Rémy Arquet

French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

Are you Rémy Arquet?

Claim your profile

Publications (32)35.64 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In small ruminants, the response against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections is influenced not only by the host genotype and the physiological stage but also by environmental factors, particularly the nutritional status at the time of infection. In this study we evaluated the long-term effect and the interaction between the host species and the nutritional history on the response to GIN infection in two animal models differing in their phenotypic growth and their level of GIN resistance: Black Belly sheep and Creole goats. Lambs and kids were subjected to three distinct nutritional conditions at weaning: low dietary conditions (100% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance, corresponding to 548 v. 484 KJ/Kg BW0.75 for lambs and kids respectively and 6% of crude protein, CP), medium dietary conditions (150% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 13% CP) and high dietary conditions (200% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 20% CP). This 3-months period was followed by a 1-month period on the medium dietary conditions for all the animals before an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection. We monitored the impact of the nutritional history (nutritional condition after weaning), on the intensity of the GIN infection by measuring individual faecal egg counts (FEC), growth rate (ADG), blood eosinophil counts and other pathophysiological parameters. The FEC, growth rate and blood eosinophil counts were significantly affected by the nutritional history in lambs but not in kids. The lowest FEC was found for lambs placed in high dietary conditions, however during the same period body weight loss was observed in this group. In low dietary conditions, kids were more resistant than lambs and the ADG was higher in lambs. However, the anaemia and the level of serum pepsinogen, marker of the abomasal mucosa integrity, were higher in kids. Our data suggest that the impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the response to an experimental H. contortus infection is significantly affected by the host species.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the humid tropics, small ruminant farmers have to deal with gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN), among which anthelmintic resistant (AR) populations are rapidly spreading. Although targeted selective treatments (TSTs) are being increasingly used in breeding stock, suppressive drenchings remain the rule in younger animals, for safety and ease of implementation. Until now, the weaned animals are grazed on dedicated plots, making the selection and spread of AR parasites inevitable. Given that GINs disseminate through pastures, we compared the usual grazing system (control) to a "leader-follower" grazing system (LF) for managing the entire GIN population at the farm scale. There were no significant differences between treatments for the dam reproductive parameters and level of GIN infection nor for the pre-weaning death rate of the kids. The 70-day weight of the litter was significantly lower for LF than for control goats (9.71 vs. 11.64 kg, P < 0.05). Although they were more infested with GIN (1860 vs. 966 epg, P < 0.05), the LF weaned animals grew faster (53.4 vs. 40.8 g day(-1), P < 0.05) and their death rate was lower (4.0 vs. 7.7 %, P < 0.05). The overall animal output was estimated to 1010 [911; 1086] vs. 966 [885; 1046] kg LW ha(-1) year(-1), for LF and control grazing systems, respectively. Additionally, the LF grazing system would make the stocking rate easier to manage. Therefore, it is to be recommended as a complement of TSTs in sustainable small ruminant farming.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Tropical Animal Health and Production
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections have an important negative impact on small ruminant production. The selection of genotypes resistant to these parasitic infections is a promising alternative control strategy. Thus, resistance against GIN is an important component of small ruminant breeding schemes, based on phenotypic measurements of resistance in immune mature infected animals. In this study we evaluated both the impact of the post-weaning parasitism history on the response to an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection of resistant and susceptible Creole kids chosen on the basis of their estimated breeding value, and the interaction with the kid's genetic status. During the post-weaning period (from 3 months until 7 months of age) Creole kids were reared at pasture according to four different levels of a mixed rotational stocking system with Creole cattle: 100% (control), 75% (GG75), 50% (GG50), and 25% (GG25) of the total stocking rate of the pasture. The level of infection of the kids decreased significantly at 50% and 25% of the total stocking rate. After the post-weaning period at pasture, at 11 months of age kids were experimentally infected with H. contortus. The faecal egg counts (FEC) were significantly lower in the groups showing the highest FEC at pasture. This result suggests that a degree of protection against an experimental H. contortus infection occurred during the post-weaning period and was dependant on the level of parasitism. Interestingly, no interaction was observed between this level of protection and the genetic status. In conclusion, the level of post-weaning natural parasitism history at pasture would not influence the genetic status evaluation. More generally our results suggest that it