[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Most of the proposed extracellular biomineralization processes include the secretion of proteins that interact with mineral ions and/or mineral surfaces. Typically these proteins are acidic or have acidic domains that interact with multivalent cations in the extracellular environment. We propose that most acidic, Ca2+-binding proteins challenge the cell's mechanisms for trafficking through the endoplasmic reticulum lumen due to lumenal mM calcium that cause them to form large aggregates. We have recently shown that >95% of the DSPP mutations that cause nonsyndromic genetic dentin diseases start their dominant negative affects by failing to rapidly exit the endoplasmic reticulum likely by forming complexes that cannot be normally trafficked to the Golgi. The complexes of mutant DSPP then capture more (severe disease) or less (mild disease) of the DSPP translated from the normal allele. After searching genomic databases as well as the published literature, we found the IPV-like motif at the predicted amino terminus of many acidic proteins made in the mineralizing as well as nonmineralizing tissues of many species including vertebrates, echinoderms, mollusks, and yeast. While we often focused on acidic proteins reported associated with mineralizing structures, proteins associated with hormones and their storage/secretion, digestion, blood functions, as well as milk and other secreted fluids started with variations of the motif. Our hypothesis is that the IPV-like motif interacts with a highly conserved cargo receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum that efficiently traffics the acidic proteins out of the organelle before they can form harmful aggregates in the Ca2+-rich lumen.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Connective Tissue Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Families with nonsyndromic dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) and the milder, dentin dysplasia (DD), have mutations in one allele of the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene. Because loss of a single Dspp allele in mice (and likely, humans) causes no dental phenotype, the mechanism(s) underling the dominant negative effects were investigated. DSPP mutations occur in three classes. (The first class, the mid-leader missense mutation, Y6D, was not investigated in this report.) All other 5′ mutations of DSPP result in changes/loss in the first three amino acids (isoleucine-proline-valine [IPV]) of mature DSPP or, for the A15V missense mutation, some retention of the hydrophobic leader sequence. All of this second class of mutations caused mutant DSPP to be retained in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) of transfected HEK293 cells. Trafficking out of the rER by coexpressed normal DSPP was reduced in a dose-responsive manner, probably due to formation of Ca2+-dependent complexes with the retained mutant DSPP. IPV-like sequences begin many secreted Ca2+-binding proteins, and changing the third amino acid to the charged aspartate (D) in three other acidic proteins also caused increased rER accumulation. Both the leader-retaining A15V and the long string of hydrophobic amino acids resulting from all known frameshift mutations within the 3′-encoded Ca2+-binding repeat domain (third class of mutations) caused retention by association of the mutant proteins with rER membranes. More 5′ frameshift mutations result in longer mutant hydrophobic domains, but the milder phenotype, DD, probably due to lower effectiveness of the remaining, shorter Ca2+-binding domain in capturing normal DSPP protein within the rER. This study presents evidence of a shared underlying mechanism of capturing of normal DSPP by two different classes of DSPP mutations and offers an explanation for the mild (DD-II) versus severe (DGI-II and III) nonsyndromic dentin phenotypes. Evidence is also presented that many acidic, Ca2+-binding proteins may use the same IPV-like receptor/pathway for exiting the rER.
Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRP) are involved in embryonic development as well as pathological conditions including bone and myocardial disorders and cancer. Because of their sequence homology with the Wnt-binding domain of Frizzled, they have generally been considered antagonists of canonical Wnt signaling. However, additional activities of various sFRPs including both synergism and mimicry of Wnt signaling as well as functions other than modulation of Wnt signaling have been reported. Using human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293A), we found that sFRP2 enhanced Wnt3a-dependent phosphorylation of LRP6 as well as both cytosolic β-catenin levels and its nuclear translocation. While addition of recombinant sFRP2 had no activity by itself, Top/Fop luciferase reporter assays showed a dose-dependent increase of Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional activity. sFRP2 enhancement of Wnt3a signaling was abolished by treatment with the Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). Wnt-signaling pathway qPCR arrays showed that sFRP2 enhanced the Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of several genes regulated by Wnt3a including its antagonists, DKK1, and Naked cuticle-1 homolog (NKD1). These results support sFRP2's role as an enhancer of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a result with biological impact for both normal development and diverse pathologies such as tumorigenesis.
Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protease that cleaves the most abundant non-collagenous protein of dentin matrix, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), into its two final dentin matrix products, dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP), has not been directly identified. In this study, full-length recombinant mouse DSPP was made for the first time in furin-deficient mammalian LoVo cells and used to test the ability of three different isoforms of one candidate protease, bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP1) to cleave DSPP at the appropriate site. Furthermore, two reported enhancers of BMP1/mTLD activity (procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer-1, PCPE-1, and secreted frizzled-related protein-2, sFRP2) were tested for their abilities to modulate BMP1-mediated processing of both DSPP and another SIBLING family member with a similar cleavage motif, dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1). Three splice variants of BMP1 (classic BMP1, the full-length mTolloid (mTLD), and the shorter isoform lacking the CUB3 domain, BMP1-5) were all shown to cleave the recombinant DSPP in vitro although mTLD was relatively inefficient at processing both DSPP and DMP1. Mutation of the MQGDD peptide motif to IEGDD completely eliminated the ability of all three recombinant isoforms to process full-length recombinant DSPP in vitro thereby verifying the single predicted cleavage site. Furthermore when human bone marrow stromal cells (which naturally express furin-activated BMP1) were transduced with the adenovirus-encoding either wild-type or mutant DSPP, they were observed to fully cleave wild-type DSPP but failed to process the mutant DSPP(MQDeltaIE) during biogenesis. All three BMP1 isoforms were shown to process type I procollagen as well as DSPP and DMP1 much more efficiently in low-salt buffer (< or = 50 mM NaCl) compared to commonly used normal saline buffers (150 mM NaCl). Neither PCPE-1 nor sFRP2 were able to enhance any of the three BMP1 isoforms in cleaving either DSPP or DMP1 under either low or normal saline conditions. Interestingly, we were unable to reproduce sFRP2's reported ability to enhance the processing of type I procollagen by BMP1/mTLD. In summary, three isoforms of BMP1 process both DSPP and DMP1 at the MQX/DDP motif, but the identity of a protein that can enhance the cleavage of the two SIBLING proteins remains elusive.
Preview · Article · May 2010 · Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The secreted small proteoglycan, decorin, modulates collagen fibril formation as well as the bioactivity of various members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. Indeed, recombinant prodecorin has been used in several gene therapy experiments to inhibit unwanted fibrosis in model diseases of the kidney, heart, and other tissues although the status of the propeptide within the target tissues is unknown. Currently the protease that removes the highly conserved propeptide from decorin is unproven. Using a variety of approaches, we show that three isoforms of the Tolloid-related bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP1) can effectively remove the propeptide from human prodecorin resulting in the well-established mature proteoglycan. Classic BMP1, the full-length gene transcript mTLD (BMP1-3), and BMP1-5 (isoform lacking the CUB3 domain thought to be important for efficient type I collagen C-propeptidase activity) all removed the analogous propeptides from both recombinant human prodecorin and murine probiglycan. Furthermore, the timed removal of the propeptide was found to not be necessary for the addition of decorin's single glycosaminoglycan chain. Decorin therefore joins the growing list of matrix and bioactive molecules processed/activated by the BMP1/Tolloid family. Since the third member of the Class I small leucine-rich proteooglycan (SLRP) superfamily, asporin, also contains a similar cleavage motif at the appropriate location, we propose that the removal of these propeptides by members of the BMP1 family is an additional characteristic of Class I SLRP.
Preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteopontin (OPN) are three SIBLINGs (small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoproteins) co-expressed/secreted by skeletal and active ductal epithelial cells. Although etiological mechanisms remain unclear, DMP1 is the only one of these three genes currently known to have mutations resulting in human disease, and yet it remains the least studied. All three contain the highly conserved integrin-binding tripeptide, RGD, and experiments comparing the cell attachment and haptotactic migration-enhancing properties of DMP1 to BSP and OPN were performed using human skeletal (MG63 and primary dental pulp cells) and salivary gland (HSG) cells. Mutation of any SIBLING's RGD destroyed all attachment and migration activity. Using its alphaVbeta5 integrin, HSG cells attached to BSP but not to DMP1 or OPN. However, HSG cells could not migrate onto BSP in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Expression of alphaVbeta3 integrin enhanced HSG attachment to DMP1 and OPN and promoted haptotactic migration onto all three proteins. Interchanging the first four coding exons or the conserved amino acids adjacent to the RGD of DMP1 with corresponding sequences of BSP did not enhance the ability of DMP1 to bind alphaVbeta5. For alphaVbeta3-expressing cells, intact DMP1, its BMP1-cleaved C-terminal fragment, and exon six lacking all post-translational modifications worked equally well but the proteoglycan isoform of DMP1 had greatly reduced ability for cell attachment and migration. The sequence specificity of the proposed BMP1-cleavage site of DMP1 was verified by mutation analysis. Direct comparison of the three proteins showed that cells discriminate among these SIBLINGs and among DMP1 isoforms.
Preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry