinical and biochemical improvements. However, HPS developed as a complication of acute hepatitis A and the patient died of intraperitoneal bleeding caused by hepatic decompensation and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · The Korean Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intussusception is primarily a disease of children, and is relatively rare in adults. Unlike childhood intussusception, adult intussusception has an identifiable leading lesion such as malignant or benign neoplasm. However, intussusception caused by hemangioma is very rare. There were few cases of small bowel intussusception caused by hemangioma in adults, but those reports were presented with abdominal pain. This report describes a 65-year-old female who suffered from small bowel intussusception caused by hemangioma presenting with intestinal bleeding. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy were performed, but bleeding focus was not found. Abdominal computed tomography showed the target sign of small bowel with a leading point of mass. This mass turned out to be a hemangioma after the small bowel resection. Therefore, small bowel intussusception by hemangioma should be also considered as a bleeding focus when an adult patient presented intestinal bleeding without bleeding focus in the stomach and colon. Herein we report a case of small bowel intussusception caused by hemangioma presenting with intestinal bleeding.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The liver plays important roles in the homeostasis of glucose metabolism since it acts as a major target organ for insulin and a site for gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage. Diabetes mellitus (DM) commonly develops in patients with liver cirrhosis as the result of hepatocyte dysfunction and/or inadequate mass. To assess differences between DM due to liver cirrhosis (hepatogenous DM) and the other type 2 DM, we compared the patterns of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in hepatogenous DM with those observed in type 2 DM.
18 diabetic patients with liver cirrhosis (caused by alcohol, n=8; HBV, n=5; HCV, n=2; others, n=3) were matched with 18 type 2 diabetic patients without liver cirrhosis for age and gender. None of the patients or controls had been treated with insulin or beta-blockers. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PP2h), fasting plasma C-peptide and insulin were measured.
The ratio of PP2h/FPG (2.27 vs. 1.69), fasting insulin (23.2: 11.6 microIU/mL) and HOMA-IR index (8.38 vs. 3.52) were significantly higher in hepatogenous DM than the other type 2 DM (P<0.05). PP2h, fasting C-peptide and ratio of fasting insulin/C-peptide tend to be higher in hepatogenous DM than those of controls, but which were not statistically significant.
The ratio of PP2h/FPG and fasting plasma insulin differentiated hepatogenous DM from the other type 2 DM. Insulin resistance in liver cirrhosis was higher than the other type 2 DM, and impaired hepatic insulin degradation might be an important mechanism of hyperinsulinemia in liver cirrhosis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · The Korean Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wegener's granulomatosis is an uncommon disease that is characterized by granulomatous necrotizing vasculitis affecting small vessels. It typically targets the upper and lower respiratory tract and the kidney, but gastrointestinal involvement is rare. A 41-year-old man who has been already diagnosed with Wegener's granulomatosis by nasal cavity biopsy was admitted with bloody diarrhea and high fever. He had discontinued taking the immunosuppressive medication. His colonoscopic finding revealed colitis and ulcer lesions which biopsies show vasculitis and ill-defined granuloma. Therefore he was treated with systemic steroid and improved dramatically.
Preview · Article · Jan 2007 · The Journal of the Korean Rheumatism Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data from previous studies on gastric acid secretion and the prevalence of H. pylori in liver cirrhosis patients remain poorly defined. H. pylori is a potential source of NH3, but the possible role of H. pylori in hepatic encephalopathy is not clear. The purpose of this study was to compare gastric acid secretion, the impact of H. pylori infection, and the production of NH3 between cirrhotic patients and healthy, matched controls.
Twenty-nine patients with liver cirrhosis (HBV, n=12; Alcohol, n=12; HCV, n=5) were matched with 33 healthy persons for age and sex. None of the patients or controls were being treated with antacids, H2-receptor blockers or proton pump inhibitors. The pH and NH3 concentration was measured in gastric juice obtained by endoscopy. H. pylori infection was diagnosed using the rapid urease test. The level of NH3 in venous blood was also measured.
The average gastric pH was significantly higher in cirrhosis patients compared to controls (3.91 vs. 2.99, P<0.05). In addition, the prevalence of hypochlorhydria (defined as pH>4) was significantly greater in cirrhosis patients (45 vs. 21%, P<0.05). In contrast, the prevalence of H. pylori infection (62% vs. 58%) and gastric NH3 concentrations (3.4 vs. 3.3 mM/L) were similar between both groups. However, venous NH3 levels were significantly higher in cirrhotics than in controls (63.1 vs. 25.2 microM/L, P<0.05). The patients with H. pylori infection had significantly higher gastric NH3 concentration (3.8 vs. 1.6 mM/L) and gastric pH (3.87 vs. 2.76, P<0.05) than those without infection, but no significant difference in venous NH3 levels were detected (39.6 vs. 48.1 microM/L). In patients with cirrhosis, the presence of H. pylori infection was not correlated with either gastric or blood NH3 levels.
The gastric pH of liver cirrhosis patients is higher than that of controls and a larger proportion of cirrhotic patients have hypochlorhydria. The prevalence of H. pylori in liver cirrhosis patients was similar to that in controls and no correlation was found between gastric and blood NH3 levels. Thus, H. pylori infection does not seem to play a major role in generation of elevated NH3 associated with hepatic encephalopathy.
No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · The Korean Journal of Hepatology