would be better to expose kids to a high level of gastrointestinal parasitism during the post-weaning period in order to increase the basal level of resistance thereafter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Veterinary Parasitology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A specific breeding goal definition was developed for Creole goats in Guadeloupe. This local breed is used for meat production. To ensure a balanced selection outcome, the breeding objective included two production traits, live weight (BW11) and dressing percentage (DP) at 11 months (the mating or selling age), one reproduction trait, fertility (FER), and two traits to assess animal response to parasite infection: packed cell volume (PCV), a resilience trait, and faecal worm eggs count (FEC), a resistance trait. A deterministic bio-economic model was developed to calculate the economic values based on the description of the profit of a Guadeloupean goat farm. The farm income came from the sale of animals for meat or as reproducers. The main costs were feeding and treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites. The economic values were 7.69€ per kg for BW11, 1.38€ per % for FER, 3.53€ per % for DP and 3 × 10-4€ per % for PCV. The economic value for FEC was derived by comparing the expected profit and average FEC in a normal situation and in an extreme situation where parasites had developed resistance to anthelmintics. This method yielded a maximum weighting for FEC, which was -18.85€ per log(eggs per gram). Alternative scenarios were tested to assess the robustness of the economic values to variations in the economic and environmental context. The economic values of PCV and DP were the most stable. Issues involved in paving the way for selective breeding on resistance or resilience to parasites are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · animal
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify regions of the genome affecting resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in a Creole goat population naturally exposed to a mixed nematode infection (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Oesophagostomum columbianum) by grazing on irrigated pasture. A genome-wide quantitative trait loci (QTL) scan was performed on 383 offspring from 12 half-sib families. A total of 101 microsatellite markers were genotyped. Traits analysed were faecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), eosinophil count and bodyweight (BW) at 7 and 11 months of age. Levels of activity of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and activity of immunoglobulin E (IgE) anti-Haemonchus contortus L3 crude extracts and adult excretion/secretion products (ESPs) were also analysed. Using interval mapping, this study identified 13 QTL for parasite resistance. Two QTL linked with FEC were found on chromosomes 22 and 26. Three QTL were detected on chromosomes 7, 8 and 14 for eosinophil counts. Three QTL linked with PCV were identified on chromosomes 5, 9 and 21. A QTL for BW at 7 months of age was found on chromosome 6. Lastly, two QTL detected on chromosomes 3 and 10 were associated with IgE anti-L3, and IgE anti-ESP was linked with two QTL on chromosomes 1 and 26. This study is the first to have identified regions of the genome linked with nematode resistance in a goat population using a genome scan. These results provide useful tools for the understanding of parasite resistance in small ruminants.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Animal Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The increase of milk and meat goat populations follows the expansion of human populations in the tropical area. Thanks to their great adaptability, goats can be reared in a wide range of agro-environmental conditions and within traditional farming systems. Many scientific publications underline the potentialities of this model. In the present review paper, breeding techniques are proposed for a sustainable and low input development. The "buck effect" induces estrus and ovulation and increases global fertility in the flock. Since reproduction is a key point for driving the farming systems, this technique improves flock productivity. Feeding supplementation strategies with non conventional resources are proposed. A major threat to small ruminant production in the humid tropics, gastrointestinal parasitism, can be controlled with integrated techniques modifying the equilibrium between the host and parasite populations with moderate recourse to drenching. Finally, the authors emphasise the importance of the choice of genotypes adapted to farming systems and their major constraints.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Productions Animales -Paris- Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique-
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Small ruminants are affected by gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection. A promising alternative strategy for control of GIN infection is to increase the level of resistance in the population by taking advantage of the host's immune response. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and E (IgE) are known to be involved in immune response to GIN. The aim of this study was thus to investigate genetic parameters of IgA and IgE responses against Haemonchus contortus in Creole kids naturally challenged at pasture and to determine the relationship with other resistance criteria such as faecal egg counts, packed-cell volume, eosinophil counts and bodyweight. Variance and covariance components for genetic and residuals effects for each trait were estimated on 3862 males at 11 months of age. Heritability estimates for IgA and IgE ranged between 0.15 and 0.57. Strong positive genetic correlations were observed between either IgE or IgA responses against L3 and adult excretory/secretory products (ESP) antigens of H. contortus, suggesting that the humoral immune response is not specific to the life cycle stage of the parasite suggesting that there is substantial cross recognition between the different parasite antigens. Heritability estimates for faecal egg count (FEC), packed-cell volume (PCV) and bodyweight (BW) were in accordance with previous results in Creole kids. Blood eosinophil counts were found moderately heritable and negatively correlated with FEC, suggesting that this cell population plays a role in resistance to nematode parasite infection in Creole goats. IgA response was positively correlated to FEC, in contrast with the negative correlation between IgE against L3 of H. contortus and FEC. In Creole goats, IgA response against L3 or ESP of H. contortus would rather be associated with the worm burden than an immune protective response. The immune response involving activity of IgE against L3 of H. contortus may be one important pathway for development of resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infections in Creole goats.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Veterinary Parasitology
  • M. Mahieu · M. Navès · R. Arquet
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with designing a cheap and easy-to-attain method to replace weighing for estimating the body mass of goats. It is available at http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd23/9/mahi23192.htm Several models on the relationship of heart girth (HG) to live weight (LW) were evaluated using Creole of Guadeloupe goats (376 males and 258 growing females). The best fit was obtained with a Gompertz model:LW = 155 * exp(-7.91 * exp(-0.0215 * HG)) which provided an adjusted R2 = 0.98 and a 95% confidence interval of the prediction values below 5% within most of the LW range. The LW of breeding goats (420) was fitted by the following quadratic model taking into account the HG and paunch girth (PG): LW = - 28.1 + 0.539 * HG+0.00221 * PG2 which provided an adjusted R2 = 0.95 and a 95% confidence interval of the prediction values below 1% within most of the LW range. The first model allows a tape measure graduated in kg to be used on goats except breeding females. The second model allows the building of an abacus to provide the estimated LWs of breeding goats from the HG and PG values. Further correction might be achieved by adding the goat body condition score. Such cheap tools should be very useful for goat farmers, most of whom lack reliable weighing devices.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Livestock Research for Rural Development
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We estimated the genetic parameters for BW, reproduction, and parasite resistance traits to implement a breeding program for the Creole goat. The traits were preweaning BW at 70 d of age (BW70d), BW at 11 mo of age (BW11), fecal egg count at 11 mo of age (FEC11) for all animals, packed cell volumes of lactating does (PCV), and their fertility (FER) and litter size (LS). We analyzed about 30 yr of data, which included 18,450 records on 11,970 animals from the INRA experimental flock in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Heritability estimates were low for reproduction traits (0.11 ± 0.02 for LS and FER) to moderate for production traits (0.32 ± 0.03 for BW11; 0.20 ± 0.03 and 0.08 ± 0.02 for the direct and maternal heritability estimates of BW70d, respectively). Heritability estimates for gastrointestinal nematode resistance traits were situated in an intermediate range (0.13 ± 0.05 for PCV and 0.18 ± 0.04 for FEC11). Genetic correlations between FER, PCV, BW11, and the maternal effect of BW70d were altogether positive, whereas LS and FEC11 were almost uncorrelated phenotypically and genetically. These correlations are very favorable for setting up a breeding program, making it possible to improve BW, reproduction, and parasite resistance traits simultaneously.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Animal Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to test the effect of dietary supplementation on resistance to experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus in Creole kids. One trial with three replicates involved a total of 154 female kids that were chosen from three successive cohorts of the Creole flock of INRA-Gardel in 2007. The kids were placed into four treatments according to the amount of concentrate they received: G0 (no concentrate and a quality Dichantium spp. hay ad libitum, HAY), G1 (HAY+100g commercial concentrate d(-1)), G2 (HAY+200 g commercial concentrate d(-1)), G3 (HAY+300 g commercial concentrate d(-1)). The G0-G3 groups were infected with a single dose of 10,000 H. contortus third stage larvae (L(3)) at Day 0 (D0). Each infected group was comprised of one half resistant and one half susceptible genetically indexed kids. The average breeding values on egg excretion at 11 months of age were distant of 0.70, 0.65, 0.61 and 0.61 genetic standard deviations in G0, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The faecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), eosinophilia (EOSI) and dry matter intake (DMI) indices were monitored weekly until 42 days post-infection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out on serum samples to determine the level of IgA anti-H. contortus L(3) crude extracts and adult excretion/secretion products (ESP). The 10,000 L(3) dose received by the kids induced a severe infection: 8000 eggs per gram at the FEC peak, a PCV less than 15% and mortality. Interestingly, the supplemented animals in G3 showed a higher level of EOSI but a lower level of IgA anti-L3 and IgA anti-ESP than non-supplemented animals (G0). Resistant and susceptible kids had significantly different FEC variations within the groups. Susceptible kids had a 1.6 times higher egg output than resistant kids in G0. This difference was not found in the supplemented groups. The results of this study showed that supplementary feeding improved resistance of Creole kids to H. contortus experimental infection.