[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes on heart metabolism and function after myocardial infarction (MI) remodelling were investigated in rats.
Fifteen days after STZ (50 mg/kg b.w. i.v.) injection, MI was induced by surgical occlusion of the left coronary artery. Two weeks after MI induction, contents of glycogen, ATP, free fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TG) and enzyme activities of glycolysis and Krebs cycle (hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase) and expression of carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase I (a key enzyme of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation) were measured in the left ventricle (LV). Plasma glucose, free fatty acids and triacylglycerol levels were determined. Ejection fraction (EF) and shortening fraction (SF) were also measured by echocardiography.
Glycogen and TG contents were increased (p < 0.05) whereas ATP content was decreased in the LV of the non-infarcted diabetic group when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). When compared to infarcted control rats (MI), the diabetic infarcted rats (DI) showed (p < 0.05): increased plasma glucose and TG levels, elevated free fatty acid levels and increased activity of, citrate synthase and decreased ATP levels in the LV. Infarct size was smaller in the DI group when compared to MI rats (p < 0.05), and this was associated with higher EF and SF (p < 0.05).
Systolic function was preserved or recovered more efficiently in the heart from diabetic rats two weeks after MI, possibly due to the high provision of glucose and free fatty acids from both plasma and heart glycogen and triacylglycerol stores.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training or resistance exercise training on cardiac morphometric, functional, and oxidative stress parameters in rats with ovarian hormone deprivation and diabetes.
Female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into a sham-operated group (euglycemic sham-operated sedentary [ES]; n = 8) and three ovariectomized (bilateral removal of ovaries) and diabetic (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg IV) groups as follows: diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS; n = 8), diabetic ovariectomized undergoing aerobic exercise training (DOTA; n = 8), and diabetic ovariectomized undergoing resistance exercise training (DOTR; n = 8). After 8 weeks of resistance (ladder) or aerobic (treadmill) exercise training, left ventricle function and morphometry were evaluated by echocardiography, whereas oxidative stress was evaluated at the left ventricle.
The DOS group presented with increased left ventricle cavity in diastole and relative wall thickness (RWT), and these changes were attenuated in both DOTA and DOTR groups. Systolic and diastolic function was impaired in the DOS group compared with the ES group, and only the DOTA group was able to reverse this dysfunction. Lipoperoxidation and glutathione redox balance were improved in both trained groups compared with the DOS group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were higher in the DOTA group than in the other studied groups. Correlations were observed between lipoperoxidation and left ventricle cavity in diastole (r = 0.55), between redox balance and RWT (r = 0.62), and between lipoperoxidation and RWT (r = -0.60).
Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training promote attenuation of cardiac morphometric dysfunction associated with a reduction in oxidative stress in an experimental model of diabetes and menopause. However, only dynamic aerobic exercise training is able to attenuate systolic and diastolic dysfunction under this condition.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that exercise training (ET) protects against the pathological remodeling and ventricular dysfunction induced by myocardial infarction (MI). However, it remains unclear whether the positive adjustments on baroreflex and cardiac autonomic modulations promoted by ET may afford a cardioprotective mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic ET, prior to MI, on cardiac remodeling and function, as well as on baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation in rats.
Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary rats submitted to Sham surgery (C); trained rats submitted to Sham surgery (TC); sedentary rats submitted to MI (I), trained rats submitted to MI (TI). Sham and MI were performed after ET period. After surgeries, echocardiographic, hemodynamic and autonomic (baroreflex sensitivity, cardiovascular autonomic modulation) evaluations were conducted.
Prior ET prevented an additional decline in exercise capacity in TI group in comparison with I. MI area was not modified by previous ET. ET was able to increase the survival and prevent additional left ventricle dysfunction in TI rats. Although changes in hemodynamic evaluations were not observed, ET prevented the decrease of baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic dysfunction in TI animals when compared with I animals. Importantly, cardiac improvement was associated with the prevention of cardiac autonomic impairment in studied groups.