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Veterinary Parasitology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Creole goat is a local meat breed well adapted to the tropical environment of Guadeloupe, a French island in the Caribbean. A survey of 47 goat farmers was conducted in May 2008 to describe the Guadeloupean goat farming systems. It was the preliminary step for the implementation of a breeding programme for Creole goats. Farmers had 31 does on average. A small number (4%) kept only Creole goats. Most of them (62%) had a mixed herd of Creole and crossbreds. One-third of them (34%) reared only crossbred goats. Farmers appreciate the rusticity and resistance of the Creole goat but consider its growth as too slow. The most desired traits for goat selection were conformation and growth for males (77% of the answers). These traits were also important for females (30% of the answers). Maternal qualities were also frequently cited (maternal behaviour 23%, reproduction 20% and milk production 17%). Disease resistance was not seen as an important trait (10% and 7% of the answers for bucks and does, respectively). A typology constituted of five groups of farmers was also created. Farmers of three groups were retained to participate at a selection programme. They kept Creole goats and have expressed a strong willingness to join a selection programme. The results of the survey suggest that a breeding programme should mostly focus on the Creole goat as a maternal breed. Real consideration should be given to disease resistance. The Creole goat has indeed a key role to play in the sustainability of local farming systems.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · animal

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2010
  • Source

    Preview · Article · Oct 2010

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2010
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: L'élevage des petits ruminants en zone tropicale humide est très affecté par le parasitisme gastro–intestinal, avec des pertes pouvant excéder 50 % du potentiel de production. La température moyenne autour de 25°C (extrêmes 15-35°C) et la forte hygrométrie permettent un développement rapide des nématodes parasites (environ une semaine de l'œuf déposé dans les fèces au stade larve infestante), pendant la majeure partie de l'année, même dans les régions à saison sèche marquée. Le chargement animal permis par la production fourragère est important, d'où un niveau élevé de recontamination. L'administration systématique de médicaments anthelminthiques a entraîné en quelques années la sélection de populations parasitaires résistant à la plupart des molécules utilisées. La pérennité de l'élevage des petits ruminants passe donc par l'adoption de mesures de contrôle intégré, ne faisant appel aux médicaments qu'en dernier recours, pour en prolonger l'efficacité. Il faut pour cela combiner une politique génétique adaptée, un niveau alimentaire suffisant, l'utilisation éventuelle de ressources à propriétés anthelminthiques, la gestion des populations parasitaires comme composante de la gestion du pâturage à l'échelle de tout le système d'élevage, l'association d'herbivores à spectre parasitaire différent, et des traitements anthelminthiques basés sur des diagnostics individuels (méthode Famacha©). Ces mesures devront être adaptées au contexte de chaque élevage. Quelques exemples des effets de ces méthodes appliquées à l'élevage caprin de l'INRA-PTEA en Guadeloupe sont apportés
    No preview · Conference Paper · Dec 2009
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Carcass data base of 164 Creole male goats was used in order to provide factual data on the carcass conformation. Standardised procedures of carcass measuring and cutting were followed. The European official grid of light lamb is implemented for meat goat in the French West Indies and included five levels. Weights of carcass, cuts and tissues, quality scores and linear measurements were analysed. Feeding system, age at slaughter and weight were taken into account for statistical analysis. There were significant differences among carcass conformation classes (CC) for many traits except for the fat score, leg length and compactness ratio (carcass width on length): 2.2, 34.5 cm and 0.30 on average, respectively. The values of chilled carcass weight and yield and the carcass linear measurements steadily increased until conformation class 4 or 5: 6.7 to 11.2 kg, 49% to 55% and 52.4 to 58.0 cm carcass length. For the weights of carcass cuts, significant differences appeared between two groups: classes 1 and 2 vs. classes 3, 4 and 5. Regardless of the carcass weight, the distribution of prime cuts remained similar. The indices calculated on a weight basis (kg/cm), either for the carcass or the leg, increased significantly (P<0.01): with 54% and 63% difference between the two extreme classes, respectively. The muscle, bone and fat proportions in the shoulder did not vary between CC with 0.72, 0.22 and 0.06, respectively. Corresponding traits in leg were 0.74, 0.23 and 0.03; the last two were different (P<0.05) from class 1 to class 5. The muscle/bone ratios calculated either in shoulder or in leg ranged from 3.1 to 3.6 (P>0.05).
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Tropical Animal Health and Production

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2009
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were designed to run concurrently using 56 Creole male kids of Guadeloupe to assess the effects of feeding modes upon carcass traits. In the first experiment kids were reared after weaning in a rotationally grazed tropical pastures (P) at a mean stocking rate of 1200 kg LW/ha without supplements. In the second experiment kids were fed in stall (S) and received chopped tropical fodder and commercial pellets (50% of diet DM). In both experiments two groups of kids were determined on the basis of their average daily gain (ADG) before weaning (at 87 d): low level (L) and high level (H). Thus treatments were defined as LP vs. HP and LS vs. HS. Kids of P experiment were slaughtered at the end of 8 months of growth, whereas kids of S experiment were slaughtered as soon as the mean live weight of the group reached 19 to 20 kg. The weights at weaning and at slaughter of LP vs. HP kids were 8.4 vs. 10.6 (P< 0.01) and 18.4 vs. 18.7 (P> 0.05), respectively. The corresponding values for LS vs. HS kids were 7.6 vs. 9.1 (P< 0.01) and 20.8 vs. 19.4 (P> 0.05). The LS kids spent significantly more time in the feedlot stall than the HS (178vs. 107days; P< 0.01). The hot carcass weight was similar for P kids (6.5 kg) while it was significantly higher (P< 0.05) for LS vs. HS group: 9.5 vs. 8.2 kg. Also the gut content represented 38% vs. 31% of the carcass weight (P<0.05) for LP vs. HP kids; values obtained for LS and HS kids were 23% vs. 27% (P<0.05). Thus the true carcass yield reached 52% for P kids and 5 points more for S kids (no significant difference was observed between groups of L vs. H kids). The colour was mainly pale for P kids while it was pink for S kids. Conformation classification was 2.5 and 3 for P and S groups (scale from 1 to 5). Fat cover score and fat weights did not differ significantly between L and H kids within the P or S experiment. However these variables seem to be lower for pasture fed kids against supplemented kids: 3 and 2 times less for omental and kidney fat, respectively. Irrespective of the pre-weaning ADG level or the feeding mode the proportion of the different cuts was similar; 30% leg, 20% shoulder, 12% neck, 12% breast. It was concluded that the mode of feeding slightly affected carcass quality and composition while it had a marked influence on live and carcass weight as well as on the full gut percentage in the LW. More experiments are needed to determine the best mode of feeding specially for low weight kids.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Livestock Research for Rural Development
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effects of infection with Haemonchus contortus on feed intake, digestibility, fecal egg count, circulating eosinophils, and packed cell volume in Creole kids differing in genetic resistance (susceptible, S; resistant, R) to gastrointestinal parasitism and maintained on a similar level of nutrition. The experiment was carried out during 2 periods of 6 wk each differing in immunity development stage. In the first period (acquisition of immunity; period I), 22 naïve male kids (23.4 +/- 0.65 kg of BW) were housed in individual boxes and fed a hay-based diet, and a primary infection was induced. In the second period (expression of immunity; period II), 15 of the initial 22 kids (28.4 +/- 0.77 kg of BW) were submitted to a secondary infection. Housing and management were uniform throughout the experiment. For each period, measurements of intake and digestibility were made at 0, 2, and 4 wk postinfection (WPI) with a single dose of 10,000 infective larvae (L(3)). The DMI and total-tract DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibilities were determined using the total feces collection and ad libitum forage supply method. Fecal and blood samples were collected weekly to measure fecal egg count, circulating eosinophils, and packed cell volume. Infection with Haemonchus contortus decreased feed intake during period I. The absence of anorexia in period II was probably due to the acquired immunity of kids. The DMI was affected (P = 0.05) by genetic predisposition to resistance (626 vs. 583 +/- 26 g/d, for R vs. S) and WPI, being greatest in the second WPI (693 vs. 614 and 657 g/d, for WPI-2 vs. WPI-0 and WPI-4, respectively). The latter was related to worm establishment phase and was linked to the lower total tract digestibilities at this point. Digestibilities were least at WPI-2. The fecal egg counts were greater (P < 0.001) in period I than II, and differences between S and R were evident after the fifth WPI in period II. Circulating eosinophils were greater (P < 0.001) in S vs. R. The results suggest that effects of these parasites on intake and digestibility are influenced by the individual genetic resistance and the immunological stage, and the strongest impact occurs between the second and the third WPI, a period during which the immune response is more pronounced, probably due to parasite maturation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of Animal Science