Prior ET was effective in changing aerobic capacity, left ventricular morphology and function in rats undergoing MI. Furthermore, these cardioprotective effects were associated with attenuated cardiac autonomic dysfunction observed in trained rats. Although these cause-effect relationships can only be inferred, rather than confirmed, our study suggests that positive adaptations of autonomic function by ET can play a vital role in preventing changes associated with cardiovascular disease, particularly in relation to MI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results: The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (ET, 50-70% of VO2 max, 5 days/week) and detraining (DT) on inflammatory and metabolic profile after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C, n = 8), sedentary infarcted (SI, n = 9), trained infarcted (TI, n = 10; 3 months of ET), and detrained infarcted (DI, n = 11; 2 months of ET + 1 month of DT). After ET and DT protocols, ventricular function and inflammation, cardiovascular autonomic modulation (spectral analysis), and adipose tissue inflammation and lipolytic pathway were evaluated. ET after MI improved cardiac and vascular autonomic modulation, and these benefits were correlated with reduced inflammatory cytokines on the heart and adipose tissue. These positive changes were sustained even after 1 month of detraining. No expressive changes were observed in oxidative stress and lipolytic pathway in experimental groups. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that the autonomic improvement promoted by ET, and maintained even after the detraining period, was associated with reduced inflammatory profile in the left ventricle and adipose tissue of rats subjected to MI. These data encourage enhancing cardiovascular autonomic function as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory process triggered by MI.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Literature findings suggest that fluctuations of female sex hormones may change the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Objective: To compare the VO2 maxamong male rats (M, n = 8), female rats on ovulatory (OV, n=8) or non-ovulatory (NOV, n=8) phases of the estrous cycle and ovariectomized (OS, n=8). Methods: The evaluation of oxygen consumption was performed on a treadmill coupled with metabolic box. Results: At rest VO2was similar among groups. The M group had a higher VO2 maxcompared to the NOV group, however showed similar values when compared to OV group. The VO2max was lower in the ovariectomized group (OS: 62±3 ml.kg-1.min-1) compared to other groups (M: 92±2; NOV: 77 ± 4; OV: 87 ± 3 ml.kg-1.min-1). Conclusions: These findings suggest that hormonal variation resulting from different phases of the estrous cycle and ovarian hormone deprivation can induce changes in maximal oxygen uptake in rats.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluate the effects of detraining (DT, for 1 month) on the left ventricular (LV) remodeling and function, hemodynamic and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), as well as on mortality rate of infarcted (MI) rats after 3 months of exercise training (ET, 50-70 % of VO(2max)). Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control (C, n = 10), untrained-infarcted (UI, n = 15), trained-infarcted (TI, n = 12), untrained-infarcted plus 1 month (UI-1, n = 15) and detrained-infarcted 1 month (DI-1, n = 15). LV function was evaluated by echocardiography at the initial and final of the protocols. After following, ET and/or DT protocols, hemodynamic and BRS [by tachycardic (TR) and bradycardic (BR) responses] were assessed. TI group displayed increased VO(2max) in comparison with UI and DI-1 groups; however, DI-1 values remained increased compared to UI-1 group. MI area was reduced by ET and maintained after DT. Ejection fraction (TI = 60 ± 2 and DI-1 = 61 ± 2 % vs. UI = 41 ± 1 and UI-1 = 37 ± 3 %), E/A ratio (TI = 1.6 ± 0.1 and DI-1 = 1.9 ± 0.1 vs. UI = 2.9 ± 0.2 and UI-1 = 2.9 ± 0.3), TR (TI = 3.3 ± 0.3 and DI-1 = 3.3 ± 0.4 vs. UI = 1.7 ± 0.1 and UI-1 = 1.6 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg) and BR (TI = -2.2 ± 0.1 and DI-1 = -2.0 ± 0.1 vs. UI = -1.3 ± 0.09 and UI-1 = -1.2 ± 0.09 bpm/mmHg) were improved by ET and maintained after DT in comparison with untrained rats. These changes resulted in mortality reduction in the TI (8 %) and DI-1 groups (13 %) compared with the UI (46 %) and UI-1 (53 %) groups. These findings indicate that ET is not only an effective tool in the management of cardiovascular and autonomic MI derangements, but also that these positive changes were maintained even after 1 month of DT in rats.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Arbeitsphysiologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of hyperglycemia on left ventricular dysfunction, morphometry, myocardial infarction area, hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress profile, and mortality rate in rats that had undergone seven days of myocardial infarction.
Previous research has demonstrated that hyperglycemia may protect the heart against ischemic injury.
Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control-sham, diabetes-sham, myocardial infarction, and diabetes + myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction was induced 14 days after diabetes induction. Ventricular function and morphometry, as well as oxidative stress and hemodynamic parameters, were evaluated after seven days of myocardial infarction.
The myocardial infarction area, which was similar in the infarcted groups at the initial evaluation, was reduced in the diabetes + myocardial infarction animals (23 ± 3%) when compared with the myocardial infarction (42 ± 7%, p < 0.001) animals at the final evaluation. The ejection fraction (22%, p = 0.003), velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (30%, p = 0.001), and left ventricular isovolumetric relaxation time (26%, p = 0.002) were increased in the diabetes + myocardial infarction group compared with the myocardial infarction group. The diabetes-sham and diabetes + myocardial infarction groups displayed increased catalase concentrations compared to the control-sham and myocardial infarction groups (diabetes-sham: 32 ± 3; diabetes + myocardial infarction: 35 ± 0.7; control-sham: 12 ± 2; myocardial infarction: 16 ± 0.1 pmol min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ protein). The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were reduced in the diabetes-sham rats compared to the control-sham rats. These positive adaptations were reflected in a reduced mortality rate in the diabetes + myocardial infarction animals (18.5%) compared with the myocardial infarction animals (40.7%, p = 0.001).
These data suggest that short-term hyperglycemia initiates compensatory mechanisms, as demonstrated by increased catalase levels, which culminate in improvements in the ventricular response, infarcted area, and mortality rate in diabetic rats exposed to ischemic injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in ovariectomized rats submitted to myocardial infarction.
Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into the following ovariectomized groups: sedentary ovariectomized (SO), trained ovariectomized (TO), sedentary ovariectomized infarcted (SOI), and trained ovariectomized infarcted (TOI). Trained groups were submitted to an exercise training protocol on a treadmill (8 wk). Arterial baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated by heart rate responses to arterial pressure changes, and cardiopulmonary baroreflex sensitivity was tested by bradycardic and hypotension responses to serotonin injection. Vagal and sympathetic effects were calculated by pharmacological blockade.
Results: Arterial pressure was reduced in the TO in comparison with the SO group and increased in the TOI in relation to the SOI group. Exercise training improved the baroreflex sensitivity in both the TO and TOI groups. The TOI group displayed improvement in cardiopulmonary reflex sensitivity compared with the SOI group at the 16 μg/kg serotonin dose. Exercise training enhanced the vagal effect in both the TO (45%) and TOI (46%) animals compared with the SO and SOI animals and reduced the sympathetic effect in the TOI (38%) in comparison with the SOI animals. Significant correlations were obtained between bradycardic baroreflex responses and vagal (r = −0.7, P < 0.005) and sympathetic (r = 0.7, P < 0.001) effects.
Conclusions: These results indicate that exercise training in ovariectomized rats submitted to myocardial infarction improves resting hemodynamic status and reflex control of the circulation, which may be due to an increase in the vagal component. This suggests a homeostatic role for exercise training in reducing the autonomic impairment of myocardial infarction in postmenopausal women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to identify metabolic, cardiovascular and autonomic changes induced by fructose overload administered in the drinking water of rats for 8 weeks. Female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into 2 groups: control (N = 8) and fructose-fed rats (N = 5; 100 mg/L fructose in drinking water for 8 weeks). The autonomic control of heart rate was evaluated by pharmacological blockade using atropine (3 mg/kg) and propranolol (4 mg/kg). The animals were submitted to an intravenous insulin tolerance test (ITT) and to blood glucose measurement. The fructose overload induced a significant increase in body weight (approximately 10%) and in fasting glycemia (approximately 28%). The rate constant of glucose disappearance (KITT) during ITT was lower in fructose-fed rats (3.25 +/- 0.7%/min) compared with controls (4.95 +/- 0.3%/min, P < 0.05) indicating insulin resistance. The fructose-fed group presented increased arterial pressure compared to controls (122 +/- 3 vs 108 +/- 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and a reduction in vagal tonus (31 +/- 9 vs 55 +/- 5 bpm in controls, P < 0.05). No changes in sympathetic tonus were observed. A positive correlation, tested by the Pearson correlation, was demonstrable between cardiac vagal tonus and KITT (r = 0.8, P = 0.02). These data provided new information regarding the role of parasympathetic dysfunction associated with insulin resistance in the development of early metabolic and cardiovascular alterations induced by a high fructose diet.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between speed during maximum exercise test (ET) and oxygen consumption (VO2) in control and STZ-diabetic rats, in order to provide a useful method to determine exercise capacity and prescription in researches involving STZ-diabetic rats.
Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (CG, n = 10) and diabetic (DG, n = 8). The animals were submitted to ET on treadmill with simultaneous gas analysis through open respirometry system. ET and VO2 were assessed 60 days after diabetes induction (STZ, 50 mg/Kg).
VO2 maximum was reduced in STZ-diabetic rats (72.5 ± 1 mL/Kg/min-1) compared to CG rats (81.1 ± 1 mL/Kg/min-1). There were positive correlations between ET speed and VO2 (r = 0.87 for CG and r = 0.8 for DG), as well as between ET speed and VO2 reserve (r = 0.77 for CG and r = 0.7 for DG). Positive correlations were also obtained between measured VO2 and VO2 predicted values (r = 0.81 for CG and r = 0.75 for DG) by linear regression equations to CG (VO2 = 1.54 * ET speed + 52.34) and DG (VO2 = 1.16 * ET speed + 51.99). Moreover, we observed that 60% of ET speed corresponded to 72 and 75% of VO2 reserve for CG and DG, respectively. The maximum ET speed was also correlated with VO2 maximum for both groups (CG: r = 0.7 and DG: r = 0.7).
These results suggest that: a) VO2 and VO2 reserve can be estimated using linear regression equations obtained from correlations with ET speed for each studied group; b) exercise training can be prescribed based on ET in control and diabetic-STZ rats; c) physical capacity can be determined by ET. Therefore, ET, which involves a relatively simple methodology and low cost, can be used as an indicator of cardio-respiratory capacity in future studies that investigate the physiological effect of acute or chronic exercise in control and STZ-diabetic male rats.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · Cardiovascular Diabetology